St. James United Church (Montreal)
Saint James United Church is a heritage church in downtown Montreal, Canada. It is a Protestant church affiliated with the United Church of Canada, it is located at 463 Saint Catherine Street West between Saint Alexandre and City Councillors Streets, in the borough of Ville-Marie. It was designated as a National Historic Site of Canada in 1996; the Gothic Revival church was designed by Montreal architect Alexander Francis Dunlop. It is noteworthy for its Casavant Frères organ; when it was built in June 1889, it was the largest Methodist church in Canada, with 2,000 seats. It now belongs to the United Church of Canada, into which the Canadian Methodists merged in 1925, its congregation founded the first YMCA in North America on November 25, 1851 and led an active campaign for women's suffrage early in the 20th century. A World War I memorial window by Charles William Kelsey depicting a trench scene at St. James United Church was dedicated to 32 members who were killed overseas and 267 others who served in the Great War.
The side lights represent the cardinal virtues, Prudence and Fortitude. In 1927, to cover upkeep costs, the church permitted a commercial building to be built in front of its Sainte Catherine Street façade; the building, adjoining the church's structure, concealed the church for over 78 years, the church itself being announced by a large neon sign. In 2005, as part of an $8-million restoration effort sponsored by the city of Montreal and the Quebec government, a portion of the commercial buildings were demolished, once again revealing the facade of the church as well as a new public square designed by Quebec architect Claude Cormier. Access has been restored to the rear lawn from Sainte Catherine Street. Christ Church Cathedral Saint James United Church official site Religious Heritage - The story of St. James United Saint James, la résurrection
Notre-Dame Basilica (Montreal)
Notre-Dame Basilica is a basilica in the historic district of Old Montreal, in Montreal, Canada. The church is located at the corner of Saint Sulpice Street, it faces the Place d'Armes square. Built in the Gothic Revival style, the church is decorated; the vaults are coloured deep blue and decorated with golden stars, the rest of the sanctuary is decorated in blues, reds, purples and gold. It is filled with hundreds of several religious statues. Unusual for a church, the stained glass windows along the walls of the sanctuary do not depict biblical scenes, but rather scenes from the religious history of Montreal, it has a Casavant Frères pipe organ, dated 1891, which comprises four keyboards, 92 stops using electropneumatic action and an adjustable combination system, 7000 individual pipes and a pedal board. In 1657, the Roman Catholic Sulpician syndicate arrived in Ville-Marie, now known as Montreal, they ruled until 1840. The parish they founded was dedicated to the Holy Name of Mary, the parish church of Notre-Dame was built on the site in 1672.
François Baillairgé, an architect, designed the interior decoration and choir 1785-95. The church served as the first cathedral of the Diocese of Montreal from 1821 to 1822. By 1824 the congregation had outgrown the church, James O'Donnell, an Irish-American Anglican from New York City, was commissioned to design the new building. O'Donnell was a proponent of the Gothic Revival architectural movement, designed the church as such, he is the only person buried in the church's crypt. O'Donnell converted to Roman Catholicism on his deathbed due to the realization that he might not be allowed to be buried in his church; the main construction work took place between 1824 and 1829. The cornerstone was laid at Place d'Armes on September 1, 1824; the sanctuary was finished in 1830, the first tower in 1841, the second in 1843. On its completion, the church was the largest in North America, it remained the largest in North America for over fifty years. A new pipe organ was built in 1858 by Samuel Russell Warren.
The interior took much longer, Victor Bourgeau, who worked on Montreal's Mary, Queen of the World Cathedral, worked on it from 1872 to 1879. Stonemason John Redpath was a major participant in the construction of the Basilica; because of the splendour and grand scale of the church, a more intimate chapel, Chapelle du Sacré-Cœur, was built behind it, along with some offices and a sacristy. It was completed in 1888. In 1886 Casavant Frères began building a new 32-foot pipe organ at the church, completing it in 1891, it was notably the first organ with adjustable-combination pedals to be operated by electricity. Arson destroyed the Sacré-Cœur Chapel on December 8, 1978, it was rebuilt with the first two levels being reproduced from old drawings and photographs, with modern vaulting and reredos and an immense bronze altarpiece by Quebec sculptor Charles Daudelin. Notre-Dame Church was raised to the status of basilica by Pope John Paul II during a visit to the city on April 21, 1982; the Notre-Dame Roman Catholic Church was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1989.
On May 31, 2000, the provincial state funeral for former Montreal Canadiens superstar Maurice "Rocket" Richard was held in front of thousands, both inside and outside the Basilica. On October 3, 2000, Justin Trudeau gave his eulogy just steps from the High Altar during the state funeral of Pierre Trudeau, his father and Canada's 15th prime minister, it was the setting of Celine Dion's December 17, 1994, wedding to René Angélil and hosted the memorial service for Angelil on January 22, 2016. The basilica offers musical programming of organ performances, it is a tradition among many Montrealers to attend the annual performance of Handel's Messiah every December at Christmas. The basilica now charges. "Aura" a sound and light show created by Moment Factory and unveiling the richness of Notre-Dame Basilica’s heritage is offered in the evenings, Tuesday through Saturday at 6pm and 8pm and Sundays at 7pm and 9pm. Tickets are $24.50 for adults, $22.20 for seniors, $18.75 for students and $14.80 for children and young adults.
The approximate duration of the show is 45 minutes divided into two parts: a thematic route followed by a multimedia experience. The closest Metro station is Place-d'Armes, on the Orange Line. Jean Girard Guillaume Mechtler Jean-Chrysostome Brauneis II Leonard Eglauch Jean-Baptiste Labelle Alcibiade Béique Joseph-Daniel Dussault August Liessens Benoît Poirier Pierre Grandmaison Adam Charles Gustave Desmazures List of basilicas in Canada Montreal's other basilicas: Mary, Queen of the World Cathedral Saint Joseph's Oratory Saint Patrick's Basilica Rémillard, François. Old Montreal - A Walking Tour, Ministère des Affaires culturelles du Québec. Livesey, Herbert Bailey. Frommer's 2004 Montreal & Quebec City, Frommer's, 104. ISBN 0-7645-4124-2. "The Old Seminary and Notre-Dame Basilica". Old Montreal Web site. Retrieved 2008-03-21. Basilique Notre-Dame de Montréal Visite Interactive de la Basilique
Saint Jacques Street
Saint Jacques Street, or St. James Street, is a major street in Montreal, Canada; the street is known by two names, "St. James Street" in English and rue Saint-Jacques in French. Both names are used in English and French, although Saint-Jacques is the most common for geographical reference. St. James Street is used in reference to the street's historic importance as a financial district. A main thoroughfare passing through Old Montreal, the street was first opened in 1672; the portion between McGill Street and place Saint Henri was called Bonaventure Street. This name has passed down to Place Bonaventure, Bonaventure Expressway, Bonaventure Metro station, despite the disappearance of their original referents. In the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, St. James Street was the centre of Montreal's financial district and where several major English insurance and trust companies built their Canadian head offices. Prior to World War I, Canadian and major municipal governments along with important industries such as the railways, public utility and canal companies obtained most of their capital financing in the United Kingdom or the United States.
At the end of the War, St. James Street grew and although by the 1920s there were stock exchanges in Toronto, Winnipeg and Vancouver, St. James Street's stock brokerage houses and the Montreal Stock Exchange were the most important in all of Canada. At the time of its construction in 1928, the Royal Bank of Canada's new headquarters at 360 St. James Street was the tallest building in the British Empire; the St James St. area was the head office of the Bank of Montreal, the informal head office of the Bank of Nova Scotia. It was home to the major brokerage houses such as Nesbitt and Company, MacKay, Royal Securities Corporation and others; some companies and present, located on St. James Street are: 50: Ottawa Hotel, Montreal 60: Canfone.com - Versailles Building 100: New York Life Insurance Company 105-107: Royal Trust 119: Bank of Montreal main Montreal branch 201-215: Canadian Pacific Express 210-212 Yorkshire Insurance Co. 215: McMaster Meighen, lawyers 225: National Trust Co. 231-235: Montreal Star 240: Guardian Trust Co.
- The Dominion Bank 244: Royal Securities Corporation 249-251: Jones-Heward Financial Services 262-266: Montreal City and District Savings Bank 265: Canadian Bank of Commerce 275: Canada Life 278-288: Molson Bank 355: Merchants' Bank of Canada 360: Royal Bank of Canada 388-390: Sovereign Bank of Canada Union Bank and Commercial Union Assurance Co. 393: Crown Trust Co. 437: Eastern Townships Bank the Commercial Union Assurance Co. and the Bank of Nova ScotiaEast of Place d'Armes square, the street was home to two French-Canadian financial institutions, the Banque Canadienne Nationale and the Banque du Peuple, long gone now. A steady erosion of its status as Canada's financial centre began with the opening of the Saint Lawrence Seaway in 1959, followed by the political uncertainty as a result of the election of the separatist Parti Québécois provincial government in 1976, all served as a catalyst for financial institutions to locate elsewhere. A number chose to move their official head offices to Toronto, while others shifted all future expansion to Toronto or other major Canadian centres.
As a result, the St. James Street financial district has all but disappeared. During the 1990s, the Montreal Expos baseball club unveiled plans to build a new stadium in downtown Montreal, right off St. Jacques Street, just south of the Bell Centre; when provincial funding for the new building fell through, the Expos did not continue with their plan and sold the property to developers. That stretch of Saint Jacques is now undergoing considerable gentrification. Today, the stretch of St. Jacques Street between McGill Street and Saint Laurent Boulevard is still notable for its grand Neo-Classical buildings on the part of the street running through the Old Montreal district; these include Bank of Montreal's domed Montreal Main Branch, the former headquarters of Royal Bank of Canada, the Canadian Bank of Commerce, the Molson Bank and the Canada Life Insurance Company. More modern buildings include the Stock Exchange Tower. Farther west, St. Jacques Street runs through the residential neighbourhoods of Little Burgundy, Saint-Henri, Notre-Dame-de-Grâce and Lachine.
Lionel-Groulx and Place-Saint-Henri Metro stations are located on St. Jacques in the South West borough; the McGill University Health Centre superhospital will front Saint-Jacques in Notre-Dame-de-Grâce. City of Montreal website for St. James St
Architecture of Montreal
The architecture of Montreal, Canada is characterized by the juxtaposition of the old and the new and a wide variety of architectural styles, the legacy of two successive colonizations by the French, the British, the close presence of modern architecture to the south. Much like Quebec City, the city of Montreal had fortifications, but they were destroyed between 1804 and 1817. For over a century and a half, Montreal was the financial centre of Canada; the variety of buildings included factories, warehouses and refineries which today provide a legacy of historic and architectural interest in the downtown area and in Old Montreal. Many historical buildings in Old Montreal retain their original form, notably the impressive 19th century headquarters of all major Canadian banks on Saint Jacques Street. From the Art Deco period, Montreal offers a handful of notable examples. Ernest Cormier's Université de Montréal main building located on the northern side of Mount Royal and the Aldred Building at Place d'Armes, an historic square in Old Montreal.
In fact, Place d'Armes, shown in panorama below, is surrounded by buildings representing several major periods in Montreal architecture: the Gothic Revival Notre-Dame Basilica. And the International style 500 Place D'Armes. Founded as a Roman Catholic French colony and nicknamed "la ville aux cent clochers", Montreal is renowned for its churches; the city has four Roman Catholic basilicas: Mary, Queen of the World Cathedral, Notre-Dame Basilica, St. Patrick's Basilica, Saint Joseph's Oratory; the Oratory is the largest church in Canada, with the largest dome of its kind in the world after that of Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome. Other well-known churches include Notre-Dame-de-Bon-Secours Chapel, sometimes called the Sailors' Church. Following the British victory in the Seven Years' War, many protestant immigrants came to the city from England and Ireland; this led to various Protestant churches being built to accommodate the growing community. The two most notable of these are the Saint James United Church and the Anglican Christ Church Cathedral, suspended above an excavated pit during the construction of the Promenades Cathédrale mall, part of Montreal's Underground City.
Skyscraper construction in Montreal has swung between periods of intense activity and prolonged lulls. A two-year period from 1962 to 1964 saw the completion of four of Montreal's ten tallest buildings: Tour de la Bourse, I. M. Pei's landmark cruciform Place Ville-Marie, the CIBC Building and CIL House, its tallest buildings, the 51-storey 1000 de La Gauchetière and the 47-storey 1250 René-Lévesque, were both completed in 1992. Montreal places height-limits on skyscrapers; the city forbids any building from reaching an elevation higher than or 223 metres above mean sea level. Above-ground height is further limited in most areas and only a few downtown land plots are allowed to exceed 120 metres in height; the limit is attained by 1000 de La Gauchetière and 1250 René-Lévesque, the latter of, shorter, but built on higher ground. The only way to reach higher than 1000 de La Gauchetière while respecting this limit would be to build on the lowest part of downtown near Tour de la Bourse. Pavilions designed for the 1967 International and Universal Exposition, popularly known as Expo 67, featured a wide range of architectural designs.
Though most pavilions were temporary structures, several remaining structures have become Montreal landmarks, including the geodesic dome US Pavilion, now the Montreal Biosphère, as well as Moshe Safdie's striking Habitat 67 apartment complex. In terms of modern architecture, the Montreal Metro is filled with a profusion of public artwork by some of the biggest names in Quebec culture. In addition, the design and ornamentation of each station in the Metro system is unique, much like the Stockholm Metro and the Moscow Metro. Other significant works of modern architecture in Montreal include the Brutalist Place Bonaventure, the world's second largest commercial building when it was completed in 1967, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe's Westmount Square and Roger Taillibert's controversial Olympic Stadium, which incorporates the world's tallest inclined tower, at 175 metres. Montreal architects Pierre Boulva and Jacques David completed a number of modernist landmarks in the 1960s, including the Palais de justice de Montréal, 500 Place d'Armes, Théâtre Maisonneuve, the Dow Planetarium and the Place-des-Arts and Lucien-L'Allier metro stations.
In 2006, the city was recognized by the international design community as a UNESCO City of Design, one of the three world design capitals. The Conseil du patrimoine de Montréal advises the municipal government on matters related to heritage building preservation. A pair of non-governmental groups have worked to preserve Montreal historic buildings since the 1970s: Save Montreal, co-founded by Michael Fish in 1974, Heritage Montreal, founded by Phyllis Lambert two years later. In 1979, Lambert founded the Canadian Centre for Architecture, an architecture museum and research centre located in downtown Montreal. In October 2009, Heritage Montreal and others formed a think tank called the Institut de politiques alternatives de Montréal to advise the city on a range of matters including urban planning and heritage. Architecture of Canada Architecture of Quebec Arcop Culture of Montreal Golden Square Mile List of National Historic Sites of Canada
Hector Guimard was a French architect, now the best-known representative of the Art Nouveau style of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Guimard's critical reputation has risen since the 1960s, as many art historians have praised his architectural and decorative work, the best of it done during a brief fifteen years of prolific creative activity. Guimard was born in Lyon. Like many other French nineteenth-century architects, he attended the École nationale supérieure des arts décoratifs in Paris from 1882 to 1885, where he became acquainted with the theories of Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc; these rationalist ideas provided the basis for his idiosyncratic form of Art Nouveau. In 1884 he was awarded two silver medals at the school for his work. In 1885 he received awards in all of the competitions at École nationale supérieure des arts décoratifs including four bronze medallions, five silver, the school's Grande Prix d'Architecture. In 1885 Guimard began his studies at the École Nationale et Speciale des Beaux-Arts in Paris, he was admitted to the first year at École Nationale des Beaux-Arts in 1888.
In 1890, he was awarded a silver metal for "modelled ornament" at Ecole des Beaux-Arts. In 1891 Guimard became an Assistant professor in descriptive geometry and perspective drawings of the girls' section at the École des Arts Décoratifs in Paris, he was named a professor the following year in 1892 of the girls' section and was named a professor of perspective in 1894. He remained there until 1900. In 1893 he designed the lettering and street numbers for the Hotel Villa de la Réunion at 142 avenue de Versailles, which were produced for him by the ceramicist Emile Muller; the following year Guimard visited the Hôtel Tassel in Brussels, designed by Victor Horta, the latter's work was to become a profound inspiration. His first solo commission and breakthrough came in 1894, when he designed Castel Béranger at 14, rue Jean de la Fontaine, for Mme. Fournier. Carried out over four years, he persuaded his client to abandon a more restrained design and replace it with an overt embracement of the art of the curvilinear.
In a single commission Guimard demonstrated how architecture and the industrial arts could be united in a single building to create a unified, modern scheme. See and; the Castel Béranger made Guimard famous and he soon had many commissions. He continued to develop his own form of Art Nouveau devoted to the ideal of harmony and continuity, which caused him to design the interior furnishings and decoration of his buildings as well; this approach culminated between 1909 and 1912 when he created his own home, Hôtel Guimard where ovoid rooms contained unique pieces of furniture which are considered integral parts of the building. If the skylights favored by Victor Horta are rather absent in his work, Guimard made noteworthy experiments in space and volume; some of these include the Coilliot House and its disconcerting double-frontage, La Bluette and its beautiful volumetric harmony, the Castel Henriette and the Castel d’Orgeval, radical demonstrations of a vigorous and asymmetrical "free plan", twenty-five years before the theories of Le Corbusier.
But other buildings of his, like the splendid Nozal Hotel, employ a rational, square-based style like that of Viollet-le-Duc. Guimard employed some structural innovations, as in the concert hall Humbert-de-Romans, where a complex frame divided sound waves resulted in perfect acoustics, or as in the Hôtel Guimard, where the ground was too narrow to have the exterior walls bear any weight, thus the arrangement of interior spaces differs from one floor to another; the curious, inventive Guimard was a pioneer of industrial standardization, insofar as he wished to diffuse the new art on a large scale. His greatest success here – in spite of some scandals – was his entrances to the Paris Métro, based on the ornamented structures of Viollet-le-Duc; the idea was taken up – but with less success – in 1907 with a catalogue of cast iron elements applicable to buildings: Artistic Cast Iron, Guimard Style. Guimard's art objects have the same formal continuity as his buildings, harmoniously uniting practical function with linear design, as in the Vase des Binelles, of 1903 or this sketch of his furniture.
His inimitable stylistic vocabulary suggests organic matter, while remaining abstract. Flexible mouldings and a sense of movement are found in stone as well as wood carvings. Guimard created abstract two-dimensional patterns that were used for stained glass, ceramic panels, wrought iron, wallpaper or fabric. Despite Guimard's innovations and talent, the press grew tired of him—not so much with his work, but his personality, his relationship with the clergyman who commissioned him to build the Humbert de Romans Concert Hall became acrimonious by the time of its completion in 1901, the clergyman left France. Within five years the magnificent concert venue was demolished. A large number of his Paris Métro station entrances, including all of the large pavilions such as the one at Bastille, were demolished; the only full, roofed enclosures left are the original one at Porte Dauphine and the reconstructed ones at Abbesses and Châtelet, although many of the fenced entrances remain or have been rebuilt.
Guimard died, aged 75, in New York City, USA. Gui
Victoria Memorial (Montreal)
The Victoria Memorial is a sculpture placed at the centre of Victoria Square in Montreal, Canada. The statue of Queen Victoria in the centre of Victoria Square is the work of sculptor Marshall Wood, was unveiled in 1872 by Lord Dufferin, the Governor General of Canada. At the time, the area surrounding Victoria Square was a prestigious neighbourhood, it was funded by donations from a citizens' committee, by public subscription, on the occasion of Prince Arthur’s visit to Montreal. The bronze was cast by Holbrook & Company, England in 1869. List of public art in Montreal List of statues of Queen Victoria Monument à la reine Victoria
Canadian Centre for Architecture
The Canadian Centre for Architecture is a museum of architecture and research centre in Montreal, Canada. It is located at 1920 Baile Street, between Fort Street and Saint-Marc Street in what was once part of the Golden Square Mile. Today it is considered to be located in the Shaughnessy Village neighbourhood of the borough of Ville-Marie. Phyllis Lambert is the founding director emeritus, Bruce Kuwabara is chair of the board of trustees, Mirko Zardini is the director, Giovanna Borasi is the chief curator, it was built by Peter Rose. The CCA contains a large library and archives, is host to various exhibits throughout the year, it is home to a study centre open to the general public. The CCA provides educational programs and cultural activities; the CCA has an architectural garden located on the southern side of René-Lévesque Boulevard. The sculpture garden was realized by architect Melvin Charney; the CCA was founded in 1979 by Montreal architect Phyllis Lambert. The purpose of the centre was to promote public awareness of the role architecture plays in society, as well as to encourage scholarly architectural research and to foster innovative design practices.
The CCA was constructed between 1985 and 1989 by Montreal architect Peter Rose. The design of the museum incorporates the Shaughnessy House mansion, built for Thomas Shaughnessy, a Second Empire-style mansion that Lambert purchased in 1974 to prevent its demolition; the CCA received the Honor Awards for Architecture|Honor Award for Architecture from the American Institute of Architects and the Governor General's Medals in Architecture in 1992. The current building, which opened in 1989, surrounds Shaughnessy House and was designed by Peter Rose, in collaboration with Phyllis Lambert and Erol Argun. Shaughnessy House, located at 1923 Dorchester St. W was at built in 1874 according to plans by William Tutin Thomas, it is one of the few nineteenth century residences, accessible to the public. The CCA building, with a surface area of 12,000 square metres, is home to exhibit halls, Paul Desmarais Theatre, a bookstore, the library and a study centre in the Alcan Wing, it contains restoration laboratories and conservation offices.
The work of conservation and restoration of the Shaughnessy House, with a floor area of over 1,900 square metres, were carried out under the direction of Denis Saint-Louis. Inside is the Devencore Conservatory and reception rooms. Due to its size and use of traditional and modern materials, combining structural aluminum with grey Montreal limestone, the CCA building's architecture blends past and present, its landscapes, including the CCA sculpture Garden facing the building on the south side of René Lévesque Boulevard, were designed according to the ecology of each location. Most of the rooms of the Shaughnessy House have been restored to their original 1874 state; the Van Horne / Shaughnessy House was a listed as a National Historic Site of Canada in 1973 and a Historical Monument of Quebec on February 6, 1974. The CCA has largest collections of books and artifacts touching on the built environment and certain aspects of industrial design. Within the general collections it has special collections such as those pertaining to architectural games for children, universal exhibitions and their architecture, significant architects including Ernest Cormier, Peter Eisenman, Arthur Erickson, John Hejduk, Cedric Price, Aldo Rossi, James Stirling, the artist Gordon Matta-Clark.
The centre mounts regular shows made up of research on thematic subjects, different aspects of its collections, hosts touring exhibits from other museums. The centre offers tours adapted to educational programs for children, it has a bookstore, a concert hall, gardens. The sculpture garden which lies across René Lévesque Boulevard offers a full scale ghost-like lower shell of the bottom part of the Shaughnessy mansion, assorted modernistic sculptures or constructs which are developed around the theme of architecture; the Centre's research library is open to the public by appointment. It celebrated its 20th anniversary in 2009. Over the years, CCA has organized a variety of lectures and presentations, for example by Evgeny Morozov and Johannes Grenzfurthner; the mansion faces a sculpture garden by Melvin Charney on the south side of René Lévesque Boulevard. Located in between René-Lévesque Boulevard and the Ville-Marie Expressway, it is a park in an area of heavy traffic and is at the edge of a cliff.
The park contains a set of sculptures that depict aspects of architecture, include a reproduction of the base of the facade and size of Shaughnessy House. The vegetation is mixed with sections of open walls. Architectural fixtures and furniture items are placed on pedestals; the Museum is affiliated with: CMA, CHIN, Virtual Museum of Canada. Architecture of Canada Examination for Architects in Canada Canadian architecture Modern Architecture Society for the Study of Architecture in Canada CCA homepage in English and French