Richard Whately was an English rhetorician, economist and theologian who served as a reforming Church of Ireland Archbishop of Dublin. He was a leading Broad Churchman, a prolific and combative author over a wide range of topics, a flamboyant character, one of the first reviewers to recognise the talents of Jane Austen, he was born in the son of the Rev. Dr. Joseph Whately, he was educated at a private school near Bristol, at Oriel College, Oxford from 1805. He obtained a B. A. in 1808, with double second-class honours, the prize for the English essay in 1810. After graduation he acted as a private tutor, in particular to Nassau William Senior who became a close friend, to Samuel Hinds. After his marriage in 1821, Whately lived in Oxford, he had had to give up his college fellowship, which could not be held by married men, at this period lived by tutoring and his pen. An uncle, William Plumer, presented him with Halesworth in Suffolk. In 1825, he was appointed principal of St. Alban Hall, a position obtained for him by his mentor Edward Copleston, who wanted to raise the notoriously low academic standards at the Hall, a target for expansion by Oriel.
Whately returned to Oxford, though giving up only in 1831 the Suffolk living, where he had seen the social effects of unemployment. A reformer, Whately was on friendly terms with John Henry Newman, they fell out over Robert Peel's candidacy for the Oxford University seat in Parliament. Newman spoke of his Catholic University as continuing in Dublin the struggle against Whately which he had begun at Oxford. In 1829 Whately was elected as Drummond Professor of Political Economy at Oxford in succession to Nassau William Senior, his tenure of office was cut short by his appointment to the archbishopric of Dublin in 1831. He published only one course of Introductory Lectures in two editions. Whately's appointment by Lord Grey to the see of Dublin came as a political surprise; the aged Henry Bathurst had turned the post down. The new Whig administration found Whately, well known at Holland House and effective in a parliamentary committee appearance speaking on tithes, an acceptable option. Behind the scenes Thomas Hyde Villiers had lobbied Denis Le Marchant on his behalf, with the Brougham Whigs.
The appointment was without success. In Ireland, Whately's bluntness and his lack of a conciliatory manner caused opposition from his own clergy, from the beginning he gave offence by supporting state endowment of the Catholic clergy, he enforced strict discipline in his diocese. He lived in Redesdale House in Kilmacud, just outside Dublin, he was concerned to reform the Church of the Irish Poor Laws. He considered tithe commutation essential for the Church. In 1831 Whately attempted to establish a national and non-sectarian system of education in Ireland, on the basis of common instruction for Protestants and Catholics alike in literary and moral subjects, religious instruction being taken apart. In 1841 Catholic archbishops William Crolly and John MacHale debated whether to continue the system, with Crolly who supported Whately gaining papal permission to go on, given some safeguards. In 1852 the scheme broke down, on the opposition of the new Catholic archbishop of Dublin, Paul Cullen. Whately felt.
During the famine years of 1846 and 1847 the archbishop and his family tried to alleviate the miseries of the people. On 27 March 1848, Whately became a member of the Canterbury Association, he was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1855. From 1856 onwards symptoms of decline began to manifest themselves in a paralytic affection of Whately's left side. Still he continued his public duties. In the summer of 1863 Whately was prostrated by an ulcer in the leg, after several months of acute suffering he died on 8 October 1863. Whately was a prolific writer, a successful expositor and Protestant apologist in works that ran to many editions and translations, his Elements of Logic was drawn from an article "Logic" in the Encyclopædia Metropolitana. The companion article on "Rhetoric" provided Elements of Rhetoric. In 1825 Whately published a series of Essays on Some of the Peculiarities of the Christian Religion, followed in 1828 by a second series On some of the Difficulties in the Writings of St Paul, in 1830 by a third On the Errors of Romanism traced to their Origin in Human Nature.
In 1837 he wrote his handbook of Christian Evidences, translated during his lifetime into more than a dozen languages. In the Irish context, the Christian Evidences was adapted to a form acceptable to Catholic beliefs, with the help of James Carlile. Whately's works included: 1819 Historic Doubts relative to Napoleon Buonaparte, a jeu d'ésprit directed against excessive scepticism as applied to the Gospel history 1822 On the Use and Abuse of Party Spirit in Matters of Religion 1825 Essays on Some of the Peculiarities of the Christian Religion 1826 Elements of Logic 1828 Elements of Rhetoric 1828 On some of the Difficulties in the Writings of St Paul 1830 On the Errors of Romanism traced to their Origin in Human Nature 1831 Introductory Lectures on Political Economy, 1st ed.. Eight lectures. 1832 Introductory Lectures on Political Economy, 2nd ed.. Nine appendix. 1832 A view of the Scripture revelations concerning a future state: lectures advanci
Governor-General of New Zealand
The Governor-General of New Zealand is the viceregal representative of the monarch of New Zealand Queen Elizabeth II. As the Queen is concurrently the monarch of fifteen other Commonwealth realms, resides in the United Kingdom, she, on the advice of her Prime Minister of New Zealand, appoints a governor-general to carry out her constitutional and ceremonial duties within the Realm of New Zealand; the current office traces its origins to when the administration of New Zealand was placed under the Colony of New South Wales in 1839 and its governor was given jurisdiction over New Zealand. However, New Zealand would become its own colony the next year with its own governor; the modern "governor-general" and his or her functions came into being in 1917 and the office is mandated by letters patent issued in 1983, constituting "the Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief of the Realm of New Zealand". Constitutional functions of the governor-general include presiding over the Executive Council, appointing ministers and judges, granting Royal Assent to legislation, summoning and dissolving parliament.
These functions are exercised only according to the advice of an elected government. The governor-general has an important ceremonial role: hosting events at Government House in Wellington, travelling throughout New Zealand to open conferences, attend services and commemorations and provide encouragement to individuals and groups who are contributing to their communities; when travelling abroad, the governor-general is seen as the representative of New Zealand. The governor-general represented the British monarch and the British Government. Therefore, many past officeholders were British, including a succession of minor aristocrats from the 1890s onwards. In a gradual process, culminating with the adoption of the Statute of Westminster in 1947, the governor-general has become the independent, personal representative of the New Zealand monarch. In 1972, Sir Denis Blundell became the first New Zealand resident to be appointed to the office. Governors-general are not appointed for a specific term, but are expected to serve for five years.
The current Governor-General is Dame Patsy Reddy, who has served since 28 September 2016. Administrative support for the governor-general is provided by the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet; the New Zealand monarch appoints the governor-general by commission issued under the Seal of New Zealand. Constitutional convention adopted in 1930, following the Imperial Conference held that year, allowed for the appointment of the governor-general to be made upon the advice of the New Zealand Government, though that right was not exercised directly by a New Zealand prime minister until 1967, with the appointment of the first New Zealand-born Governor-General, Sir Arthur Espie Porritt on the advice of Keith Holyoake; the prime minister's advice has sometimes been the result of a decision by Cabinet. Since 1980, the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet prepares a short list of candidates for the office. By convention, the leader of the Opposition is consulted on the appointment, however this has not always been the case.
More the introduction of MMP in 1996 and a multi-party system has meant the prime minister consults with each of the party leaders in the House of Representatives. On only one occasion has the prime minister's choice of appointee aroused public anger or complaint, that controversy was short-lived. In 1977, Sir Keith Holyoake, a former National Party Prime Minister and a serving Minister of State, was controversially appointed as Governor-General; the Leader of the Opposition, Bill Rowling, complained he had not been consulted by Prime Minister Robert Muldoon on the appointment of Holyoake, suggested that he would have recommended Sir Edmund Hillary instead. It was suggested by many commentators that it would be inappropriate to entrust the office to a former party leader or anyone, allied with a political party. Since Holyoake's appointment, the prime minister has always confided with the leader of the Opposition during the nomination process, to avoid partisan controversy. Beginning with the appointment of Sir David Beattie in 1980, lawyers and judges have predominated as governors-general.
Following the introduction of MMP, it has been determined that an understanding of constitutional law is an important prerequisite for candidacy to the office. There has been on-and-off speculation. In 2004, National MP Richard Worth, an avowed monarchist, asked the Prime Minister, Helen Clark, whether she had considered nominating the Earl of Wessex to be the next governor-general. Before the governor-general enters office, his or her commission of appointment is publicly read in the presence of the Chief Justice of New Zealand and the members of the Executive Council, he or she must take the Oath of Allegiance, the Oath for the due execution of the office, which the chief justice or other
Christchurch Central City
Christchurch Central City is the geographical centre and the heart of Christchurch, New Zealand. It is defined as the area within the four avenues and thus includes the densely built up central city, some less dense surrounding areas of residential and industrial usage, green space including Hagley Park, the Christchurch Botanic Gardens and the Barbadoes Street Cemetery, it suffered heavy damage in the 2010 Canterbury earthquake and was devastated in the 2011 Christchurch earthquake. Following this second earthquake, the Central City Red Zone was set up and, with a shrinking area, remained inaccessible except to authorised contractors until June 2013. However, proposals to relocate the city centre elsewhere, to avoid future damage, were considered both uneconomical and unnecessary, as the rebuilt city centre would be to modern building standards so as to be able to withstand similar quakes and liquefaction in the future. At the centre of the city is Cathedral Square, surrounding the Anglican cathedral, Christ Church.
The area around this square and within the four avenues of Christchurch is considered the central business district of the city. The city centre is laid out in a grid pattern, interrupted only by the curvilinear alignment of the Avon River, the two diagonals High Street and Victoria Street. Christchurch has four pairs of one-way streets; the grid pattern within the outermost one-way streets is regular, as this is the area, laid out in the original survey. The surrounding area, i.e. the belt between the outer one-way streets and the avenues, was developed in a progressive fashion and does not have the regularity of the core area. Like most of the city, the centre is flat; the European settlement of Christchurch was undertaken by the Canterbury Association, founded in London in 1848. That year, the Canterbury Association sent out Captain Joseph Thomas, accompanied by surveyors, to select and prepare a site for settlement. Thomas placed the principal town of the proposed settlement at the head of Lyttelton Harbour, but when he realised there was insufficient flat land there to meet the Canterbury Association's requirements, he relocated Christchurch to where he had placed a town called'Stratford' at a point on the Avon where those coming up the river first encountered higher, drier ground.
Back the Avon River was navigable as far as'The Bricks' just upstream of the Barbadoes Street bridge. The site is these days marked by a riverbank cairn; the site got its name when the Deans Brothers in the 1840s had shipped bricks for their Riccarton homestead up the Avon River, which they unloaded in this location. Christchurch is one of a group of only four cities in the world that have been planned following the same layout of a central city square, four complimenting city squares surrounding it and a parklands area that embrace the city centre; the first city built with this pattern was Philadelphia came Savannah and Adelaide. The fourth city using this pattern was Christchurch; as such Christchurch holds an important legacy and a strong platform for future development. Thomas' plan for Christchurch was the'standard' rectangular grid of colonial settlement. Thomas did not allow Jollie to include crescents to provide variety, but the Avon River ran eccentrically across the site. Two diagonal streets broke the regularity of the grid.
At the centre of the city was a'Square' intended as a grand centre for the city and the site of the proposed cathedral and grammar school. East and north-west of the Square were two more'squares' which were placed more or less in relation to the diagonal line of the Avon running in a north-easterly direction across the city to the west and north of the central square; the grid was laid out between Salisbury Street to the north and St Asaph Street to the south and between Barbadoes Street to the east and Rolleston Avenue/Park Terrace to the west. Between Salisbury, Barbadoes and St Asaph Streets and the North and South Town Belts were'town reserves', i.e. land with-held from immediate sale, sold off by the Provincial Government in the 1850s to overcome cash flow problems. The streets of the original grid were projected out to the Town Belts, but the street system is less systematic in the former'town reserves'; the names chosen for the streets of the inner city all commemorate the English colonial origins of the settlement.
The names chosen for the town belts commemorate important personalities of early Christchurch. Jollie explains in his diary how the streets got their names: The names of the streets of the three towns I surveyed were taken from Bishoprics and the way it was done was this. If I agreed with him that it did, I put the name to one of the streets requiring baptism. Lyttelton being the first born town got the best names for its streets, Sumner being next had the next best and Christchurch being the youngest had to be content with chiefly Irish and Colonial bishoprics as names for its streets; this accounts for, what to anyone not knowing the circumstances, appe
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, she inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held little direct political power. Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840, their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire, she was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III; until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children.
In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower; the Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace, she was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, the Prince Regent. At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent; the Prince Regent had no surviving children, the Duke of York had no children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants.
The first of these was Princess Charlotte, born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820. A week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line; the Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, Victoria became heir presumptive; the Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. Victoria described her childhood as "rather melancholy".
Her mother was protective, Victoria was raised isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, rumoured to be the Duchess's lover. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable, was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them; the Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash, her lessons included French, German and Latin, but she spoke only English at home. In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. Similar journeys to oth
A prison cell known as a jail cell, is a small room in a prison or police station where a prisoner is held. Cells vary by their furnishings, hygienic services and cleanliness, both across countries and based on the level of punishment to which the prisoner has been sentenced; the International Committee of the Red Cross recommends. Prison cells vary in size internationally from 2 m2 in Guinea to 12 m2 in Switzerland. In the United States, prison cells are about 6 by 8 feet in dimension, with steel or brick walls and one solid or barred door that locks from the outside. Many modern prison cells are pre-cast. Solid doors may have a window. Furnishings and fixtures inside the cell are constructed so that they cannot be broken, are anchored to the walls or floor. Stainless steel lavatories and commodes are used; this prevents the making of weapons. There are a number of prison and prison cell configurations, from simple police-station holding cells to massive cell blocks in larger correctional facilities.
The practice of assigning only one inmate to each cell in a prison is called single-celling. In many countries, the cells are dirty and have few facilities. Other countries may house many offenders in prisons. In the United Kingdom, cells in a police station are the responsibility of the Custody Sergeant, who logs each detainee and allocates him or her an available cell. Custody Sergeants ensure cells are clean and as germ-free as possible, in accordance with the Human Rights Act of 1998. In the United States, the standard cell is equipped with either a ledge or a steel bedstead that holds a mattress. A one-piece sink/toilet constructed of welded, putatively stainless steel is provided. Bars typify older jails, while newer ones have doors that feature a small safety glass window and a metal flap that can be opened to serve meals. A limited number of United States prisons offer upgrades. Costing around $100 a night, these cells are considered cleaner and quieter, some of them offer extra facilities.
Different standards for cells exist in a single country and in a single jail. Some of those cells are reserved for "isolation", where a convict is kept alone in a cell as punishment method; some isolation cells contain no services at all. Celebrity Justice: Prison Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous, Matt Clarke 91111 Now
Ngāi Tahu, or Kāi Tahu, is the principal Māori iwi of the southern region of New Zealand. Its takiwā is the largest in New Zealand, extends from Blenheim, Mount Mahanga and Kahurangi Point in the north to Stewart Island in the south; the takiwā comprises 18 rūnanga corresponding to traditional settlements. The five primary hapū of the three tribes are Kāti Kurī, Ngāti Irakehu, Kāti Huirapa, Ngāi Tūāhuriri and Ngāi Te Ruakihikihi; some definitions of Ngāi Tahu include the Waitaha and Kāti Māmoe tribes who lived in the South Island prior to the arrival of Kāi Tāhu. Ngāi Tahu trace their traditional descent from Tahupōtiki, the younger brother of Porou Ariki, founding ancestor of Ngāti Porou, a tribe of the East Coast of the North Island, they originated on the east coast of the North Island, from where they migrated south to present-day Wellington. Late in the 17th century they began migrating to the northern part of the South Island. There they and Kāti Māmoe fought Ngāi Rangitāne in the Wairau Valley.
Kāti Māmoe ceded the east coast regions north of the Clarence River to Ngāi Tahu. Ngāi Tahu continued conquering Kaikoura. By the 1690s Ngāi Tahu had settled including Banks Peninsula. From there they spread further south and into the West Coast. In 1827–1828 Ngāti Toa under the leadership of Te Rauparaha attacked Ngāi Tahu at Kaikoura. Ngāti Toa visited Kaiapoi, ostensibly to trade; when Ngāti Toa attacked their hosts, the well-prepared Ngāi Tahu killed all the leading Ngāti Toa chiefs except Te Rauparaha. Te Rauparaha returned to his Kapiti Island stronghold. In November 1830 Te Rauparaha persuaded Captain John Stewart of the brig Elizabeth to carry him and his warriors in secret to Akaroa, where by subterfuge they captured the leading Ngāi Tahu chief, Te Maiharanui, his wife and daughter. After destroying Te Maiharanui's village they embarked for Kapiti with their captives. Te Maiharunui threw her overboard to save her from slavery. Ngāti Toa killed the remaining captives. John Stewart, though arrested and sent to trial in Sydney as an accomplice to murder escaped conviction.
In the summer of 1831–1832 Te Rauparaha attacked the Kaiapoi pā. After a three-month siege, a fire in the pā allowed Ngāti Toa to overcome it. Ngāti Toa attacked Ngāi Tahu on Banks Peninsula and took the pā at Onawe. In 1832–33 Ngāi Tahu retaliated under the leadership of Tuhawaiki, Taiaroa and Haereroa, attacking Ngāti Toa at Lake Grassmere. Ngāi Tahu prevailed, killed many Ngāti Toa, although Te Rauparaha again escaped. Fighting continued with Ngāi Tahu maintaining the upper hand. Ngāti Toa never again made a major incursion into Ngāi Tahu territory. By 1839 Ngāi Tahu and Ngāti Toa established peace and Te Rauparaha released the Ngāi Tahu captives he held. Formal marriages between the leading families in the two tribes sealed the peace; the New Zealand Parliament passed the Ngai Tahu Claims Settlement Act in 1998 to record an apology from the Crown and to settle claims made under the 1840 Treaty of Waitangi. One of the Act's provisions covered the use of dual names for geographical locations in the Ngāi Tahu tribal area.
The recognised tribal authority, Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu, is based in Christchurch and in Invercargill. In the nineteenth century many Ngāi Tahu in the southern reaches of Te Wai Pounamu, spoke a distinct dialect of the Māori language, sometimes referred to as Southern Māori, so different from the northern version of the language that missionary Rev. James Watkin, based at Karitane found materials prepared by North Island missions couldn't be used in Otago. However, from the 20th century until the early 21st century the dialect came close to extinction and was discouraged. Southern Māori contains all the same phonemes as other Māori dialects, along with the same diphthongs, but it lacks /ŋ/ — this sound merged with /k/ in prehistoric times: for example: Ngāi Tahu as opposed to Kāi Tahu). This change did not occur in the northern part of the Ngāi Tahu area, the possible presence of additional phonemes has been debated. Non-standard consonants are sometimes identified in the spellings of South Island place names, such as g, v, l instead of r, w or u instead of wh as reflecting dialect difference, but similar spellings and pronunciations occur in the North Island.
The apocope resulting from pronunciations like'Wacky-white' for "Waikouaiti" have been identified with Southern Māori. However, the devoicing of final vowels occurs in the speech of native speakers of the Māori language throughout New Zealand, the pronunciation of the names of North Island towns by locals omits final vowels as well, like in the pronunciation of "Paraparam" or "Waiuk". Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu is the governance entity of Ngāi Tahu, following the Treaty of Waitangi settlement between the iwi and the New Zealand Government under Ngāi Tahu Claims Settlement Act 1998, it is a mandated iwi organisation under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004, an iwi aquaculture organisation under the Māori Commercial Aquaculture Claims Settlement Act 2004, an iwi authority under the Resource Management Act 1991 and a Tūhono organisation. It represents Ngāi Tahu Whanui, the collective of hapū including Waitaha, Ngāti Māmoe, Ngāi Tahu, including, Ngāti Kuri, Ngāti Irakehu, Ngāti Huirapa, Ngāi Tuahuriri, Ngāi Te Ruahikihiki, under Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu Act 1
Papanui is a major suburb of Christchurch, New Zealand. It is situated five kilometers to the northwest of the city centre. Papanui is a middle socio-economic area with a population of 3,543 consisting predominantly of Pākehā 92.3%, Māori 5.7%, Pacific peoples 2.5%, Asian 5.0%, Middle Eastern/Latin American/African 0.5%. The suburb is located at the junction of three busy thoroughfares. However, as with most Christchurch suburbs, Papanui has no defined borders. Christchurch is internationally known as the "Garden City" and Papanui is a fine example of the city's gardening prowess; the city has warm summers and cool winters, is the gateway to Mount Hutt and other Southern Alps ski-fields, to whale watching in Kaikoura. The Māori name Papanui translated means'Big plain', a name which would aptly suit most of central Christchurch, one of New Zealand's flattest cities. Another meaning applicable to the district in the early days, is a platform set in the branches of a tree to accommodate a bird-spearer.
A third meaning for the word Papanui refers to a large funeral pyre. According to the legend, Tuhaitara, a Ngāi Tahu princess, sent her eldest son, Tamarairoa to Papanui to kill her former husband Marukore, but Marukore was aware of his sons intentions and when Tamarairoa and his younger brother arrived Marukore killed them both and burnt their bodies on a huge pyre. Over the last 160 years Papanui has developed into a major suburban centre and is a satellite centre for Government and City Council services; these include the central government'Super Centre' in Winstone Avenue, Housing New Zealand in Restell Street and the Council Service Centre and Library on Langdons Road. The area has five primary schools. Commercial growth has been strong with most of the Trades and Professions centred on the shopping areas. There is little farm land left in the suburb with most of it having been developed into residential and commercial properties; the original Papanui shopping village is located at the Papanui Junction and the area is home to Northlands Shopping Centre on the Main North Road, one of the largest malls in the South Island.
Papanui's location in the north western area of the city saved it from the worst of the liquefaction, suffered by the eastern and southern areas. The Papanui Building at 1 Main North Road was damaged by the first two main earthquakes and demolition commenced on 23 February 2011, the day after the second earthquake. All of the churches in the area were damaged to some extent; the St Paul's Vicarage was badly damaged and has been demolished. St Paul's Anglican Church is still under repair with the scaffolding now being removed from the bell tower. A source close to the parish says it will reopen in September 2013. St Giles Presbyterian Church was un-repairable and has been demolished. Only the parish centre now remains there; the status of St Joseph's Catholic Church and the Papanui North Methodist Church repair or demolition has still not been resolved. The Sanitarium factory was significantly damaged and although production was halted for a while it is online with repairs being made. Many of the older shops in the Papanui Village were damaged and demolished.
It is pleasing to see the new buildings replacing the old broken ones. There are numerous reserves and parks within the suburban boundaries, the two most notable of these are as follow: The Papanui Domain sited on Sawyers Arms Road where the Papanui Bush was clear felled in the 1850s, it is predominantly used for rugby league and softball, with the rugby league clubrooms adjoining on the southern boundary. In the early days it was used for cycle racing. St James Park, most named after its road frontage, is predominantly used for croquet and soccer, it is one of the most beautiful parks in the city with tree lined walkways and gardens. The park in the heart of Papanui is the best location to see over-wintering monarch butterflies. On a warm sunny late autumn or early winter's day head to the children's play ground and look into the leafless old trees. There you will see monarchs clustering together holding on to the remaining leaves for support, it ís a great spot for a picnic beneath the trees with monarchs fluttering in the air above.
Before European settlement Papanui, like much of Christchurch, was marshy ground covered with native flax and raupō brush. There was an abundance of forest birds, it is believed in 1800 as many as 5000 Māori lived in Canterbury, but from disease like measles and influenza, introduced through the early whaling settlements on Banks Peninsula, through tribal wars the number had fallen to around 500 in 1840. While most of the plains in the South Island of New Zealand were deforested by either the Māori or the so-called moa hunters in the mid-1300s, Papanui Bush was one of the few stands of pine and totara left in the Canterbury region at the time of European colonisation; the Canterbury Association's surveyor Captain Joseph Thomas and his team of surveyors arrived in Lyttelton on 15 December 1848 on the ship Fly. They began to survey the Port Hills and Canterbury Plains around what would become Christchurch and its suburbs; as chief agent for the association Thomas was responsible for preparing the infrastructure for the arrival of the first settlers at Lyttelton in December 1850.
The First Four Ships, Charlotte J