St Francis Xavier's Cathedral, Adelaide
St Francis Xavier's Cathedral is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Adelaide, South Australia. It is classified as being a Gothic Revival building in the Early English style; the tower is 56.5 m lengthwise and 29.5 m horizontally. The foundation stone was laid in 1856, construction of the tower began in 1887. However, it was not completed until 1996. In 1838, two years after the proclamation of South Australia, an advertisement was put up to organise religious meetings for South Australian Catholics; the first Mass was celebrated in a house on East Terrace in 1840. In 1845, a Catholic primary school was set up and used as the religious centre for Catholics until the foundation stone for a cathedral was laid in 1851 for a design by Richard Lambeth. However, with a gold rush in Victoria, Lambeth left along with many of the population, leaving no plans and with the community in economic depression; the original foundation stone was put in place on 17 March 1856 by the vicar general, Father Michael Ryan, with the first part of the cathedral being dedicated on 11 July 1858.
It was first extended when construction began at the southern end of the cathedral, including the sanctuary, side chapel, lady chapel and sacristy in January 1859. Construction of the first extension finished the following year in November 1860. With further growth in the population of Adelaide, another extension was required to seat more worshippers. In November 1886, Bishop Reynolds laid the foundation stone for an extension on the eastern side for a further 200 people, as well new vestries and confessionals; these were completed in August the following year. In 1904, electric lighting was introduced; the cathedral was expanded again in 1923, with extensions to the western aisle and northern end of the bell tower, was opened in April 1926 by Archbishop Spence. The cornerstone of the current bell tower was laid in 1887, although the lower part was built between 1923 and 1926 it was not completed until 1996 by the architect Lynton Jury, 109 years after construction of the tower commenced; the bell used in the tower is the Murphy Bell of 1867, surrounded by thirteen other bells hung for change ringing, installed in 1996, seven of these bells date from 1881 and were in St Mary's Cathedral, Sydney.
The bells are rung by New Zealand Association of Bellringers. The cathedral suffered significant damage in the 1954 Adelaide earthquake. Located at the north-western corner is a statue of St John the Baptist, carved in Tuscany in 1925 and features a picture of the baptism of Jesus; the lady chapel altar, located at the south-west, is made from Carrara marble with inset panels of simulated lapis lazuli and was dedicated in 1954. Bronze statues of Joseph and Jesus and the flight into Egypt are depicted on the western side of the cathedral. At the front of the cathedral, the southern end, are lancet windows featuring images of St Patrick and St Lawrence, as well depictions of the life of Mary and Jesus; the eastern side of the cathedral features a statue of St Patrick, the patron of the Archdiocese of Adelaide, with Celtic symbols prevalent in the surroundings. The cathedral has had three organs throughout its history; the first was put in place in 1869 with two pedals and one manual. It was replaced in 1926 by J. E. Dodd with two manuals, subsequently rebuilt in 1954.
The cathedral is open daily from early morning until evening, with Mass celebrated three times daily. The cathedral maintains a choir. Cathedral Parish of St Francis Xavier
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
The herons are long-legged freshwater and coastal birds in the family Ardeidae, with 64 recognised species, some of which are referred to as egrets or bitterns rather than herons. Members of the genera Botaurus and Ixobrychus are referred to as bitterns, together with the zigzag heron, or zigzag bittern, in the monotypic genus Zebrilus, form a monophyletic group within the Ardeidae. Egrets are not a biologically distinct group from the herons, tend to be named differently because they are white or have decorative plumes in breeding plumage. Herons, by evolutionary adaptation, have long beaks; the classification of the individual heron/egret species is fraught with difficulty, no clear consensus exists about the correct placement of many species into either of the two major genera and Egretta. The relationships of the genera in the family are not resolved. However, one species considered to constitute a separate monotypic family, the Cochlearidae or the boat-billed heron, is now regarded as a member of the Ardeidae.
Although herons resemble birds in some other families, such as the storks, ibises and cranes, they differ from these in flying with their necks retracted, not outstretched. They are one of the bird groups that have powder down; some members of this group nest colonially in trees, while others, notably the bitterns, use reed beds. The herons are medium - to large-sized birds with long necks, they exhibit little sexual dimorphism in size. The smallest species is considered the little bittern, which can measure under 30 cm in length, although all the species in the genus Ixobrychus are small and many broadly overlap in size; the largest species of heron is the goliath heron. The necks are able to kink in an S-shape, due to the modified shape of the cervical vertebrae, of which they have 20–21; the neck is able to retract and extend, is retracted during flight, unlike most other long-necked birds. The neck is longer in the day herons than the night bitterns; the legs are long and strong and in every species are unfeathered from the lower part of the tibia.
In flight, the legs and feet are held backward. The feet of herons have thin toes, with three forward-pointing ones and one pointing backward; the bill is long and harpoon-like. It can vary from fine, as in the agami heron, to thick as in the grey heron; the most atypical bill is owned by the boat-billed heron, which has a thick bill. The bill, as well as other bare parts of the body, is yellow, black, or brown in colour, although this can vary during the breeding season; the wings are broad and long, exhibiting 10 or 11 primary feathers, 15–20 secondaries. and 12 rectrices. The feathers of the herons are soft and the plumage is blue, brown, grey, or white, can be strikingly complex. Amongst the day herons, little sexual dimorphism in plumage is seen. Many species have different colour morphs. In the Pacific reef heron, both dark and light colour morphs exist, the percentage of each morph varies geographically. White morphs only occur in areas with coral beaches; the herons are a widespread family with a cosmopolitan distribution.
They exist on all continents except Antarctica, are present in most habitats except the coldest extremes of the Arctic high mountains, the driest deserts. All species are associated with water, they are predominantly found in lowland areas, although some species live in alpine areas, the majority of species occurs in the tropics. The herons are a mobile family, with most species being at least migratory; some species are migratory, for example the grey heron, sedentary in Britain, but migratory in Scandinavia. Birds are inclined to disperse after breeding, but before the annual migration, where the species is colonial, searching out new feeding areas and reducing the pressures on feeding grounds near the colony; the migration occurs at night as individuals or in small groups. The herons and bitterns are carnivorous; the members of this family are associated with wetlands and water, feed on a variety of live aquatic prey. Their diet includes a wide variety of aquatic animals, including fish, amphibians, crustaceans and aquatic insects.
Individual species may be generalists or specialise in certain prey types, such as the yellow-crowned night heron, which specialises in crustaceans crabs. Many species opportunistically take larger prey, including birds and bird eggs and more carrion. More herons eating acorns and grains have been reported, but most vegetable matter consumed is accidental; the most common hunting technique is for the bird to sit motionless on the edge of or standing in shallow water and to wait until prey comes within range. Birds may either do this from an upright posture, giving them a wider field of view for seeing prey, or from a crouched position, more cryptic and means the bill is closer to the prey when it is located. Having seen prey, the head is moved from side to side, so that the heron can calculate the position of the prey in the water and compensate for refraction, the bill is used to spear the prey. In addition to sitting and waiting, herons may feed more actively, they may walk around or l
The Glenelg tram is a light rail line in South Australia running from Hindmarsh, through the Adelaide city centre, to the beach-side suburb of Glenelg. It is Adelaide's only remaining tramway. Apart from short street-running sections in the city centre and Glenelg, the line has its own reservation, with minimal interference from road traffic; the service is free in the city centre and along the route to the Adelaide Entertainment Centre in Hindmarsh. The service is free along the length of Jetty Road, Glenelg to Moseley Square. Three routes in total operate on the network, Glenelg to the Royal Adelaide Hospital with select peak services that continue to the Entertainment Centre, Glenelg to the Adelaide Festival Centre, which operates only on weekends and Adelaide Oval event days and Entertainment Centre to the Adelaide Botanic Gardens. A 1.6 kilometre northern extension through the city centre opened on 14 October 2007, extending the line from Victoria Square along King William Street and North Terrace to Morphett Street.
A further 2.8 kilometre north western extension of the line along Port Road to the Adelaide Entertainment Centre opened on 22 March 2010. Construction of a new junction, branch lines along the eastern end of North Terrace and King William Road and four new stops began in July/August 2017 and opened on 13 October 2018; the line named the Adelaide and Glenelg Railway, was built by a private company, the Adelaide, Glenelg & Suburban Railway Company, opening on 2 August 1873. The single track line was built to the 5 ft 3 in broad gauge, commencing at the Angas Street corner of King William Street and followed that thoroughfare to South Terrace ran through the South Parklands and the south-western suburbs on its own right of way to Brighton Road, Glenelg where street running recommenced, using Jetty Road to terminate outside the Pier Hotel on Moseley Square. A depot was erected in the parklands at South Terrace, it was operated by small 2-4-0 tank locomotives, hauling two-axle end loading passenger carriages and open wagons for cargo.
Raised platforms were not provided, the carriages being provided with steps for ground level loading. Run round loops were installed at Glenelg and South Terrace, trains being propelled in one direction along King William Street. Special services operated to Morphettville Racecourse after it opened in September 1873. Crossing loops were installed at Goodwood and South Plympton. Patronage during the first few years of operation rose from 468,000 in the first year to 727,000 in 1877-88. On 24 May 1880, the Holdfast Railway Company opened the Holdfast Bay line from Adelaide railway station to Glenelg, it used the tracks of the South Australian Railways between Adelaide and Mile End while a depot was built at St Leonards. Whilst one line was a profitable proposition, two were not, both lines were immediately in financial trouble and merged to form the Glenelg Railway Company on 11 May 1882. A connecting line was laid along Brighton Road and the South Terrace depot closed. In 1882, a horse tramway was laid along King William Street parallel to the railway.
Local services between Angas Street and Goodwood were introduced by the railway using a Merryweather tram motor with an unpowered Rowan car as a trailer. In 1883 the SAR's Belair line was extended towards the South Coast and crossed the Glenelg line at Goodwood station via a flat crossing; the Holdfast Bay line was the most unprofitable of the two, this being due to excessive charges by the SAR for use of its line. Moves were made to close the line but these met with strong opposition as closure would isolate Glenelg from the rest of the state. To overcome this it was proposed to lay in a connection at Goodwood. In December 1899 the private company was acquired by the SAR, who continued to operate the line as a steam railway; the Glenelg line was duplicated from Goodwood to Brighton Road by 1910. The Holdfast Bay line was duplicated from Mile End to St Leonards by 1914 with raised platforms being provided at most stations. To help reduce working expenses it was proposed to deviate the Holdfast Bay line to join the other at Morphettville and although a line was built, no connection was made and it was only used for race traffic.
The Adelaide tramways had been electrified and to enable the line in King William Street to be duplicated, the railway was cut back to South Terrace in 1914. Railway passengers were carried by tram to Victoria Square. In 1927 ownership and operation transferred from the SAR to the Municipal Tramways Trust. Steam trains ceased on 2 April 1929 and the line was closed to be rebuilt as a double track standard gauge, electrified at 600 V dc and converted to tramway operation; the Goodwood flyover was constructed at this time, separating the new tram tracks from the conventional railway. The line was reopened on 14 December 1929 with the city terminus reverting to Victoria Square; the Holdfast Bay line closed on 15 December 1929 for conversion but this was not undertaken due to the onset of the Great Depression. Thirty H type trams were built for the line, with a design influenced by North American interurban streetcars of that era. There were one or two quirks in the earlier years, the most famous being the horse trams operated in the 1930s.
These were trams specially constructed to carry race horses from stables located along the line to Morphettville Racecourse. This service was a carry-over from the days of the steam railway, which had performed this function. Another unusual feature was operation of triple sets of H type trams in peak hours, express trams that ran non-stop over a significant portion of the route. In 2006, only one express; the line was the only route to survive the closure of Adelaide’s street tramway network during the 1950s, saved by its high pro
Tarndanyangga is the Kaurna word for red kangaroo dreaming or red kangaroo rock, although is one half of the official name of Victoria Square, Adelaide, it was used in Kaurna language to refer to the greater area of what is now the immediate Adelaide city region. Tarndanyangga derives from tarnda and kanya, -ngga is a suffix meaning place, area or region; the name is said to originate from a former red rocky outcrop in Elder Park, Adelaide which resembled a kangaroo. Tarndanyangga is still considered an important meeting place for Indigenous peoples, it is the focus for many political and community-based Indigenous events, such as the Journey of Healing and it is the starting point for the annual NAIDOC march to Parliament House. The Australian Aboriginal Flag was first flown here in 1971 and now flies permanently in Tarndanyangga adjacent to the Australian Flag
Moonta, South Australia
Moonta is a town on the Yorke Peninsula of South Australia, 165 km north-northwest of the state capital of Adelaide. It is one of three towns known as the Copper Coast or "Little Cornwall" for their shared copper mining history; the town's centre is about 17 kilometres south west of Kadina, site of Wallaroo Mines, 14 kilometres south of the port of Wallaroo. There are 11 suburbs surrounding central Moonta, each being hamlet; these are: Cross Roads, East Moonta, Kooroona, Moonta Bay, Moonta Mines, North Moonta, North Yelta, Port Hughes and Yelta. At the 2011 census, the Moonta township and the adjacent suburbs of Cross Roads and Yelta had a combined population of 681; the broader Moonta urban centre including Moonta Bay, North Moonta and Port Hughes, had a population of 3,659. By 2016, the area had grown to a population of 4,700, making it the fastest growing area on the Copper Coast; the Moonta area is part of the traditional lands of the indigenous Narungga people. The name "Moonta" is derived from munta-muntara or moontera, an Aboriginal word for "thick scrub place" or "impenetrable scrub".
The Yorke Peninsula coastline near Wallaroo was separately navigated by Matthew Flinders and Nicolas Baudin in 1802. The next Europeans to explore the district were Thomas Burr. Under instructions from Governor Gawler, the pair were landed about 15 kilometres south of Point Riley, near Moonta Bay, on 28 April 1840 from the government cutter Water Witch, they made their way back to Adelaide on horseback, traversing Northern Yorke Peninsula. They reported the discovery of'a excellent tract of country'. Based on that report a few pioneering British settlers arrived in the Moonta area in the 1840s, as pastoralists, but there was no significant development until the 1860s because of the lack of water; the scrub in the area was difficult to penetrate so the first settlers had a hard time clearing the land. Large and rich deposits of copper were discovered at Moonta in 1861 by Patrick Ryan, a shepherd from Walter Hughes' property; this became a prosperous mine, named Wheal Hughes, with other mines soon to follow.
The government town of Moonta was surveyed in March 1863, while an informal township of mining workers grew at Moonta Mines. A horse tramway from Moonta to the port at Wallaroo opened in July 1866. Starting in the 1880s, agitation for conversion of the horse tramway to a steam locomotive railway commenced. Following advertising by the South Australian Government, Cornish miners arrived in Moonta in large numbers; the government town of Moonta incorporated as the Corporate Town of Moonta in 1872. The mines at Moonta proved to be the richest mines in the whole of South Australia by 1917, exceeding the total wealth created by all other mines since 1836, the year of establishment of South Australia; the population of Moonta in 1875 was 12,000. The main copper mining operations at Moonta Mines ceased in 1923, although a number of smaller mines continued to be worked for some years. Smaller-scale operations had closed by the mid-1990s. Following the demise of copper mining, the district merged into dry land farming.
Moonta's surrounds are used for growing barley and other crops such as legumes, canola and field peas. Barley from the region is considered to be some of the best in the world. Moonta's town centre, consisting of old limestone miners' cottages and churches, gives the town a historical feel. Moonta has a number of heritage-listed sites listed on the South Australian Heritage Register, including: Blanche Terrace: All Saints Anglican Church Blanche Terrace: Moonta Masonic Hall 21 Ellen Street: Bank of South Australia Building 29 Ellen Street: Moonta School of Mines Kadina Road: Moonta railway station Moonta exists in a semi-arid location, above Goyder's Line. Moonta is surrounded by mallee scrub; the centre is 20 metres above sea level. Moonta has a dry Mediterranean climate with seasonal temperatures about the same as Adelaide's temperatures; the temperature ranges are similar to those of Kadina and the weather patterns are similar to those of both Kadina and Adelaide. Tourism is a significant local industry, focusing on the availability of beach-side accommodation,including several caravan parks, holiday houses and breakfast and a motel.
The nearby locations of Moonta Bay, Port Hughes and Simms Cove are on the foreshore and are developing. They are popular locations for retirement and holiday makers; the beaches, with fine white sand, are popular with recreational sailboarders. The natural state of the coast has been retained; the popular three-day Kernewek Lowender Cornish festival is held every odd year in May in the Copper Coast towns of Moonta and Wallaroo, with events staged across the three towns over several days. The National Trust of South Australia operates a number of heritage attractions in adjacent Moonta Mines, including a narrow gauge railway through the former mining works, a museum in the former Moonta Mines Model School, a sweet shop, former mining cottage and surviving buildings associated with the mines; the former Moonta railway station is now a visitor information centre. Moonta is located within the local government area of the Copper Coast Council, formed in 1997; as such, it remains part of the Hundred of Wallaroo.
It is part of the federal division of Grey, the state electoral district of Narungga. Moonta was served by The People’s Weekly (17
The black swan is a large waterbird, a species of swan which breeds in the southeast and southwest regions of Australia. Within Australia they are nomadic, with erratic migration patterns dependent upon climatic conditions. Black swans are large birds with black plumage and red bills, they are monogamous breeders, are unusual in that one-quarter of all pairings are homosexual between males. Both partners share cygnet rearing duties. Black swans were introduced to various countries as an ornamental bird in the 1800s, but have escaped and formed stable populations. A small population of black swans exists on the River Thames at Marlow, on the Brook running through the small town of Dawlish in Devon, near the River Itchen and the River Tees near Stockton on Tees. Described scientifically by English naturalist John Latham in 1790, the black swan was placed into a monotypic genus, Chenopis. Black swans can be found singly, or in loose companies numbering into the hundreds or thousands. Black swans are popular birds in zoological gardens and bird collections, escapees are sometimes seen outside their natural range.
Black swans are black-feathered birds, with white flight feathers. The bill is bright red, with tip. Cobs are larger than pens, with a longer and straighter bill. Cygnets are a greyish-brown with pale-edged feathers. A mature black swan weighs 3.7 -- 9 kilograms. Its wing span is between 2 metres; the neck is curved in an "S" - shape. The black swan utters a musical and far reaching bugle-like sound, called either on the water or in flight, as well as a range of softer crooning notes, it can whistle when disturbed while breeding and nesting. When swimming, black swans hold their necks arched or erect and carry their feathers or wings raised in an aggressive display. In flight, a wedge of black swans will form as a line or a V, with the individual birds flying with undulating long necks, making whistling sounds with their wings and baying, bugling or trumpeting calls; the black swan is unlike any other Australian bird, although in poor light and at long range it may be confused with a magpie goose in flight.
However, the black swan can be distinguished by slower wing beat. One captive population of black swans in Lakeland, Florida has produced a few individuals which are a light mottled grey color instead of black; the black swan is common in the wetlands of southwestern and eastern Australia and adjacent coastal islands. In the south west the range encompasses an area between Cape Leeuwin and Eucla, it is uncommon in northern Australia. The black swan's preferred habitat extends across fresh and salt water lakes and rivers with underwater and emergent vegetation for food and nesting materials. Permanent wetlands are preferred, including ornamental lakes, but black swans can be found in flooded pastures and tidal mudflats, on the open sea near islands or the shore. Black swans were once thought to be sedentary, but the species is now known to be nomadic. There is no set migratory pattern, but rather opportunistic responses to drought. In high rainfall years, emigration occurs from the south west and south east into the interior, with a reverse migration to these heartlands in drier years.
When rain does fall in the arid central regions, black swans will migrate to these areas to nest and raise their young. However, should dry conditions return before the young have been raised, the adult birds will abandon the nests and their eggs or cygnets and return to wetter areas. Black swans, like many other water fowl, lose all their flight feathers at once when they moult after breeding and they are unable to fly for about a month. During this time they will settle on large, open waters for safety; the species has a large range, with figures between one and ten million km2 given as the extent of occurrence. The current global population is estimated to be up to 500,000 individuals. No threat of extinction or significant decline in population has been identified with this numerous and widespread bird. Black swans were first seen by Europeans in 1697, when Willem de Vlamingh's expedition explored the Swan River, Western Australia. Before the arrival of the Māori in New Zealand, a related species of swan known as the New Zealand swan had developed there, but was hunted to extinction.
In 1864, the Australian black swan was introduced to New Zealand as an ornamental waterfowl and populations are now common on larger coastal or inland lakes Rotorua Lakes, Lake Wairarapa, Lake Ellesmere, the Chatham Islands. Black swans have naturally flown to New Zealand, leading scientists to consider them a native rather than exotic species, although the present population appears to be descended from deliberate introductions; the black swan is very popular as an ornamental waterbird in western Europe Britain, escapees are reported. As yet, the population in Britain is not considered to be self-sustaining and so the species is not afforded admission to the official British List, but the Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust have recorded a maximum of nine breeding pairs in the UK in 2001, with an estimate of 43 feral birds in 200