Canadian Bank of Commerce (Watson, Saskatchewan)
The Canadian Bank of Commerce in Watson, was constructed in 1906 in a Greek Revival style. The Toronto firm of Pearson and Darling served as architects; this building was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1977 and houses the Watson and District Heritage Museum
Saskatchewan Landing Provincial Park
Saskatchewan Landing Provincial Park is a provincial park in Saskatchewan, Canada. It is located in the valley of the South Saskatchewan River and the west end of Lake Diefenbaker, about 50 km north of Swift Current, Saskatchewan; the park is 5,735 hectares in size. The park is centered around the South Saskatchewan River, which forms the west end of Lake Diefenbaker. In the valley, there are coulees leading up the prairies. Popular activities include hiking and fishing; the location is believed to be a former Métis river crossing. There are many pieces of evidence supporting the theory: ruts left from carts crossing the river, teepee rings and the Goodwin House, it is believed that in the early 1900s, Saskatchewan Landing became a stopover point for travelers, supported by the Goodwin House. Saskatchewan Landing Provinical Park is located about 50 km north of Swift Current on highway 4. There is $50/year for access to all Saskatchewan Provincial Parks. At the south east side of the park, there is a visitors centre, located at the Goodwin House.
On the north end of the park, there is a total of 5 campgrounds with a total of 354 campsites. Most are located along the South Saskatchewan River/Lake Diefenbaker. There are many activities in Saskatchewan Landing Provincial Park. At the northwest section of the park, there a unsupervised swimming beach. East of the beach, there is a boat launch and fishing is popular. There are three main interpretive hiking trails: Prairie Vista and Ravines, Rings, Ruts & Remnants within the park. There is a full 18-hole golf course on the north side of Lake Diefenbaker
Battle of Cut Knife
The Battle of Cut Knife, fought on May 2, 1885, occurred when a flying column of mounted police and Canadian army regular army units attacked a Cree and Assiniboine teepee settlement near Battleford, Saskatchewan. First Nations fighters forced the Canadian forces with losses on both sides. In the spring of 1885, the Métis living in the District of Saskatchewan formed a provisional government under Louis Riel, taking control of the area around Batoche. Riel was in contact with First Nations people in Saskatchewan and Alberta, such as the Cree and Assiniboine; the government was concerned that the resistance would spread to First Nations across the North-West Territories. The Government of Canada made preparations to send troops to crush the Resistance. Bands of Cree, assembled under the leadership of Poundmaker, went to Battleford; the purpose of the visit was to lobby the Indian agent there, Mr. Rae, for better supplies and to discuss the political situation; the people of Battleford and some of the settlers in the surrounding area, hearing reports of large numbers of Cree and Assiniboine leaving reserves and making their way to Battleford, feared for their safety.
On the night of March 30, 1885, townspeople began to abandon the town and seek shelter in North-West Mounted Police Fort Battleford. When Poundmaker and his party reached the town, Rae refused to come out of the fort to meet with them, he kept them waiting for two days. Poundmaker's people meanwhile suffered from hunger; the abandoned homes and businesses were looted about this time. The identity of the looters is disputed; some reports claimed Poundmaker's people were responsible, but one observer alleged that most of the looting had been done by whites. Oral history accounts claim that the looting was done by Nakoda people, that Poundmaker did his best to stop it. Either way, Poundmaker's people left the next day. Meanwhile, bands of Assiniboine living south of Battleford had heard about the Métis' rebellion. A small group of them killed a local farmer who had treated them harshly, shot their Indian agent for beating a teenage girl, they went north to Battleford to meet up with Poundmaker. A number of homes and businesses in Battleford were looted and burned.
There is some controversy as to, responsible and as to the extent of the destruction. The Canadian government sent Major General Frederick Middleton to Saskatchewan to crush the Métis' rebellion; the small police force at Fort Battleford responsible for the safety of nearly 500 civilians, called on him for reinforcements and hastily set about forming a home guard to garrison the post. Middleton detached a column under the leadership of Lieutenant Colonel William Otter to relieve Battleford. Otter's column consisted of some 763 men from the 2nd Battalion, "Queen's Own Rifles of Canada",'B' Battery, Regiment of Canadian Artillery,'C' Company of the Infantry School Corps, a party of sharpshooters from the 1st Battalion Governor General's Foot Guards, a small party of North-West Mounted Police under the command of Percy Neale, assorted teamsters; the column travelled by rail to Swift Current, setting out on the march for Battleford on April 13 and arriving on April 24. When Otter arrived, he found hundreds of civilians, Métis, crammed into the fort.
However, Poundmaker's followers were nowhere to be found. Overjoyed at Otter's arrival, the townspeople and settlers wanted revenge on the Indians for the losses in lives and material that they had suffered. Many of Otter's troops, inexperienced militiamen, were angry that they had "missed out on a fight". Pressured by the townspeople and his own troops, Otter decided to take action. Despite orders from General Middleton to stay in Battleford, he wired the Lieutenant-Governor of the Northwest Territories, Edgar Dewdney, for permission to "punish Poundmaker." Permission was granted. A garrison was left in Battleford, while he led a flying column of 392 men to attack the Cree and Assiniboine at Cut Knife Hill, his force was made up of 75 North-West Mounted Police, several small units of Canadian army regulars, various volunteers and militia. He carried with him a Gatling gun, he set out on the afternoon of May 1. His plan was to march until dusk, rest until the moon rose continue on to attack the Cree and Assiniboine early in the morning, while they were asleep.
Meanwhile, the Cree were encamped on Cut Knife Creek. They were joined by various other bands, including Assiniboine, they knew that there were thousands of Canadian soldiers in the area to fight the Métis' rebellion and decided to protect themselves. As was Cree custom, the war chief Fine Day replaced Poundmaker as leader until the fighting was over; the entire encampment was moved across Cut Knife Creek to the west side. Behind the camp was Cut Knife Hill, on both sides of it were ravines filled with bushes and trees. Altogether, nine bands of Cree and three of Assiniboine were present, numbering some 1500 men and children. Just after dawn on May 2, Otter's column arrived. Otter had expected, he had not anticipated. After his column had crossed the creek, they had to wade through a marsh before they reached the encampment. An old Cree man named Jacob with Long Hair had woken up when he heard the sound of the soldiers crossing the creek, he alerted the camp. Colonel Otter started firing on the camp.
In the first few minutes, there was total confusion. The gunfire broke lodges and destroyed the
Cypress Hills Interprovincial Park
Cypress Hills Interprovincial Park is a natural park in Canada straddling the Alberta-Saskatchewan boundary and jointly administered by the two provinces. Located southeast of Medicine Hat, it became Canada's first interprovincial park in 1989; the park consists of two protected areas, the 345 km2 west block, that straddles the Alberta/Saskatchewan boundary between Alberta Highway 41, the townsite of Elkwater, Saskatchewan Highway 615, Saskatchewan Highway 271 and Fort Walsh, the centre block, an additional area of 58 km2 in Saskatchewan, west of Saskatchewan Highway 21. The Cypress Hills plateau rises up to 200 metres above the surrounding prairie, to a maximum elevation of 1,468 metres at "Head of the Mountain" at the west end in Alberta, making it Canada's highest point between the Canadian Rockies and the Labrador peninsula. Eastward across the boundary is the highest point in Saskatchewan, at 1,392 metres; the "West Block" of the Cypress Hills spans the provincial boundary. Battle Creek runs through the central part of the park.
Although the hills seem low, in a larger geographic context the plateau does rise from many kilometres away so that the total elevation gain from Medicine Hat is 600 metres. 700 species of plants and animals thrive in the park, including 14 species of orchids. There are 5 species of large hoofed mammals found in the park: Wapiti, Mule Deer, White-tailed Deer and Bison. Other mammals found in Cypress Hills Interprovincial Park include: The park protects the majority of the Cypress Hills landscape, which consists of three separate elevated blocks of lush forest and fescue grassland surrounded by dry mixed-grass prairie; the "west block" and "centre block" are protected as provincial parks, are managed by Alberta Parks and Protected Areas and Saskatchewan Parks, respectively. The "east block" of the Cypress Hills, situated near Eastend, Saskatchewan, is not a park or protected area; the Fort Walsh National Historic Site is located adjacent to the "west block". Fish species include walleye, yellow perch, northern pike, brown, westslope cutthroat and rainbow trout, common carp, white sucker, shorthead redhorse.
On the Alberta side of the west block, key park features include Head of the Mountain Viewpoint, the highest point between the Rocky Mountains and Labrador, the Elkwater townsite, Horseshoe Canyon and Reesor Lake viewpoints, over 50 km of hiking and mountain biking trails, Hidden Valley Ski Area. Three lakes sit with another four in Saskatchewan. All year long, park interpreters present education programs to school and youth groups and seniors groups, a wide range of park visitors. There are various rentals to be used in the park in the various months. In summertime, canoe and stand up paddle boards are available for rental. In the winter, snowshoes and cross country skis may be rented. 1951 - The Cypress Hills Provincial Park was established in Alberta. 1989 - On August 25, the governments of Alberta and Saskatchewan signed an agreement committing themselves to cooperation on ecosystem management and park promotion. 2000 - Fort Walsh National Historic Site joined the collective. Together, these three partner agencies make up the park.
Both Alberta and Saskatchewan provincial governments signed the Cypress Hills Interprovincial Park agreement, establishing the first interprovincial park in Canada. 2001 - On August 18, Vance Petriew discovered a comet from Cypress Hills during the Saskatchewan Summer Star Party. The comet was named 185P/Petriew. 2004 - On September 28, Saskatchewan Parks, Alberta Community Development, Parks Canada and the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada signed an agreement that declared the park a dark-sky preserve. 2011 - On August 25, the Park opened the Cypress Hills Observatory and Yurt classroom. List of Alberta provincial parks List of Saskatchewan parks List of Canadian provincial parks List of National Parks of Canada List of highest points of Canadian provinces and territories Official Park website A Road Trip To Cypress Hills Cypress Hills Interprovincial Park Fish Species of Saskatchewan
Meadow Lake Provincial Park
Meadow Lake Provincial Park is a northern boreal forest recreational park on the Waterhen River. It is accessed centrally through Goodsoil; the village of Goodsoil is located 78 km west of Meadow Lake. The eastern entrance to the park is located 5 kilometres north of Dorintosh; the western gateway into the Meadow Lake Provincial Park is via the village of Pierceland. The park encompasses over 20 lakes in an area of 1,600 square kilometers. Despite its name, the park is located 60 km northwest of the city of Meadow Lake, the source of the city name. Goodsoil is located on the junction of Saskatchewan Highway 55 and Sk Hwy 26. Follow SK Hwy 224 north out of Goodsoil. Dorintosh is located on Sk Hwy 4 at the intersection with Sk Hwy 26. Follow Sk Hwy 4 to the eastern park entrance. Access to the Meadow Lake Park via Pierceland is provided by Sk Hwy 21 which has seen upgrades enabling the development of tourism opportunities at Meadow Lake Provincial Park List of Saskatchewan parks Virtual Saskatchewan - Meadow Lake Provincial Park Meadow Lake Provincial Park
John A. Macdonald
Sir John Alexander Macdonald was the first prime minister of Canada. The dominant figure of Canadian Confederation, he had a political career which spanned half a century. Macdonald was born in Scotland; as a lawyer he was involved in several high-profile cases and became prominent in Kingston, which elected him in 1844 to the legislature of the Province of Canada. By 1857, he had become premier under the colony's unstable political system. In 1864, when no party proved capable of governing for long, Macdonald agreed to a proposal from his political rival, George Brown, that the parties unite in a Great Coalition to seek federation and political reform. Macdonald was the leading figure in the subsequent discussions and conferences, which resulted in the British North America Act and the birth of Canada as a nation on 1 July 1867. Macdonald was the first Prime Minister of the new nation, served 19 years. In 1873, he resigned from office over the Pacific Scandal, in which his party took bribes from businessmen seeking the contract to build the Canadian Pacific Railway.
However, he was re-elected in 1878, continuing until he died in office in 1891. Macdonald's greatest achievements were building and guiding a successful national government for the new Dominion, using patronage to forge a strong Conservative Party, promoting the protective tariff of the National Policy, completing the railway, he fought to block provincial efforts to take power back from the national government in Ottawa. His most controversial move was to approve the execution of Métis leader Louis Riel for treason in 1885, he died in 1891, still in office. Historical rankings have placed Macdonald as one of the highest rated Prime Ministers in Canadian history. John Alexander Macdonald was born John Alexander Mcdonald in Ramshorn parish in Glasgow, Scotland, on the 10th or 11th of January 1815, his father was named Hugh, an unsuccessful merchant, who had married John's mother, Helen Shaw, on 21 October 1811. John Alexander Macdonald was the third of five children. After Hugh's business ventures left him in debt, the family immigrated to Kingston, in Upper Canada, in 1820, where there were a number of relatives and connections.
The family lived with another, but resided over a store which Hugh Macdonald ran. Soon after their arrival, John's younger brother James died from a blow to the head by a servant, supposed to look after the boys. After Hugh's store failed, the family moved to Hay Bay, west of Kingston, where Hugh unsuccessfully ran another shop, his father, in 1829, was appointed a magistrate for the Midland District. John Macdonald's mother was a lifelong influence on her son, helping him in his difficult first marriage and remaining a force in his life until her 1862 death. John attended local schools; when he was aged 10, his family scraped together the money to send him to Midland District Grammar School in Kingston. Macdonald's formal schooling ended at 15, a common school-leaving age at a time when only children from the most prosperous families were able to attend university. Macdonald regretted leaving school when he did, remarking to his secretary Joseph Pope that if he had attended university, he might have embarked on a literary career.
Macdonald's parents decided. As Donald Creighton wrote, "law was a broad, well-trodden path to comfort, influence to power", it was "the obvious choice for a boy who seemed as attracted to study as he was uninterested in trade." Besides, Macdonald needed to start earning money to support his family because his father's businesses were again failing. "I had no boyhood," he complained many years later. "From the age of 15, I began to earn my own living." Macdonald travelled by steamboat to Toronto, where he passed an examination set by The Law Society of Upper Canada, including mathematics and history. British North America had no law schools in 1830. Between the two examinations, they were articled to established lawyers. Macdonald began his apprenticeship with George Mackenzie, a prominent young lawyer, a well-regarded member of Kingston's rising Scottish community. Mackenzie practised corporate law, a lucrative speciality that Macdonald himself would pursue. Macdonald was a promising student, in the summer of 1833, managed the Mackenzie office when his employer went on a business trip to Montreal and Quebec in Lower Canada.
That year, Macdonald was sent to manage the law office of a Mackenzie cousin who had fallen ill. In August 1834, George Mackenzie died of cholera. With his supervising lawyer dead, Macdonald remained at the cousin's law office in Hallowell. In 1835, Macdonald returned to Kingston, though not yet of age nor qualified, began his practice as a lawyer, hoping to gain his former employer's clients. Macdonald's parents and sisters returned to Kingston, Hugh Macdonald became a bank clerk. Soon after Macdonald was called to the Bar in February 1836, he arranged to take in two students. Oliver Mowat became
Battle of Duck Lake
The Battle of Duck Lake was an infantry skirmish 2.5 km outside Duck Lake, between North-West Mounted Police forces of the Government of Canada, the Métis militia of Louis Riel's newly established Provisional Government of Saskatchewan. The skirmish lasted 30 minutes, after which Superintendent Leif Newry Fitzroy Crozier of the NWMP, his forces having endured fierce fire with twelve killed and eleven wounded, called for a general retreat; the battle is considered the initial engagement of the North-West Rebellion. Although Louis Riel proved to be victorious at Duck Lake, the general agreement among historians is that the battle was strategically a disappointment to his cause. On March 19, 1885, Louis Riel self-affirmed the existence of the new Provisional Government of Saskatchewan. Following Riel's declaration, the Canadian government sought to reassert their control over the turbulent territory. Leif Crozier, the newly appointed NWMP superintendent and commander of North-Western Saskatchewan's forces, requested immediate reinforcement to Fort Carlton because he feared the growing instability created by Riel and the ever-growing possibility of a First Nations uprising.
Riel dispatched emissaries to deliver an ultimatum calling for the surrender of Fort Carlton without bloodshed. Crozier's representatives rejected the demand and vowed that the Métis leaders would be brought to justice. On March 25, in need of supplies for his men and horses, Crozier ordered Sergeant Alfred Stewart, Thomas McKay, seventeen constables to Hillyard Mitchell's general goods store at Duck Lake. Unbeknownst to Crozier, commander Gabriel Dumont and his Métis force had entrenched themselves on the road to Duck Lake. On the morning of the 26th, Stewart's party encountered the band of Métis near Duck Lake. After ample harassment, Stewart decided not to risk a physical engagement, chose to return to Fort Carlton. Crozier rallied together a larger force, which included 53 North-West Mounted Police non-commissioned officers and men, 41 men of the Prince Albert Volunteers, a 7-pound cannon, set out to secure the much-needed supplies and to reassert the authority of the Canadian government in the District of Saskatchewan.
The forces met about 2.5 kilometres outside Duck Lake on a snowy plateau covered by trees, a few log cabins. Having spotted Crozier's force, Gabriel Dumont ordered his men to set up defensive positions around the log cabin and lie in wait. Crozier's scouts informed the superintendent of the movements of the Métis. Both sides took up defensive positions. Gabriel Dumont dispatched his brother, an elderly half-blind chief, with a white flag in hopes of distracting Crozier's forces; the superintendent, believing that Dumont was interested in a parley, walked forward with an English Métis interpreter, "Gentleman" Joe McKay. During the half-hearted discussion, Crozier came to believe that Isidore and Assiwiyin were stalling so that the Métis force could manoeuver to flank his own men; as they began to leave, both Assiwiyin and Isidore attempted to draw their guns, prompting Crozier to give McKay the order to fire. A brief scuffle ensued between the two parties, which resulted in McKay shooting, killing, both Dumont and Assiwyin.
Despite the superior firepower and training of Crozier's militia, the Métis force were more numerous and their position within the log cabins and the tree line proved to be an overwhelming advantage. In an attempt to relieve the pressure on the Prince Albert Volunteers, Crozier ordered the 7-pound cannon to target the log cabins. After numerous discharges, a shell was placed in before the power charge was inserted, which disabled the cannon for the remainder of the battle. Within half an hour, Crozier recognized the unavoidable and sounded a general retreat back to Fort Carlton; the Métis were eager to chase down Crozier and his retreating force, but Louis Riel intervened and declared the battle over. The battle toll was high for the government forces. Twelve men were killed, eleven men injured. For the separatists, five Métis warriors were killed in the skirmish, including Dumont's brother. Furthermore, Gabriel Dumont himself was injured in the head by a passing bullet. Losing to Riel and the Métis force came as a great shock to Crozier's superiors.
Colonel Acheson Irvine, Crozier's supervisor, suggested that Crozier's officerial prowess and judgement was overruled by impulsiveness. Fort Carlton, a trading post with few defensive installations, was now in serious risk of attack. Colonel Irvine summoned a council to discuss the future of Fort Carlton; the resounding unanimous decision was in favour of the destruction of the fort. By 4 AM on 28 March, the last sleigh had left the smouldering fort. In the span of three days and with the loss of only five men, Riel's forces had defeated Crozier's militia, forced the destruction and scavenged the remains of Fort Carlton, spread fear of a Métis uprising throughout the North-West Territories. Riel's plans were not successful, though: he had hoped to capture Crozier and his men as hostages so that he might force the government's hand. Thus, while tactically successful, the battle of Duck Lake proved to be a strategic disappointment for Riel; the site of the battle was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1924.
In the spring of 2008, Parks and Sport Minister Christine Tell proclaimed in Duck lake, that "the 125th commemoration, in 2010, of the 1885 Northwest Resistance is an excellent opportunity to tell the story of the prairie Métis and First Nations