Northwich is a town and civil parish in the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England. It lies in the heart of the Cheshire Plain, at the confluence of the rivers Weaver, the town is about 18 miles east of Chester and 15 miles south of Warrington. 19 miles south of Manchester and 12 miles south of Manchester Airport, Northwich has been part of the Manchester City region since 2004. Northwich has been named as one of the best places to live in the United Kingdom according to The Sunday Times in 2014, the area around Northwich has been exploited for its salt pans since Roman times, when the settlement was known as Condate. The town has severely affected by salt mining, and subsidence has historically been a significant problem. Recent investment has been designated in mine stabilisation, during Roman times, Northwich was known as Condate, thought to be a Latinisation of a Brittonic name meaning Confluence. There are several sites of the same name, mostly in France, in Northwichs case, it lies at the junction of the rivers Dane. Northwich can be identified through two contemporary Roman documents, the first of these is the Antonine Itinerary, a 3rd-century road map split into 14 sections. Two of these sections, or Itinerary, mention Condate, Route II, the second document is the 7th-century Ravenna Cosmography. This document refers to Condate between the entries for Salinae and Ratae, at the time the capital of the Corieltauvi tribe, the Romans interest in the Northwich area is thought to be due to the strategic river crossing and the location of the salt brines. Salt was very important in Roman society, the Roman word salarium, linked employment, salt and soldiers and it is also theorised that this is the basis for the modern word salary. Another theory is that the word itself comes from the Latin sal dare. See History of salt for further details, there is archaeological evidence of a Roman auxiliary fort within the area of Northwich now known as Castle dated to AD70. This and other forts were built as the Romans moved north from their stronghold in Chester. The association with salt continues in the etymology of Northwich, the wich suffix applies to other towns in the area, Middlewich, Nantwich and Leftwich. This is considered to have derived from the Norse, wic, for bay. Therefore, a place for making salt became a wych-house, Northwich was the most northern of the towns in Cheshire. The existence of Northwich in the medieval period is shown by its record in the Domesday Book, In the same Mildestuic hundred there was a third wich called Norwich
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation, to specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection. The invention of a coordinate system is generally credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene. Ptolemy credited him with the adoption of longitude and latitude. Ptolemys 2nd-century Geography used the prime meridian but measured latitude from the equator instead. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes recovery of Ptolemys text a little before 1300, in 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while France and Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911, the latitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the equator, the north pole is 90° N, the south pole is 90° S. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the equator, the plane of all geographic coordinate systems. The equator divides the globe into Northern and Southern Hemispheres, the longitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle east or west of a reference meridian to another meridian that passes through that point. All meridians are halves of great ellipses, which converge at the north and south poles, the prime meridian determines the proper Eastern and Western Hemispheres, although maps often divide these hemispheres further west in order to keep the Old World on a single side. The antipodal meridian of Greenwich is both 180°W and 180°E, the combination of these two components specifies the position of any location on the surface of Earth, without consideration of altitude or depth. The grid formed by lines of latitude and longitude is known as a graticule, the origin/zero point of this system is located in the Gulf of Guinea about 625 km south of Tema, Ghana. To completely specify a location of a feature on, in, or above Earth. Earth is not a sphere, but a shape approximating a biaxial ellipsoid. It is nearly spherical, but has an equatorial bulge making the radius at the equator about 0. 3% larger than the radius measured through the poles, the shorter axis approximately coincides with the axis of rotation
Seating capacity is the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, in terms of both the physical space available, and limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats hundreds of thousands of people. The International Fire Code, portions of which have adopted by many jurisdictions, is directed more towards the use of a facility than the construction. It specifies, For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms and it also requires that every public venue submit a detailed site plan to the local fire code official, including details of the means of egress, seating capacity, arrangement of the seating. Once safety considerations have been satisfied, determinations of seating capacity turn on the size of the venue. For sports venues, the decision on maximum seating capacity is determined by several factors, chief among these are the primary sports program and the size of the market area. Seating capacity of venues also plays a role in what media they are able to provide, in contracting to permit performers to use a theatre or other performing space, the seating capacity of the performance facility must be disclosed. Seating capacity may influence the kind of contract to be used, the seating capacity must also be disclosed to the copyright owner in seeking a license for the copyrighted work to be performed in that venue. Venues that may be leased for private functions such as ballrooms and auditoriums generally advertise their seating capacity, seating capacity is also an important consideration in the construction and use of sports venues such as stadiums and arenas. The seating capacity for restaurants is reported as covers, a restaurant that can seat 99 is said to have 99 covers, seating capacity differs from total capacity, which describes the total number of people who can fit in a venue or in a vehicle either sitting or standing. Use of the term public capacity indicates that a venue is allowed to more people than it can actually seat. Again, the total number of people can refer to either the physical space available or limitations set by law
Northwich Victoria F.C.
Northwich Victoria Football Club is an English football club based in Northwich, Cheshire, playing their home games at Wincham Park, Northwich, the home of Witton Albion. The new club was a member of several leagues including the Football League Second Division. They played at the same Drill Field ground for over 125 years, at the time Drill Field was believed to be the oldest ground in the world on which football had been continuously played. The generally accepted year for the original Northwich Victoria Football Clubs founding is 1874 by Charles James Hughes and James Heyworth, however, according to club historian Ken Edwards book A Team for All Seasons, the organisation itself could have been in existence earlier in the 1870s. Northwich played their first challenge matches in the 1874 season and originally accepted both association football and rugby rules. This was shown in 1876 when they contested a match under Rugby rules at Farnworth and Appleton F. C. and then at home under association rules. The first time the club entered a competition was the 1877 Welsh Cup. Its best achievement in the competition was in the 1881–82 and 1888–89 seasons, when they reached the final in 1882, they were the first English club to do so. In 1880, the club entered the competition for the new Cheshire Football Association Challenge Cup. They went on to win the cup for the five seasons, defeating in the finals, Birkenhead, Northwich Novelty, Crewe Alexandra. In 1890, the became a founding member of the second incarnation of The Combination. In their second season in the league they finished as runners-up, a great leap forward was taken in 1892, when Northwich became one of the founding members of the English Second Division, which saw the team turn professional. In the leagues inaugural season, Northwich finished 7th, the highest finish in the clubs history and it was during the latter stages of this season that Northwich acquired the services of Billy Meredith, the Welsh International, who is widely regarded as the first football superstar. It was said by many that Finnerhan made Meredith, another notable result was holding Woolwich Arsenal to a 2–2 draw at the Drill Field. However, as a result of their position at the bottom of the league. Up to the middle of decade, Northwich played in red. However a major change in the clubs livery occurred when they adopted the colours they wear today, green. Lured by the chance of increased revenues, the joined the Manchester League in the 1900–01 season
Northwich Manchester Villa F.C.
Northwich Manchester Villa Football Club was an English association football club based in Manchester, Greater Manchester, England. The team last competed in the North West Counties Football League Division One in season 2015–16, the team has had three previous names, Woodley, Northwich Villa, and Northwich Flixton Villa, and played in the Cheshire Football League between 2005 and 2011. The team was formed in 2005 when a team called Woodley was renamed Northwich Villa when links were made with Northwich Victoria for the team to act as a feeder team. The club entered the Cheshire Football League Division Two in 2005–06, consequently, the team was promoted to Division One, which the team won in 2008–09. The team was runner-up the following year, the team finished 9th in the 2010–11 season and had a successful application to join the North West Counties Football League Division One. After two seasons in the North West Counties League and a relocation to Flixton, the club adopted the name of Northwich Flixton Villa in 2013. The club finished the 2013–14 season in one of the two places, but was not relegated due to a surplus of spaces at level 10. In the summer of 2015, the club was renamed again, the club later folded in 2016. Cheshire Football League Division One Champions 2008–09 Runners-up 2009–10 Cheshire Football League Division Two Runners-up 2005–06 Official website
Manchester United F.C. Reserves and Academy
Manchester United Football Club Under-23s is the most senior of Manchester Uniteds youth teams and the clubs former reserve team. They play in the Premier League 2, the highest tier of the Professional Development League and they were champions of the former Premier Reserve League five times between its introduction in 1999 and its dissolution in 2012. The team also won the 2012–13 Professional U21 Development League 1 in its inaugural season, the team also participates in the Manchester Senior Cup and the Lancashire Senior Cup. The teams manager is currently Nicky Butt, a graduate in the 1990s who played for United until 2004. Butt stood in for Warren Joyce on a basis when Joyce was appointed Wigan Athletic manager on 2 November 2016. Joyce, who took over from Ole Gunnar Solskjær as manager of the reserves in December 2010, was previously the manager of Royal Antwerp, Manchester Uniteds feeder club in Belgium. From November 2008 to August 2013, the team played its matches at Moss Lane in Altrincham. For the 2013–14 Under-21 Premier League season, the team has played the majority of its matches at Salford City Stadium in Barton-upon-Irwell. Since 2014–15, the play its home matches at Leigh Sports Village. Rules set out by the Premier League state that at least three home games must be played at the clubs main stadium, Old Trafford. In previous seasons, the team has played at the Victoria Stadium, the home of Northwich Victoria, and Ewen Fields, Manchester United also has an Under-18s team that plays in the Premier League Under-18s Group 2 and the FA Youth Cup. The under-18s play their games at the clubs Trafford Training Centre in Carrington. Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. The current academy is based at the clubs Aon Training Complex, the Manchester United youth team is statistically the most successful in English football, with nine players in the English football Hall of Fame. Manchester United also have the best FA Youth Cup record, winning on 10 occasions out of 14 final appearances. The academy comprises age-group teams ranging from Under-9s up to the flagship Under-18s, in 2007, Manchester United Under-18s were the inaugural winners of the Champions Youth Cup, intended to be a Club World Championship for youth sides, beating Juventus 1–0 in the final in Malaysia. Players who are playing at Manchester United, or for another club on loan from Manchester United, are highlighted in bold
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Pausanias noted that for about half a century the only event at the ancient Greek Olympic festival was the race that comprised one length of the stade at Olympia, where the word stadium originated. In modern times, a stadium is officially a stadium when at least 50% of the capacity is an actual building. If the majority of the capacity is formed by grasshills, the venue is not officially considered a stadium. Most of the stadiums with a capacity of at least 10,000 are used for football, or soccer. A large amount of sports venues are also used for concerts. Stadium is the Latin form of the Greek word stadion, a measure of length equalling the length of 600 human feet, as feet are of variable length the exact length of a stadion depends on the exact length adopted for 1 foot at a given place and time. Although in modern terms 1 stadion =600 ft, in a historical context it may actually signify a length up to 15% larger or smaller. The equivalent Roman measure, the stadium, had a similar length — about 185 m -, the English use of stadium comes from the tiered infrastructure surrounding a Roman track of such length. Most dictionaries provide for both stadiums and stadia as valid English plurals, although etymological purists sometimes apply stadia only to measures of length in excess of 1 stadium. The oldest known stadium is the one in Olympia, in the western Peloponnese, Greece, initially the Games consisted of a single event, a sprint along the length of the stadium. The stadion, a measure of length, may be related to the Stadium, Greek and Roman stadiums have been found in numerous ancient cities, perhaps the most famous being the Stadium of Domitian, in Rome. The excavated and refurbished ancient Panathenaic stadium hosted a version of the Olympic Games in 1870,1875,1896 and 1906. The excavation and refurbishment of the stadium was part of the legacy of the Greek national benefactor Evangelos Zappas, the first stadiums to be built in the modern era were basic facilities, designed for the single purpose of fitting as many spectators in as possible. One such early stadium was the Lansdowne Road Stadium, the brainchild of Henry Dunlop, banned from locating sporting events at Trinity College, Dunlop built the stadium in 1872. Some 300 cartloads of soil from a trench beneath the railway were used to raise the ground, other early stadiums from this period in the UK include the Stamford Bridge stadium and Anfield stadium. In the U. S. However, many of these caught fire. All of the 19th-century wooden parks were replaced, some only a few years. Goodison Park was the first purpose-built football stadium in the world, walton-based building firm Kelly brothers were instructed to erect two uncovered stands that could each accommodate 4,000 spectators
Cheshire is a county in North West England, bordering Merseyside and Greater Manchester to the north, Derbyshire to the east, Staffordshire and Shropshire to the south and Wales to the west. Cheshires county town is Chester, the largest town is Warrington, other major towns include Congleton, Crewe, Ellesmere Port, Macclesfield, Northwich, Runcorn, Widnes, Wilmslow, and Winsford. The county covers 905 square miles and has a population of around 1 million and it is mostly rural, with a number of small towns and villages supporting the agricultural and other industries which produce Cheshire cheese, salt, chemicals and silk. Cheshires name was derived from an early name for Chester. Although the name first appears in 980, it is thought that the county was created by Edward the Elder around 920, in the Domesday Book, Chester was recorded as having the name Cestrescir, derived from the name for Chester at the time. A series of changes occurred as English itself changed, together with some simplifications and elision, resulted in the name Cheshire. Because of the close links with the land bordering Cheshire to the west. The Domesday Book records Cheshire as having two complete Hundreds that later became the part of Flintshire. Additionally, another portion of the Duddestan Hundred later became known as Maelor Saesneg when it was transferred to North Wales. For this and other reasons, the Welsh name for Cheshire is sometimes used within Wales, after the Norman conquest of 1066 by William I, dissent and resistance continued for many years after the invasion. In 1069 local resistance in Cheshire was finally put down using draconian measures as part of the Harrying of the North, the ferocity of the campaign against the English populace was enough to end all future resistance. Examples were made of major landowners such as Earl Edwin of Mercia, William I made Cheshire a county palatine and gave Gerbod the Fleming the new title of Earl of Chester. When Gerbod returned to Normandy in about 1070, the king used his absence to declare the earldom forfeit, due to Cheshires strategic location on Welsh Marches, the Earl had complete autonomous powers to rule on behalf of the king in the county palatine. Cheshire in the Domesday Book is recorded as a larger county than it is today. It included two hundreds, Atiscross and Exestan, that became part of North Wales. At the time of the Domesday Book, it included as part of Duddestan Hundred the area of land later known as English Maelor in Wales. The area between the Mersey and Ribble formed part of the returns for Cheshire, an example is the barony of Halton. One of Hugh dAvranches barons has been identified as Robert Nicholls, Baron of Halton, in 1182 the land north of the Mersey became administered as part of the new county of Lancashire, thus resolving any uncertainty about the county in which the land Inter Ripam et Mersam was
Cheshire West and Chester Council
Cheshire West and Chester Council is the local authority of Cheshire West and Chester. It is an authority, having the powers of a non-metropolitan county. The council was first elected on 1 May 2008 a year before coming into its powers on 1 April 2009. The local authority derives its powers and functions from the Local Government Act 1972 and it has a general power of competence as described in the Localism Act 2011, i. e. it is permitted to act in any manner whatsoever which is not unlawful. For the purposes of government, Cheshire West and Chester is one of the fifty-five unitary authorities in England. Conversely, it is unnecessary for Cheshire West and Chester Council to set a precept for itself as it is also a billing authority, since the first election of the council in 2008, political control has been held by the following parties, Colour key, Conservative Labour
Chelsea F.C. Under-23s and Academy
Reserves are the under-23 team of Chelsea Football Club. They play in the Premier League 2, which is the top level of football in England. They were the Champions in the 2013–14 season, the team mainly consists of Under-21 players at the club, although senior players occasionally have an appearance, for instance when they are recovering from injury. The under-23 team is coached by Adrian Viveash, Academy are the under-18 team of Chelsea Football Club. It is a member of the Professional U18 Development League and they have won the FA Youth Cup seven times, in 1960,1961,2010,2012,2014,2015 and 2016 and ended being runners-up in 1958,2008 and 2013. The youth team is coached by Joe Edwards, from 2013–14 season, the under-23 team play their home games at Aldershot Towns Recreation Ground. The under-18 team play their games at the clubs Cobham Training Centre at Cobham in Surrey. Both teams occasionally use the home ground Stamford Bridge for important matches. Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Graduates of Chelseas academy and A teams who won at least one international cap. NB, Bold players are playing for the club, including those that are currently out on loan to other clubs. Source, chelseafc. com — Academy graduates who play for Chelsea
The Drill Field was a football stadium in Northwich, Cheshire, which was the home ground of Northwich Victoria Football Club between 1875 and 3 May 2002. At the time it was closed, it was believed to have been the oldest football ground in the world on which football had been continuously played, the land for the Drill Field was, at first, used free of cost, and then leased from its original owners. The site was located on a next to the Drill Hall in Leftwich. The hall was built in 1867 and belonged to the 3rd Battalion, originally a piece of fenced-off land, a grandstand was constructed in the 1890s housing 600 spectators. During this period, from 1892-1894, the ground hosted League football for the time in its long history. In 1912 a covered stand was constructed, which would later be moved to face the grandstand and became known as the Dane Bank Stand, in the early days of the Drill Field, there were no changing rooms or bathrooms. Such facilities then were provided by local landlords, in 1914, Northwich Victoria purchased the ground for £1,000 from Colonel Sir Thomas Marshall. 3 benefactors helped the club to pay this sum, they were Manchester City F. C. At the 1921 Annual General Meeting held on 10 August, it was announced that the remaining interest for the purchase of the ground had been paid and that the ground was now owned by the club. In the summer of 1996, a plan to rebuild the Dane Bank Stand was announced in order to help the ground to meet Conference standards. The Sports Ground Initiative, a charity which provided money to Conference clubs to improve their grounds, donated £250,000 to the new stand, the stand was officially opened by former Everton F. C. manager Joe Royle on 27 January 1998. Following the opening of the stand, Manchester United fielded a side to face Northwich including Henning Berg, the final game played at the Drill Field was a Mid Cheshire Senior Cup match against Congleton Town on 3 May 2002. Following this, the ground was sold to property developers and demolished, the entire Dane Bank Stand, rebuilt in 1998, was dismantled and re-erected at the Victoria Stadium. The road where the Drill Field was located retains its old name, colwyn Bay Football Club played their home games at the Drill Field in the Northern Premier League Premier Division during the 1992–93 season
Witton Albion F.C.
Witton Albion F. C. are a football club based in Northwich, England. They have won the Cheshire Senior Cup 11 times since 1902 and their most recent success in this competition was in 2006, when they defeated Stalybridge Celtic in the final. They have also reached the FA Cup Second Round on at least three occasions, the club will play in the Northern Premier League Division One North in the 2015–16 season. The clubs ground was for years in the centre of the town. In 1989, they moved a couple of miles to Chapel Street in nearby Wincham, Sainsburys Supermarket now occupies the old Central Ground site. Wittons current home, Wincham Park, holds in excess of 4,500 and is equipped with floodlights, segregation, a club shop, there used to be a fierce local rivalry with Northwich Victoria. The first records of a Witton Albion F. C. are in 1887, the club first entered the FA Cup in 1907–08 but failed to reach the First Round proper until 1948–49. Finally in 1920, the club became members of the Cheshire County League. They won the three times after World War 2, including the league and cup double in 1953–54. After the formation of the Northern Premier League in 1969, many Cheshire clubs left the Cheshire County League and it is thought that Northwich Victorias decision to persuade other clubs not to allow their town rivals in was the deciding factor. Albion continued to be a decent side in the Cheshire County League and eventually earned promotion to the Northern Premier League in 1978–79, although they missed out on joining their arch-rivals, as they had just left to form the Alliance Premier League. The sale of the clubs Central Ground to Sainsburys allowed the club to move to a more modern stadium. The second season at Wincham Park in 1990–91 proved to be one of the best seasons in the history as they won the NPL by 16 points. However, the club found this tough going and continual relegation struggles resulted in the first relegation in the history in 1994. A further relegation from the Premier Division of the Northern Premier League followed in 1997, in 2004, club captain Brian Pritchard enjoyed worldwide fame following his sending off during the Cheshire County F. A. Senior Cup final against Woodley Sports and he was sent off after he tripped a streaker that had run onto the pitch, incensing the Witton fans. Many football fans around the world deemed this sending off unfair, the 2006–07 season saw Witton miss out on automatic promotion on the last day of the season to Burscough, by 1 goal on goal difference. Witton hit the woodwork 3 times in the last 20 minutes and this was the second time in seven years that Burscough had beaten Witton to promotion on goal difference
Trent and Mersey Canal
The Trent and Mersey Canal is a 93. 5-mile long canal in the East Midlands, West Midlands, and north-west of England. It is a canal for the vast majority of its length. The narrow locks and bridges are big enough for a single narrowboat 7 ft wide ×72 ft long, while the locks can accommodate boats 14 ft wide. As its name implies, the Trent and Mersey canal was built to link the River Trent at Derwent Mouth to the River Mersey, the second connection is made via the Bridgewater Canal, which it joins at Preston Brook in Cheshire. Note that although mileposts measure the distance to Preston Brook and Shardlow, the plan of a canal connection from the Mersey to the Trent came from canal engineer James Brindley. It was authorised by an Act of Parliament in 1766 and the first sod was cut by Josiah Wedgwood in July that year at Middleport, in 1777, the canal was completed, including more than 70 locks and five tunnels, with the company headquarters in Stone. The first known idea to build a canal between the River Mersey and the River Trent was put forward in 1755, though no action was taken at that time. In 1760, Lord Gower, a businessman and brother-in-law of the Duke of Bridgewater, drew up a plan for the Trent. If his plan had gone ahead, this would have been the first modern canal constructed in England. James Brindley, the engineer behind many of the canals in England, did his first canal work on the Trent and Mersey, though his first job in charge of construction was on the Bridgewater Canal. Pots transported by road were liable to be damaged and broken, wedgwood’s plan was not to connect the two rivers by canal, but to connect the potteries to the River Mersey. As a burgeoning industrialist, Wedgwood was a backer of the Trent. There was much debate about possible routes that a canal could take, coal merchants in Liverpool felt threatened about a canal that could bring coal in from Cheshire. The owners of the River Weaver Navigation were also not happy about the proposals, yet another route was published which, much to the shock of Wedgwood, did not at all include the potteries. Wedgwood, intent to have a connection to his potteries, managed to send his proposal to Parliament. John Gilberts plan for the Grand Trunk canal met opposition at the end where, in Burton on Trent. In 1764, Wedgwood managed to convince Gilbert to include the Potteries in his route, in 1766, Gilberts plan was authorised by an Act of Parliament. Later that year, n July 26th a massive celebration was held in the Potteries where Josiah Wedgwood cut the first sod of soil, James Brindley was employed as engineer and work got under way
Gainsborough Trinity F.C.
Gainsborough Trinity Football Club is a football club based in Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, England. They are currently members of the National League North and play at the Northolme, the club was established in 1873 as Trinity Recreationists by Reverend George Langton Hodgkinson, the vicar at the Holy Trinity Church. In 1889 the club were members of the Midland League. The club finished as runners-up the following season and again in 1895–96, in the vote they finished third, ahead of existing members Port Vale and Crewe Alexandra, and were elected into the Second Division. The clubs first season in Division Two of the League saw them finish seventh, in 1901–02 Trinity finished bottom of the division, but were re-elected. In 1904–05 the club finished sixth in Division Two, their best performance during their Football League membership. In 1911–12 Gainsborough finished bottom of the Second Division for a second time, the club returned to the Midland League, finishing third in 1912–13 and second in 1913–14, after which they unsuccessfully applied for readmission to the Football League. When the Football League created a new Third Division North in 1921, Trinity applied for membership, in 1931–32 they beat Crewe again in the first round, before losing 5–2 at home to Watford. In 1937–38 Trinity beat Port Vale in the first round, before losing to fellow non-League club Yeovil & Petters United, another Football League team was beaten the following season, when Trinity knocked out Gateshead in the first round, before losing to Doncaster Rovers. In 1948–49 they reached the round after defeating Witton Albion in the first round. They went on to win a third Midland League title that season and they reached the first round again the following season, before losing 4–1 at home to Chesterfield. The club failed to repeat the feat until 1959–60, when they lost to Doncaster Rovers in a replay, at the end of the 1959–60 season, the Midland League was disbanded. Gainsborough spent a season playing in both the Central Alliance and Division Two of the Yorkshire League, before returning to a reformed Midland League in 1961. Trinity won their fourth Midland League title in 1966–67, also reaching the first round of the FA Cup, the club applied to join the Football League again in 1975 and 1976, but received only a single vote on each occasion. The 1983–84 season saw them reach the first round of the FA Cup for over a decade, when the Northern Premier League added a second division in 1987, Gainsborough were placed in the Premier Division. In 1997–98 FA Cup saw them drawn against local rivals Lincoln City, another first round appearance in 2003–04 ended with a 7–1 defeat at Brentford. At the end of the season a tenth-place finish saw the club become members of the Conference North. FA Cup first round appearances followed in 2006–07 (a 3–1 defeat by Barnet, in 2011–12 the club finished fourth, qualifying for the promotion play-offs
Sir Alexander Chapman Ferguson, CBE is a former Scottish football manager and player who managed Manchester United from 1986 to 2013. He is regarded by players, managers and analysts to be the greatest and most successful manager of all time. Ferguson played as a forward for several Scottish clubs, including Dunfermline Athletic, while playing for Dunfermline, he was the top goalscorer in the Scottish league in the 1965–66 season. Towards the end of his career he also worked as a coach, then started his managerial career with East Stirlingshire. Ferguson then enjoyed a successful period as manager of Aberdeen. He briefly managed Scotland following the death of Jock Stein, taking the team to the 1986 World Cup. Ferguson was appointed manager of Manchester United in November 1986. During his 26 years with Manchester United he won 38 trophies, including 13 Premier League titles, five FA Cups and he was knighted in the 1999 Queens Birthday Honours list, for his services to the game. Ferguson is the longest serving manager of Manchester United, having overtaken Sir Matt Busbys record on 19 December 2010 and he retired from management at the end of the 2012–13 season, having won the Premier League in his final season. He attended Broomloan Road Primary School and later Govan High School, Fergusons playing career began as an amateur with Queens Park, where he made his debut as a striker aged 16. He described his first match as a nightmare, but scored Queens Parks goal in a 2–1 defeat against Stranraer. Perhaps his most notable game for Queens Park was the 7–1 defeat away to Queen of the South on Boxing Day 1959 when ex-England international Ivor Broadis scored four of the Queen of the South goals, Ferguson was the solitary Queens Park goalscorer. Despite scoring 20 goals in his 31 games for Queens Park, he could not command a regular place in the side, although he continued to score regularly at St Johnstone, he was still unable to command a regular place and regularly requested transfers. Dunfermline signed him the summer, and Ferguson became a full-time professional footballer. Dunfermline lost the final 3–2 to Celtic, then failed to win the League by one point, the 1965–66 season saw Ferguson notch up 45 goals in 51 games for Dunfermline. Along with Joe McBride of Celtic, he was the top goalscorer in the Scottish League with 31 goals and he then joined Rangers for £65,000, then a record fee for a transfer between two Scottish clubs. According to his brother, Ferguson was so upset by the experience that he threw his losers medal away, the following October, Nottingham Forest wanted to sign Ferguson, but his wife was not keen on moving to England at that time so he went to Falkirk instead. Fergusons time at Falkirk was soured by this and he responded by requesting a transfer and moved to Ayr United, in June 1974, Ferguson was appointed manager of East Stirlingshire, at the comparatively young age of 32. It was a job that paid £40 per week
Manchester United F.C.
Manchester United Football Club is a professional football club based in Old Trafford, Greater Manchester, England, that competes in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. Nicknamed the Red Devils, the club was founded as Newton Heath LYR Football Club in 1878, changed its name to Manchester United in 1902 and moved to its current stadium, Old Trafford, in 1910. Manchester United have won a record 20 League Titles, a joint-record 12 FA Cups,5 League Cups, the club has also won three European Cups, one UEFA Cup Winners Cup, one UEFA Super Cup, one Intercontinental Cup and one FIFA Club World Cup. In 1998–99, the became the first in the history of English football to achieve the treble of the Premier League, the FA Cup. The 1958 Munich air disaster claimed the lives of eight players, in 1968, under the management of Matt Busby, Manchester United became the first English football club to win the European Cup. Alex Ferguson won 38 trophies, including 13 Premier League titles,5 FA Cups and 2 UEFA Champions Leagues, José Mourinho is the clubs current manager, having been appointed on 27 May 2016. As of June 2015, it is the worlds most valuable football brand and it is one of the most widely supported football teams in the world. In August 2012, Manchester United made a public offering on the New York Stock Exchange. The club holds several rivalries, most notably with Liverpool, Manchester City and Leeds United, Manchester United was formed in 1878 as Newton Heath LYR Football Club by the Carriage and Wagon department of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway depot at Newton Heath. By 1888, the club had become a member of The Combination. Following the leagues dissolution after only one season, Newton Heath joined the newly formed Football Alliance and this resulted in the club starting the 1892–93 season in the First Division, by which time it had become independent of the railway company and dropped the LYR from its name. After two seasons, the club was relegated to the Second Division, in January 1902, with debts of £2,670 – equivalent to £260,000 in 2017 – the club was served with a winding-up order. The following season began with victory in the first ever Charity Shield, Manchester United won the First Division for the second time in 1911, but at the end of the following season, Mangnall left the club to join Manchester City. In 1922, three years after the resumption of football following the First World War, the club was relegated to the Second Division, relegated again in 1931, Manchester United became a yo-yo club, achieving its all-time lowest position of 20th place in the Second Division in 1934. Gibson, who, in December 1931, invested £2,000, in the 1938–39 season, the last year of football before the Second World War, the club finished 14th in the First Division. Busby led the team to second-place league finishes in 1947,1948 and 1949, in 1952, the club won the First Division, its first league title for 41 years. With an average age of 22, the title winning side of 1956 were labelled the Busby Babes by the media. In 1957, Manchester United became the first English team to compete in the European Cup, despite objections from The Football League, who had denied Chelsea the same opportunity the previous season
The company is headquartered near Beaverton, Oregon, in the Portland metropolitan area. It is one of the worlds largest suppliers of athletic shoes and apparel, as of 2012, it employed more than 44,000 people worldwide. In 2014 the brand alone was valued at $19 billion, making it the most valuable brand among sports businesses. The company was founded on January 25,1964, as Blue Ribbon Sports, by Bill Bowerman and Phil Knight, the company takes its name from Nike, the Greek goddess of victory. Nike also owned Bauer Hockey between 1995 and 2008, and previously owned Cole Haan and Umbro, in addition to manufacturing sportswear and equipment, the company operates retail stores under the Niketown name. Nike sponsors many high-profile athletes and sports teams around the world, with the highly recognized trademarks of Just Do It, Nike, originally known as Blue Ribbon Sports, was founded by University of Oregon track athlete Phil Knight and his coach Bill Bowerman in January 1964. The company initially operated as a distributor for Japanese shoe maker Onitsuka Tiger, says Davis, I told Tom Brokaw that I was the first. I dont care all the billionaires say. Bill Bowerman made the first pair of shoes for me, in fact, I didnt like the way they felt on my feet. There was no support and they were too tight, but I saw Bowerman make them from the waffle iron, and they were mine. In 1964, in its first year in business, BRS sold 1,300 pairs of Japanese running shoes grossing $8,000, by 1965 the fledgling company had acquired a full-time employee, and sales had reached $20,000. In 1967, due to increasing sales, BRS expanded retail and distribution operations on the East Coast, in Wellesley. By 1971, the relationship between BRS and Onitsuka Tiger was nearing an end, BRS prepared to launch its own line of footwear, which would bear the Swoosh newly designed by Carolyn Davidson. The Swoosh was first used by Nike on June 18,1971, patent and Trademark Office on January 22,1974. In 1976, the company hired John Brown and Partners, based in Seattle, the following year, the agency created the first brand ad for Nike, called There is no finish line, in which no Nike product was shown. By 1980, Nike had attained a 50% market share in the U. S. athletic shoe market, together, Nike and Wieden+Kennedy have created many print and television advertisements, and Wieden+Kennedy remains Nikes primary ad agency. Walt Stack was featured in Nikes first Just Do It advertisement, wieden credits the inspiration for the slogan to Lets do it, the last words spoken by Gary Gilmore before he was executed. Throughout the 1980s, Nike expanded its line to encompass many sports
Guy Stuart Ritchie is an English filmmaker known for his crime films. He left secondary school and got jobs in the film industry in the mid-1990s. Ritchie eventually graduated to directing commercials and he directed his first film in 1995, a 20-minute short which impressed investors who backed his first feature film, the crime comedy Lock, Stock and Two Smoking Barrels. He then directed another comedy, Snatch. His next two films, the romantic comedy Swept Away and the crime drama Revolver were not commercial or critical successes, the next crime drama, RocknRolla, received mixed reviews and a modest box office return. In 2009, he directed his first films in the mystery genre, with Sherlock Holmes and its sequel Sherlock Holmes. Both films were box office successes, and the two films received positive, and moderately positive reviews, respectively. Ritchie has also directed the movie King Arthur, Legend of the Sword, Ritchie was born in Hatfield, Hertfordshire, the second of two children of Amber and Captain John Vivian Ritchie, former Seaforth Highlanders serviceman and advertising executive. Johns father was Major Stewart Ritchie, who died in France, in 1940, johns mother was Doris Margaretta McLaughlin, daughter of Vivian Guy McLaughlin and Edith Martineau, this last by whom she shares close common ancestors with Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge. The McLaughlins have a going back to King Edward I of England. Ritchies mother, Amber, later married a baronet and his fathers second marriage was to Shireen Ritchie, Baroness Ritchie of Brompton, a former model and later Conservative politician and life peer. Ritchie, who is dyslexic, was expelled from Stanbridge Earls School at the age of 15. He has stated that use was the reason for the expulsion, his father has said that it was because his son was caught cutting class. In addition to his elder sister Tabitha, an instructor, Ritchie has a half-brother, Kevin Baynton. From 1973 until 1980, when they divorced, Ritchies mother was married to Sir Michael Leighton, as a divorcée, she is correctly styled as Amber, Lady Leighton. In 1998, Ritchie and his father contacted their friend Peter Morton, of the Hard Rock Cafe chain, mortons nephew, Matthew Vaughn, had been studying film production in Los Angeles. Peter informed Vaughn of Ritchies new film idea, and Vaughn agreed to produce, Matthew, John, Guy and Peter asked their mutual acquaintance, Trudie Styler, to invest in the production of Ritchies second film. Styler had seen The Hard Case, and decided that co-funding the project would be a worthwhile opportunity, the production of the film, Lock, Stock and Two Smoking Barrels was completed in about eight months
Wayne Mark Rooney is an English professional footballer who plays for and captains both Manchester United and the England national team. He has played much of his career as a forward, and he is the record goalscorer for the England national team and for Manchester United. Aged nine, Rooney joined the team of Everton, for whom he made his professional debut in 2002 at the age of 16. He spent two seasons at the Merseyside club, before moving to Manchester United for £25.6 million in the 2004 summer transfer window, in September 2013, Rooney scored his 200th goal for Manchester United. He is currently on 250 goals in all competitions which makes him the top goalscorer of all time. His 195 Premier League goals make him the second top scorer of all time. Rooney holds the record for most goals for one club in the Premier League, Rooney made his senior international debut in February 2003 aged 17, becoming the youngest player to represent England and he is Englands youngest ever goalscorer. He played at UEFA Euro 2004 and scored four goals, briefly becoming the youngest goalscorer in the history of the European Championship, Rooney has since featured at the 2006,2010 and 2014 World Cups and is widely regarded as his countrys best player. He has won the England Player of the Year award four times, with 53 goals in 118 international caps, Rooney is Englands all-time record goalscorer and second most-capped player, behind Peter Shilton. Along with David Beckham, Rooney is the most red carded player for England, in 2009–10, Rooney was awarded the PFA Players Player of the Year and the FWA Footballer of the Year. He has won the Premier League Player of the Month award five times and he came fifth in the vote for the 2011 FIFA Ballon dOr and was named in the FIFPro World 11 for 2011. Rooney was born in Croxteth, Liverpool, to Jeanette Marie and he is of Irish descent and was brought up as a Roman Catholic with younger brothers Graham and John, all three attended Our Lady and St Swithins primary school and De La Salle School. Rooney began playing for Liverpool Schoolboys and scored 72 goals in one season, at age nine, Rooney played for Copplehouse boys club in the local Walton and Kirkdale junior league and scored 99 goals in his final season before being spotted by Everton scout Bob Pendleton. Rooney joined Everton at age nine, and was the Everton mascot for the Merseyside derby against Liverpool as an 11-year-old. In the 1995–96 season, he scored 114 goals in 29 games for Evertons under-10s and 11s and he scored eight goals in eight games during Evertons run to the FA Youth Cup final in 2002. This included one goal in the defeat against Aston Villa and, upon scoring, he revealed a T-shirt that read, Once a Blue. Rooney was included in Evertons first team squad for their camp in Austria in the summer of 2002. Rooney was a substitute in Evertons 1–0 away win over Southampton on 20 April 2002
Cristiano Ronaldo dos Santos Aveiro, ComM, GOIH is a Portuguese professional footballer who plays for Spanish club Real Madrid and the Portugal national team. He primarily plays as a forward, but has also deployed as a winger. In 2008, he won his first Ballon dOr and FIFA World Player of the Year awards, Ronaldo then won the FIFA Ballon dOr in 2013 and 2014. In 2016, he received his fourth Ballon dOr, the most for a European player in the history of the award, in 2015, Ronaldo scored his 500th senior career goal for club and country. He is the player to win four European Golden Shoe awards. One of the most marketable athletes in sport, in 2016 Forbes named Ronaldo the worlds best paid athlete, in June 2016, ESPN ranked him the worlds most famous athlete. Ronaldo began his club career playing for Sporting CP, before signing with Manchester United at age 18 in 2003. After winning his first trophy, the FA Cup, during his first season in England, by age 23, he had received Ballon dOr and FIFA World Player of the Year nominations. He was the subject of the most expensive association football transfer when he moved from Manchester United to Real Madrid in 2009 in a transfer worth €94 million. In Spain, he has won one La Liga title. Ronaldo holds the record for most goals scored in a single UEFA Champions League season, in 2014, Ronaldo became the fastest player to score 200 goals in La Liga, which he accomplished in his 178th La Liga game. He is the player in the history of football to score more than 50 goals in a season on six consecutive occasions. In 2015, Ronaldo became the top goalscorer in the UEFA Champions League. He is the second highest goalscorer in La Liga history behind Lionel Messi, Ronaldo made his international debut for Portugal in August 2003, at the age of 18. He is Portugals most capped player of all time with over 130 caps and he is the first Portuguese player to reach 50 international goals, making him Portugals all-time top goalscorer. He scored his first international goal in Euro 2004 and helped Portugal reach the final and he took over captaincy in July 2008, and he led Portugal to the semi-finals at Euro 2012, finishing the competition as joint-top scorer. In November 2014, Ronaldo became the top scorer in the UEFA European Championship with 23 goals. Ronaldo lifted the trophy after Portugal defeated France in the final, Ronaldo was born in Santo António, a neighbourhood of Funchal, Madeira, the youngest child of Maria Dolores dos Santos Aveiro, a cook, and José Dinis Aveiro, a municipal gardener
Carlos Alberto Martínez Tevez is an Argentine professional footballer who plays as a forward for Shanghai Shenhua and the Argentina national team. His energy, skill, and goal scoring rate have made him a player for his club sides throughout his career, in the eyes of fellow players. Tevez began his career with Boca Juniors, winning the Copa Libertadores, in 2006 he moved to West Ham United, helping the team remain in the Premier League in his only season. Tevez transferred to Manchester United in 2007 and in his two years won several trophies including two league titles and the Champions League, in 2009, he joined Manchester City for £47 million, becoming the first player to move between the two rival clubs since Terry Cooke in 1999. Despite missing four months of the 2011–12 season following a dispute, in 2013, he joined Juventus for £12 million, finishing as the teams top goalscorer and winning the Scudetto in his first season. Since his debut for Argentina in 2005, Tevez has over 75 caps, a gold medal winner at the 2004 Olympics, he also played at two World Cups, a Confederations Cup, and four Copa América tournaments. Tevez was born Carlos Alberto Martínez by his mothers surname in Ciudadela, Buenos Aires Province and it was from there that he got the nickname of El Apache. His biological parents were Juan Alberto Cabral and Fabiana Trina Martínez and he was adopted by his mothers sister Adriana Noemí Martínez and her husband Segundo Raimundo Tévez. His adopted parents changed his surname to his adopted fathers during a conflict between his junior club All Boys and Boca Juniors, Tevez has a distinctive burn scar that runs down his neck from his right ear to his chest. He was accidentally scalded with boiling water as a child, which caused third-degree burns and kept him hospitalised in intensive care for nearly two months. After joining Boca Juniors, Tevez refused an offer from the club to have them cosmetically improved, saying that the scars were a part of who he was in the past and who he is today. Aged 16, Tevez made his debut for Boca Juniors against Talleres de Córdoba in the during the Torneo Apertura of the 2001–02 Argentine Primera División and he went on to score 1 goal in 11 league appearances in the 2001–02 season. Boca had finished in 1st place of their 2002 Copa Libertadores group and had reached the quarter-final stage, where they faced Paraguays Club Olimpia. Tevez scored after 18 minutes in the first-leg to give Boca Juniors a 1–0 lead, until Olimpia levelled the scores in the 67th minute when Boca defender Cristian Traverso scored an own goal, Boca lost the second-leg 1–0 in Asunción on 16 May. Boca finished three points behind Independiente to finish in second position during the Torneo Apertura, Boca Juniors eventually finished four points behind River Plate to claim second position in the Torneo Clausura. Tevez scored 10 goals in 32 appearances for Boca during the 2002–03 season, during the 2002 Copa Sudamericana, Boca were eliminated 3–1 on aggregate by Gimnasia de La Plata in the first-round. Boca Juniors participated at the 2003 Copa Libertadores and reached the final of the competition, Boca won 5–1 on aggregate, with Tevez scoring in Bocas 3–1 away win in the second-leg. Tevez was also voted as the tournaments best player, Tevez scored 12 goals in 23 appearances during the 2003–04 season
Camp Nou is a football stadium in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. It has been the home of FC Barcelona since its completion in 1957, with a seating capacity of 99,354, it is the largest stadium in Spain, also the largest in Europe and the third largest association football stadium in the world in terms of capacity. The construction of Camp Nou started on 28 March 1954 as Barcelonas previous stadium, although originally planned to be called Estadi del FC Barcelona, the more popular name Camp Nou was used. The June 1950 signing of László Kubala, regarded as one of Barcelonas greatest players, the architects were Francesc Mitjans and Josep Soteras, with the collaboration of Lorenzo García-Barbón. In May 1972, Camp Nou hosted its first European Cup Winners Cup final between Rangers and Dynamo Moscow, Rangers won the match with a score of 3–2. The 1970s marked a point for Barcelona with the signing of a new player, Johan Cruyff. Electronic scoreboards were installed in the two years later.60 meters compared to the original design of 52.50 meters. FC Barcelonas record attendance was set on 5 March 1986 in the European Cup quarter final against Juventus in front of 120,000 spectators, Camp Nou was one of several stadiums used throughout the 1982 World Cup, hosting the inauguration ceremony on 13 June. It also hosted matches in that tournament than any of the 16 other stadiums used all over Spain, including the opening match. In front of 95,000, Belgium upset the defending champions Argentina 1–0 in that opening match, the stadium’s capacity has varied greatly over the years, opening at 106,146, but growing to 121,749 for the 1982 FIFA World Cup. Apart from hosting FC Barcelona, Camp Nou is home to the Catalan national team, the stadium is frequently used for other football events. The European Cup final between Milan and Steaua Bucureşti was held on 24 May 1989, with the Italian club winning 4–0, Camp Nou hosted part of the football competition, including the final, in the 1992 Summer Olympics. In preparation for games, two additional tiers of seating were installed over the previous roof-line. Camp Nou underwent little change after 1982, except for the opening of the museum in 1984. A new press box, renovation of the grandstand and boxes, new parking under the main grandstand. In 1999 the UEFA outlawed standing sections in stadiums, and Camp Nou’s capacity settled to its current level, the stadium hosted the 1999 UEFA Champions League Final later that year where Manchester United played Bayern Munich. United won 2–1, coming back from 0–1 down in injury time, during 1998–99, UEFA rated Camp Nou a five-star stadium for its services and functionalities. However, as per the 2010 regulations, UEFA does not publish a list of the top venues, in 2000, fans were polled concerning the stadium’s name
Founded as a Roman city, in the Middle Ages Barcelona became the capital of the County of Barcelona. Barcelona has a cultural heritage and is today an important cultural centre. Particularly renowned are the works of Antoni Gaudí and Lluís Domènech i Montaner. The headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean is located in Barcelona, the city is known for hosting the 1992 Summer Olympics as well as world-class conferences and expositions and also many international sport tournaments. It is a cultural and economic centre in southwestern Europe, 24th in the world. In 2008 it was the fourth most economically powerful city by GDP in the European Union, in 2012 Barcelona had a GDP of $170 billion, it is leading Spain in both employment rate and GDP per capita change. In 2009 the city was ranked Europes third and one of the worlds most successful as a city brand, since 2011 Barcelona has been a leading smart city in Europe. During the Middle Ages, the city was known as Barchinona, Barçalona, Barchelonaa. Internationally, Barcelonas name is abbreviated to Barça. However, this refers only to FC Barcelona, the football club. The common abbreviated form used by locals is Barna, another common abbreviation is BCN, which is also the IATA airport code of the Barcelona-El Prat Airport. The city is referred to as the Ciutat Comtal in Catalan. The origin of the earliest settlement at the site of present-day Barcelona is unclear, the ruins of an early settlement have been excavated in the El Raval neighbourhood, including different tombs and dwellings dating to earlier than 5000 BC. The founding of Barcelona is the subject of two different legends, the first attributes the founding of the city to the mythological Hercules. In about 15 BC, the Romans redrew the town as a castrum centred on the Mons Taber, under the Romans, it was a colony with the surname of Faventia, or, in full, Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta Pia Barcino or Colonia Julia Augusta Faventia Paterna Barcino. It enjoyed immunity from imperial burdens, the city minted its own coins, some from the era of Galba survive. Some remaining fragments of the Roman walls have incorporated into the cathedral. The cathedral, also known as the Basilica La Seu, is said to have founded in 343
The Emirates Stadium is a football stadium in Holloway, London, England, and the home of Arsenal Football Club. With a capacity of over 60,000, it is the third-largest football stadium in England after Wembley, in 1997, Arsenal explored the possibility of relocating to a new stadium, having been denied planning permission by Islington Council to expand its home ground of Highbury. After considering various options, the club bought an industrial and waste disposal estate in Ashburton Grove in 2000. A year later won the councils approval to build a stadium on the site. Relocation began in 2002, but financial difficulties delayed work until February 2004, Emirates Airlines was later announced as the main sponsor for the stadium. The whole stadium project was completed in 2006 at a cost of £390 million, the clubs former stadium was redeveloped as Highbury Square for an additional £130 million. The stadium has undergone a process of Arsenalisation since 2009 with the aim of restoring Arsenals heritage, the ground has hosted international fixtures and music concerts. In response to the Hillsborough disaster of April 1989, an inquiry led by Lord Taylor of Gosforth was launched into crowd safety at sports grounds, finalised in January 1990, the Taylor Report recommended terraces be replaced by seating. Many football clubs, faced with the requirement of making their grounds all-seater by the start of the 1994–95 season, had sought ways of raising income for converted terraced areas. Arsenal at the end of the 1990–91 season introduced a bond scheme, the board felt this was the only viable option after considering other proposals, they did not want to compromise on their traditions, nor limit manager George Grahams resources. At a price of between £1,000 to £1,500, the 150-year bond was criticised by supporters, a campaign directed by the Independent Arsenal Supporters Association brought relative success as only a third of all bonds were sold. The North Bank was the last area of Highbury to be refurbished and it opened in August 1993 at a cost of £20 million. The rework significantly reduced the capacity, from 57,000 at the beginning of the decade to under 40,000. High ticket prices to serve the existing debts and low attendance figures forced Arsenal to explore the possibility of building a larger stadium in 1997. The club wanted to attract a fanbase and financially compete with the biggest clubs in England. Manchester United by comparison enjoyed a rise in gate receipts from £43.9 million in 1994 to £87.9 million in 1997, Arsenals initial proposal to rebuild Highbury was met with disapproval from local residents, as it required the demolition of 25 neighbouring houses. It soon became problematic once the East Stand of the stadium was granted Grade II listing in July 1997, after much consultation, the club eventually abandoned its plan, deciding a capacity of 48,000 was not big enough. In January 1998, Arsenal investigated the opportunity of relocating to Wembley Stadium, however, the Football Association and the English National Stadium Trust opposed Arsenals offer, stating that it would harm Englands bid for the 2006 FIFA World Cup, though FIFA denied this
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region. Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud. From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a later date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
Altrincham Football Club is a semi-professional football club in Altrincham, Greater Manchester, England. They are currently members of the National League North and play at Moss Lane, the club were established by a Sunday school around 1891 as Rigby Memorial Club. They soon merged with local team, Grapplers, to form Broadheath Football Club. Their first match in the league on 16 September 1893 saw them lose 7–0 to Hulme, after playing at various grounds in Broadheath, Timperley and Altrincham, the club moved to Pollitts Field in 1903, at which point they changed their name to Altrincham. They won the Cheshire Amateur Cup in their first season under the new name and they won the Manchester League again in 1906–07, and moved to their Moss Lane ground in 1910. In 1911 the club joined Division Two of the Lancashire Combination and they finished as runners-up in their first season in the division, only missing out on the title on goal average and earning promotion to Division One. They remained in Division One until World War I, in 1934–35 they reached the first round of the FA Cup for the first time, losing 1–0 at Gainsborough Trinity. After missing out the 1945–46 season, they rejoined the Cheshire County League in 1946, achieving little success until the 1960s, when Altrincham director Noel White hired Freddie Pye as manager. A key turning point in the history of the club is often cited as the signing of Jackie Swindells in 1965, helping Altrincham to the first of back-to-back Cheshire County League titles, scoring over 120 goals in the league in both seasons. After finishing as runners-up in 1967–68, they were members of the Northern Premier League in 1968. The following season went one better in the FA Trophy, reaching the Wembley final. In 1978–79 they finished as runners-up in the Northern Premier League, although they finished as the top non-League club in the ballot, they received only 13 votes to the 37 received by Halifax Town, the lowest-placed Football League club. The leagues inaugural season saw Altrincham crowned champions, the next two seasons saw the club finish in mid-table, together with another FA Trophy final appearance in 1981–82, this time losing 1–0 to Enfield. This was followed by four consecutive top-five finishes between 1984 and 1987 and a second FA Trophy win in 1985, beating Runcorn 1–0 in the final. The 1985–86 season saw them one of the biggest FA Cup giant-killings of all time when they defeated top division Birmingham City 2–1 at Birminghams St Andrews. The club then returned to mid-table with occasional successful seasons, finishing third in 1990–91, after finishing bottom of the Conference in 1996–97 the club were relegated to the Premier Division of the Northern Premier League. An eighth-place finish in 1997–98 saw them return to the Conference two seasons later as Premier Division champions, however, they lasted only a single season in the Conference as they finished second-from-bottom and were relegated back to the Northern Premier League. A twelfth-place finish in 2003–04 saw them qualify for the newly formed Conference North and they finished fifth in the new division in its first season, qualifying for the promotion play-offs
Moss Lane is a multi-purpose stadium in Altrincham, Greater Manchester, England. It is currently used mostly for football matches and is the ground of Altrincham. It is also used for cup matches in the Timperley. The stadium comprises two all-seater stands on one side with a capacity of 1,323 spectators and terraces on the other three sides, giving a total capacity of 6,085. The Duncan Watmore Memorial Sports Hall was built in 2015, funded by the transfer of Duncan Watmore to Sunderland for £6.2 million, chorley Borough RLFC moved to Moss Lane for the 1989–90 season and renamed themselves Trafford Borough RLFC. Trafford Borough played at Moss Lane for three seasons before moving to Blackpool as Blackpool Gladiators RLFC for the 1992–93 season
Hollyoaks is a British soap opera, first broadcast on Channel 4 on 23 October 1995. It was originally devised by Phil Redmond, who had conceived the Channel 4 soap Brookside. The programme is set in a suburb of Chester called Hollyoaks. It is mostly filmed and produced in Childwall, Liverpool, although nearby locations are sometimes used, beginning with a cast of just seven major characters in 1995, the serial now has approximately 50 main cast members. Hollyoaks has a high cast turnover in comparison with other British soaps, as of May 2014 and it is also popular around the world. The longest-serving cast member is Nick Pickard, who has played Tony Hutchinson since the first episode in 1995, current producer Bryan Kirkwood originally joined the show in 2006, but left three years later to become producer of EastEnders. After he left his role in 2009, a number of worked on the show, resulting in a number of creative reinventions. Emma Smithwick later replaced Philips in Autumn 2011, in late September 2012, it was announced that Bryan Kirkwood would be returning to Hollyoaks, replacing Emma Smithwick. The programme celebrated 20 years on Channel 4 in October 2015, by the 2000s, Hollyoaks had developed a substantial fan base and was seen as a vibrant, modern and young persons soap. In 2002, creator Phil Redmond considered withdrawing his programme from airing, Hollyoaks is produced by Lime Pictures and is filmed mainly at studios in Childwall, Liverpool. The first-look is reshown on timeshift channel E4 +1 at 20.00, the first-look is occasionally omitted, primarily if the following days C4 episode is a special or event edition, and on these occasions may be replaced with a related programme or special. In 2010, series producer Lucy Allan announced she was to step down from the series only a year. Speaking of her decision, Allan stated, I am very proud to have part of the Hollyoaks team. Ive had a time working on this show but am now equally excited about what the future will hold. Im a huge soap fan so to be handed the reins of Channel 4s flagship teen drama is not only a huge challenge and its very exciting to be working with Paul Marquess again. Hes one of the best showrunners in the business and this is a brilliant appointment for Hollyoaks. Only one day after being announced as the new producer, Marquess began work on the soap opera, a Channel 4 spokesperson stated, Its all been a very quick turnaround at the top. In November 2010, a scene was filmed for an episode airing on 19 November 2010 featuring Myra McQueen reference to the engagement of Prince William
Winsford is a town and civil parish within the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England. Many Winsfordians consider the town to be the heart of Cheshire however other towns in Cheshire also claim this title. Kings Henry III and Edward I occasionally held court at Darnhall near Winsford The latter king founded Vale Royal Abbey at Darnhall, but then moved it in 1277 to near Whitegate. A charter to hold a Wednesday market and a fair at Over was granted on 24 November 1280 by Edward I to the Abbot. From this charter can be traced the origins of the market that is held in the town. In 2012, the grant was used to revive an annual fair in Winsford. The Government gave permission for artificial improvements to the River Weaver in 1721 to allow barges to reach Winsford from the port of Liverpool. Cornish china clay was used in the production of earthenware and stoneware, the clay was taken overland from Winsford by pack horse to manufacturers in the Potteries, a distance of about 30 miles. Locally produced salt was transported to the Potteries, for use in the manufacture of salt-glazed stoneware. Finished ceramics from the Potteries were brought back to Winsford, for export through the port of Liverpool and that trade ended in the 1780s when the Trent and Mersey Canal opened and carried the goods through Middlewich, bypassing Winsford. From the 1830s, salt became important to Winsford, partly because the mines under Northwich had begun to collapse. A new source was discovered in Winsford, leading to the development of an industry along the course of the River Weaver. As a result, a new town developed within 1 mi of the old Borough of Over which had focused on Delamere Street. Most of the development took place on the other side of the river, with new housing, shops, pubs, chapels. As the prevailing winds blew the smoke away from Over, it became the place for the inhabitants to live. However, barge workers and others working in Winsford started to develop the area along the old Over Lane, the old Borough tried to keep itself separate but had been connected by the 1860s. By the World War II, employment in the trade had declined as one company took control of all the salt works. Slum clearance started in the 1930s and, by the 1950s three new housing estates had been built on both sides of the river to replace sub-standard homes
Stafford Rangers F.C.
The team wear black and white stripes with black shorts. Stafford Rangers rivals include Tamworth, Hednesford Town, Burton Albion, despite extensive research, no one has been able to prove conclusively when Stafford Rangers was actually formed, as early minute books were destroyed during the First World War. Rangers early matches were cup games and friendlies, with the reaching the FA Cup First Round in both 1884–85 and 1885–86. The club then had spells in the Shropshire League, Birmingham League and North Staffordshire League up to the turn of the century, and moved to their present Marston Road home in 1896. In 1900–01 Stafford rejoined the Birmingham League and in 1904–05 had an FA Cup run to the last Qualifying Round bowing out in a replay at Second Division Blackpool. They were demoted to the Birmingham Combination in 1912 but won the championship at the first attempt, Rangers won the Birmingham League title in 1926–27, twice finished runners-up and were twice third in five memorable seasons. During this period a total of 542 league goals were scored with striker Eddie Cameron regularly scoring goals, during April 1935 a successful appeal for £100 to pay creditors enabled the club to survive. When war broke out in 1939, Rangers participated in an emergency Birmingham League during the 1939–40 season, finishing as runners-up, after the Second World War the club reformed and played in the Birmingham Combination for six seasons, achieving a highest position of 6th in 1950–51. With a view to progress, Rangers joined the Cheshire County Football League in 1952, however, Rangers spell in the Cheshire Football League was generally one of struggle and during the early sixties financial difficulties again threatened the clubs existence. There were, however, some results, including the seven goals scored by Les Box in an 11–0 FA Cup victory over Dudley Town during September 1957. In 1965, the appointment of Colin Hutchinson as manager started an improvement, Rangers won the 1967–68 Cheshire League Cup and following season finished as Cheshire League runners-up to earn a place in the Northern Premier League. The seventies were the most successful era in the clubs history, however, they failed to gain election to the Football League, and have never since finished high enough to enter the Football League. The home Third Round tie with Rotherham attracted a record of 8,536 people to Marston Road. After Chapman had departed to manage League club Stockport County, Rangers were again at Wembley Stadium in 1975–76 for their second FA Trophy Final, roy Chapman returned as manager and success continued with a second FA Trophy Final win in 1979, this time against Kettering Town. After four seasons Rangers were relegated to the Northern Premier League and this form continued, but with the appointment of Ron Reid as manager during the 1983–84 season as manager the club soon began to rebuild its reputation and won the 1984–85 League title. Back in the Alliance, the Bob Lord Trophy, Jim Thompson Shield, during the late eighties and early nineties, Rangers struggled in the Conference, with six managers in seven seasons following Reids departure in May 1988. The sale of striker Stan Collymore to Crystal Palace in December 1990 for a substantial six-figure fee stands out in this period, under the management of Dennis Booth, Rangers enjoyed a tremendous 1992–93 campaign. In the league they finished 6th and reached the FA Cup Second Round, after Booth departed for Bristol Rovers, Rangers found success difficult to achieve and were relegated from the Conference to the Southern League Premier Division at the end of the 1994–95 season
National League North
The National League North, formerly Conference North, is a division of the National League in England, taking its place immediately below the top division National League. Along with the National League South, it is at Step 2 of the National League System and it consists of teams located in Northern England, Norfolk, the English Midlands and North Wales. From the start of the 2015–16 season, the league has been known as the National League North, as part of a sponsorship deal with Vanarama, the National League North is now known as the Vanarama National League North. The Conference North was introduced in 2004 as part of a restructuring of English non-League football. The champions are promoted to the National League. A second promotion place goes to the winners of play-offs involving the teams finishing in second to fifth place, the three bottom clubs are relegated to Step 3 leagues. Teams from this division, as well as from the National League South, for sponsorship reasons, the division was known as the Nationwide North from its formation in 2004 until 2007, when it was renamed the Blue Square North. In 2010 it was renamed the Blue Square Bet North, when Blue Square sponsorship ended in 2013, it was renamed the Skrill North until the 2014–15 season, when it was renamed the Vanarama North. A further name change followed in 2015, when the division was renamed the Vanarama National League North
Lincoln City F.C.
Lincoln City Football Club is a professional association football club based in the city of Lincoln, Lincolnshire. The club participates in the National League, the tier of English football. The club plays at the 10, 312-capacity Sincil Bank, and are nicknamed the Imps after the legend of the Lincoln Imp and they have also been known as the Red Imps. Traditionally they play in red and white striped shirts with shorts and red. Their most recent championship win was the Football Conference, in the 1987–88 season. This season saw the set a all-time record attendance for a Conference match, attracting 9,432 spectators in a 2–0 win against Wycombe Wanderers, on 2 May 1988. The game also decided the championship, as beforehand Lincoln had not occupied the top spot at any point in the season, the clubs highest-ever position is fifth in the Second Division in 1901–02. They have not been higher than the third tier since 1960–61 and their best performance in the League Cup came in 1967–68, when they reached the fourth round before losing 0–3 at home to Derby County in a replay. Lincoln have reached the play-offs of the Third Division/League Two in five seasons, from 2002–03 to 2006–07, losing in the final twice. This failure to succeed in five consecutive play-off competitions is also a record, having formed officially as an amateur association in 1884 after the disbanding of Lincoln Rovers, football in the city of Lincoln had been prominent since the 1860s. George Hallam set two records for the club that day and he scored the first ever goal for the club, and also the first ever hat-trick. Their first competitive game at home ended in an emphatic manner, beating Boston Excelsior 11–0. It was at time, before the club gained entry into the Football League and professional status. They won it for the first time in the 1886–87 season with a 2–0 replay victory over neighbours Grimsby Town F. C. after the match had finished 2–2. Lincoln soon helped to form what was then the Second Division in 1892–93 season and their first game in the Football League was a 4–2 away defeat to Sheffield United on 3 September 1892. Their first home game was also against Sheffield United, this time, however, the first game at Sincil Bank in 1895, after moving from the John OGaunts Ground due to Dawbers death, was a 0–0 friendly draw with local rivals, Gainsborough Trinity. The first competitive fixture at the ground was against Arsenal, the game ended 1–1, in January 1907 The Imps knocked Chelsea out of the FA Cup after a replay. Managed by David Calderhead, two goals salvaged a home draw in the first leg
Marston Road (Stafford)
Marston Road is a football ground in Stafford, England. It is the ground of Stafford Rangers F. C. a semi-professional team who play in the Northern Premier League. Stafford Rangers have played at Marston Road for over 110 years, the first competitive game at the ground was on Saturday 5 September 1896, a North Staffordshire League fixture against Dresden United Reserves. Players changed in a club room at the Albion Hotel before crossing the road to what was then referred to as the Albion Ground. During 1920 the ground was purchased when Rangers became a limited company, two years later the club hit financial difficulties and the ground was mortgaged for £500, but worse followed, for in 1929 fire destroyed part of it. During the war Marston Road fell into disrepair but was renovated by Supporters Club members ready for use at the start of the 1946/47 season and it remained more or less unchanged until an upturn in playing fortunes during the late sixties saw the launch of a floodlighting fund. £6,000 was raised and on Monday 5 September 1969 a crowd of 3,045 watched the official opener against Port Vale. The seventies saw the ground develop to its current status with a new seated stand to replace the old stand which stood along the Marston Road side. The stand was used for the last time the following month, the next significant work at Marston Road was the building of the new dressing room block and office complex which was officially opened in December 1977 following a match with Stoke City. New terrace steps were constructed at the Social Club end of the ground during the 1988 close season, when the new Board of Directors took over in 1997, work was carried out to tidy up the ground and the Social Club was extended. During the 2005/06 season, the floodlights were replaced and the capacity of the stand was increased to over 500 seats. 530 seats in a stand which sits on the half way line. The blue seats now in place were bought from Leicester Citys doomed Main Stand, either side of the stand lies shallow terracing. Small terrace stand that runs the length of the pitch with old wooden roof supports that according to date back to before the First World War. The traditional gathering point for the vocal parts of Rangers support. The Shed End is said to have ability to suck a goal in as other supporter strongholds such as Manchester Uniteds Stretford End. The Shed End was knocked down, and a new 2, 000-seat stand erected by 4 April 2007, when it was tested by the Conference Safety Officers. In May 2009 the 2,000 seated temporary Shed End stand was taken away, with crowds set to average just over 525 in the season back in the Conference North