Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, she inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held little direct political power. Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840, their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire, she was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III; until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children.
In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower; the Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace, she was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, the Prince Regent. At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent; the Prince Regent had no surviving children, the Duke of York had no children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants.
The first of these was Princess Charlotte, born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820. A week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line; the Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, Victoria became heir presumptive; the Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. Victoria described her childhood as "rather melancholy".
Her mother was protective, Victoria was raised isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, rumoured to be the Duchess's lover. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable, was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them; the Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash, her lessons included French, German and Latin, but she spoke only English at home. In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. Similar journeys to oth
Castle Cornet is a large island castle in Guernsey, former tidal island known as Cornet Rock or Castle Rock. Its importance was as a defence not only of the roadstead, it became part of one of the breakwaters of St Peter Port's harbour, the main one in the island, in 1859. The island measures about 2 hectares in area, with a width of 130 metres, it lies not quite 600 metres east of the coast of Guernsey. A tidal island, like Lihou on the west coast of Guernsey, it was first fortified as a castle between 1206 and 1256, following the division of the Duchy of Normandy in 1204; the wardenship of Geoffrey de Lucy has been identified as a time of fortification in the Channel Islands: timber and lead was sent from England for castle building in Guernsey and Jersey. At that time the structure consisted of a keep, two courtyards and curtain walls. In 1338, when a French force captured the island, Cornet was besieged, was captured on 8 September; the garrison of eleven men at arms and fifty archers were massacred.
The island was retaken in 1340 and the castle was recaptured in August 1345 after a three-day attack by professional soldiers and the local militia. The French had spent their seven-year occupation improving the defences, including the barbican. In 1358 the French returned and the castle was taken again, but they were evicted the following year and an island traitor was executed. In 1372 Owain Lawgoch, a claimant to the Welsh throne, leading a free company on behalf of France, attacked Guernsey in an assault popularly called “La Descente des Aragousais”. Owain Lawgoch withdrew after killing 400 of the Island militia, without capturing the besieged Castle Cornet, which he found strong and well supplied with artillery. In yet another assault by the French in 1380 the castle was again captured for a short period, before the French were once more evicted by island forces. In the early fifteenth century improvements were made: the Carey tower was constructed around 1435. A French assault in 1461 was repulsed.
The construction costs for works, repairs and the garrison were met from revenues raised in the Island by the Warden under royal warrant. With the advent of cannon and gunpowder, the castle was remodelled between 1545 and 1548. In 1547 the French, having captured Sark, descended on Guernsey and were fired on by shipping off St Peter Port and by cannon from the Castle. Additional building works took place. Prof. John Le Patourel, in The Building of Castle Cornet mentions that in 1566 iron and hammers were taken to "Creavissham", that island was quarried for materials for the castle. Sand was brought from Herm. In 1594 the "Royal Battery" was completed, as was the Sutlers house, bastions of improved, polygonal form were constructed. Sir Walter St John drowned whilst staying at the Castle in August 1597. In 1627 King Charles I reduced the Crown's cost of running Castle Cornet by granting additional rights to Guernsey in a Charter, in return for which the Island became responsible for supplying victuals to the castle, including 100 tuns of beer, 600 flitches of bacon, 1,200 pounds of butter, 20 weigh of cheese, 3,000 stockfish, 300 pounds of tallow, twelve bulls and coal, per annum.
During the first and third English Civil Wars, the Castle had four commanders, the castle supported the Royalist cause whilst the Island of Guernsey supported the Parliamentarian cause, Sir Peter Osborne closing the Castle on 14 March 1642. Throughout the siege, the Castle cannon fired on the town of St Peter Port, reducing many buildings and forcing the Royal Court to relocate to Elizabeth College, it is estimated. The island commanders were taken to the castle. Imprisoned in the Carey tower, they made a rope out of flax, escaped from the tower and returned at low tide back to the island. In 1651 the Island of Jersey, Royalist, was taken by Parliamentarian forces. Ensign Nicholas Robert from Saint Martin, Guernsey was with the Parliamentarian forces. While there he recovered the Crown of England that had belonged to Charles I from the Court House in Jersey and brought it back to Guernsey, delivering it to the Governor of Castle Cornet. For nine years the Castle held out, supported from the Royalist Island of Jersey.
Two years after the execution of Charles I, while under the command of Colonel Roger Burges, the Castle surrendered on 17 December 1651. The garrison of 55 were permitted to leave the Island; the royal Crown was returned to London. Castle Cornet was the penultimate Royalist garrison in the British Isles to surrender. Serving as a prison for Civil War parliamentary leader, Colonel John Lambert from 1662 to 1670, it served as official residence of the Governor of Guernsey until 30 December 1672 when the keep was catastrophically destroyed. A bolt of lightning struck the magazine of the castle, destroying the keep and a number of living quarters; the Governor at the time was Lord Hatton. His mother, wife and a number of members of staff were killed in the explosion. Thereafter the Governor of the island would in future live on the island rather than in the Castle; the tower was not rebuilt. The Castle was upgraded with additional barracks, its use as the sole prison in the island ceased with the construction of a prison at St James Street in 1811.
It became integrated into the breakwater from the Island after the war. Along the breakwater, a pond for toy yachts was constructed in 1887 for Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee, this area served as a French seaplane base d
John Bell (British Army officer)
General Sir John Bell was a British soldier and magistrate. At the time of his death, he was the senior general of the British Army. Born at Bonytoun in the county of Fife, he was the son of Janet Duncan. After attending Dundee Academy, he worked first as a merchant and in 1805 entered the British Army as an ensign of the 52nd Regiment of Foot. Bell was known as a witty raconteur, gifted artist and draughtsman, he went to Sicily a year and subsequently took part in the Peninsular War until 1814. During this time, he was decorated with the Army Silver Medal with six clasps and received the Army Gold Cross. Bell was wounded in the Battle of Vimeiro in 1808 and was in the war's last years assistant quartermaster-general. In December 1814, he was transferred with his regiment to the United States and was involved in the Anglo-American War until the beginning of the following year. After his return to England, he was awarded a Companion of the Order of the Bath. Bell was sent to the Cape of Good Hope as deputy quartermaster-general in 1821 and served as chief secretary to the colony's government from 1828.
At that time his nephew Charles Davidson Bell held the post of Surveyor-General in the Cape Colony. He was appointed an aide-de-camp to King William IV of the United Kingdom in 1831 and was promoted to major-general in 1841, he joined the board of general officers in 1847 and was nominated Lieutenant Governor of Guernsey in the following year, holding that office until 1854. Bell took command of the 95th Regiment of Foot in 1850 and became a lieutenant-general in 1851. A year he was advanced to a Knight Commander of the Bath. In 1853, he received colonelship of the 4th Regiment of Foot, a command he held until his death in 1876. Bell was further honoured with the Order's Grand Cross in the 1860 Birthday Honours and was promoted to general in June. In 1821, he married eldest daughter of James Harris, 1st Earl of Malmesbury, his wife was born in a godchild of Empress Catherine I of Russia. She died at Upper Hyde Park Street in London in 1855. Bell survived her, he was interred on Kensal Green Cemetery
13.5 cm K 09
The 13.5 cm Kanone 09 was a heavy breech-loading field artillery gun used by Germany in World War I. Built by Friedrich Krupp AG, in Essen, this gun was intended to supplement the 10 cm K 04. Only four of the sixteen built were in service at the outbreak of the war, it was withdrawn from service in 1915 as it was deemed to be too much gun for too little shell, but it was returned to service in the war when the Allied blockade began to affect German ammunition production. One of these guns was captured during the Battle of the Canal du Nord, on 29 September 1918, by the New Zealand Division. Two battalions of the Wellington Regiment were engaged in this action, part of an Allied attack on the Hindenburg Line. At the end of the war, the captured gun, Nr 4, many other captured German weapons were sent to New Zealand as war trophies. In 1920, Nr 4 was given to the city of Wellington in honor of its soldiers; the gun, believed to be one of a few remaining in existence, is on public display in the Wellington Botanic Garden.
In 1921 the Channel Island of Guernsey received its share of the Allies’ spoils of war, four K09 Kanon. Displayed near Victoria Tower, Guernsey in Saint Peter Port until in 1938 two having badly deteriorated, were scrapped; the remaining two were buried in 1940 before the Island was occupied by German forces. Forgotten about, they are now again on display next to Victoria Tower. Hogg, Ian. Twentieth-Century Artillery. New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 2000 ISBN 0-7607-1994-2 Jäger, Herbert. German Artillery of World War One. Ramsbury, Wiltshire: Crowood Press, 2001 ISBN 1-86126-403-8 Images of the gun in Wellington
Guernsey Fire and Rescue Service
The Guernsey Fire and Rescue Service is the statutory fire and rescue service which deals with a broad range of incidents on Guernsey, including fires, road traffic accidents, assisting property owner after storm damage or flooding and incidents involving hazardous substances. The earliest records show new fire engines delivered from London in 1768; the engine a hand drawn pump, being kept inside the Town Church, being relocated in 1823 to the Glategny Esplanade in Saint Peter Port. It was not until 1873 that a horse drawn manual pump was acquired for use by trained firefighters employed by an insurance company, the "Mutual", housed at Tower Hill, Saint Peter Port. In 1884 the Parish of Saint Peter Port bought the Mutual engine and assumed responsibility and based the engine with a hand cart and ladders at the Town Hospital. Hand pumps were based at Saint Peter Port Harbour and St Sampson's Harbour.1909 saw the acquisition of a motorised fire engine, a Merryweather pump on an Aster chassis, it was named Sarnia and a purpose built fire station was built in Upland Road.
In 1922 the cost was taken over by the States of Guernsey and in 1935 a 1931 Albion Merryweather escape carrier was bought and named Sarmia II. The equipment was relocated in 1935 to the Town Arsenal, buildings used by the Royal Guernsey Militia. Sarnia II is kept at the Guernsey Occupation Museum. In 1939 Guernsey Airport was opened and a Morris Commercial fire truck was supplied, to be manned by airport staff if the need arose. Four Austin trucks were acquired just in time for the bombing of Guernsey and the German occupation of the Channel Islands during which time a German officer commanded the fire brigade, it was in 2005 that the Fire Brigade name was changed to the current Guernsey Fire and Rescue Service. The Fire Service are regulated by, obtain powers from and have duties set out in The Fire Services Law, 1989 as amended; the Fire Service maintain a team of retained firefighters on the island of Herm. There are thirty six trained fire fighters working at Guernsey Airport, forming the Airport Fire Service.
Water Ladder: 11 / 12 / 14 / 17 Fire Fighting Trailer: Herm Whiskey Heavy Rescue Tender: 23 Water Tank: Herm Echo Turntable Ladder: 22 Foam/Water Carrier: 20 / 21 Command Support Unit: 26 Co Response Unit: Victor Romeo Guernsey Ambulance and Rescue Service States of Guernsey Police Service Saint Peter Port Lifeboat Station Official website
The Channel Islands are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy. They include two Crown dependencies: the Bailiwick of Jersey, the largest of the islands, they are considered the remnants of the Duchy of Normandy and, although they are not part of the United Kingdom, the UK is responsible for the defence and international relations of the islands. The Crown dependencies are not members of the European Union, they have a total population of about 164,541, the bailiwicks' capitals, Saint Helier and Saint Peter Port, have populations of 33,500 and 18,207, respectively. The total area of the islands is 198 km2. "Channel Islands" is a geographical term, not a political unit. The two bailiwicks have been administered separately since the late 13th century; each has its own independent laws and representative bodies. Any institution common to both is the exception rather than the rule; the Bailiwick of Guernsey is divided into three jurisdictions – Guernsey and Sark – each with its own legislature.
Although there are a few pan-island institutions, these tend to be established structurally as equal projects between Guernsey and Jersey. Otherwise, entities proclaiming membership of both Guernsey and Jersey might in fact be from one bailiwick only, for instance the Channel Islands Securities Exchange is in Saint Peter Port; the term "Channel Islands" began to be used around 1830 first by the Royal Navy as a collective name for the islands. The term refers only the archipelago to the west of the Cotentin Peninsula; the Isle of Wight, for example, is not a "Channel Island". The two major islands are Guernsey, they make up 92 % of the area. The permanently inhabited islands of the Channel Islands and their population and area are: Jersey 100,080 Guernsey 63,026 Alderney 2,000 Sark 600 Herm 60 Jethou 3 Brecqhou There are several uninhabited islets. Four are part of the Bailiwick of Jersey: The Minquiers Écréhous Les Dirouilles Les Pierres de Lecq These lie off Alderney: Burhou Casquets Ortac RenonquetThese lie off Guernsey: Caquorobert Crevichon Grande Amfroque Les Houmets Lihou The names of the larger islands in the archipelago in general have the -ey suffix, whilst those of the smaller ones have the -hou suffix.
These are believed to be from holmr. The Chausey Islands south of Jersey are not included in the geographical definition of the Channel Islands but are described in English as'French Channel Islands' in view of their French jurisdiction, they were linked to the Duchy of Normandy, but they are part of the French territory along with continental Normandy, not part of the British Isles or of the Channel Islands in a political sense. They are an incorporated part of the commune of Granville. While they are popular with visitors from France, Channel Islanders visit them as there are no direct transport links from the other islands. In official Jersey French, the islands are called'Îles de la Manche', while in France, the term'Îles Anglo-normandes' is used to refer to the British'Channel Islands' in contrast to other islands in the Channel. Chausey is referred to as an'Île normande'.'Îles Normandes' and'Archipel Normand' have historically, been used in Channel Island French to refer to the islands as a whole.
The large tidal variation provides an environmentally rich inter-tidal zone around the islands, some islands such as Burhou, the Écréhous, the Minquiers have been designated Ramsar sites. The waters around the islands include the following: The Swinge The Little Swinge La Déroute Le Raz Blanchard, or Race of Alderney The Great Russel The Little Russel Souachehouais Le Gouliot La Percée The highest point in the islands is Les Platons in Jersey at 143 metres above sea level; the lowest point is the English Channel. The earliest evidence of human occupation of the Channel Islands has been dated to 250,000 years ago when they were attached to the landmass of continental Europe; the islands became detached by rising sea levels in the Neolithic period. The numerous dolmens and other archaeological sites extant and recorded in history demonstrate the existence of a population large enough and organised enough to undertake constructions of considerable size and sophistication, such as the burial mound at La Hougue Bie in Jersey or the statue menhirs of Guernsey.
Hoards of Armorican coins have been excavated, providing evidence of trade and contact in the Iron Age period. Evidence for Roman settlement is sparse, although evidently the islands were visited by Roman officials and traders; the Roman name for the Channel Islands was I. Lenuri and is included in the Peutinger Table The traditional Latin na
Guernsey is an island in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy. It lies north of Saint-Malo and to the west of Jersey and the Cotentin Peninsula. With several smaller nearby islands, it forms a jurisdiction within the Bailiwick of Guernsey, a British Crown dependency; the jurisdiction is made up of ten parishes on the island of Guernsey, three other inhabited islands, many small islets and rocks. The jurisdiction is not part of the United Kingdom, although defence and most foreign relations are handled by the British Government; the entire jurisdiction lies within the Common Travel Area of the British Islands and the Republic of Ireland, although it is not a member of the European Union, it does have a special relationship with it, being treated as part of the European Community with access to the single market for the purposes of the free trade in goods. Taken together with the separate jurisdictions of Alderney and Sark it forms the Bailiwick of Guernsey; the two Bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey together form the geographical grouping known as the Channel Islands.
The name "Guernsey", as well as that of neighbouring "Jersey", is of Old Norse origin. The second element of each word, "-ey", is the Old Norse for "island", while the original root, "guern", is of uncertain origin and meaning deriving from either a personal name such as Grani or Warinn, or from gron, meaning pine tree. Previous names for the Channel Islands vary over history, but include the Lenur islands, Sarnia, Sarnia is the Latin name for Guernsey, or Lisia and Angia. Around 6000 BC, rising seas created the English Channel and separated the Norman promontories that became the bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey from continental Europe. Neolithic farmers settled on its coast and built the dolmens and menhirs found in the islands today, providing evidence of human presence dating back to around 5000 BC. Evidence of Roman settlements on the island, the discovery of amphorae from the Herculaneum area and Spain, show evidence of an intricate trading network with regional and long distance trade.
Buildings found in La Plaiderie, St Peter Port dating from 100–400 AD appear to be warehouses. The earliest evidence of shipping was the discovery of a wreck in St Peter Port harbor of a ship, named "Asterix", it is thought to be a 3rd-century Roman cargo vessel and was at anchor or grounded when the fire broke out. Travelling from the Kingdom of Gwent, Saint Sampson the abbot of Dol in Brittany, is credited with the introduction of Christianity to Guernsey. In 933, the Cotentin Peninsula including Avranchin which included the islands, were placed by the French King Ranulf under the control of William I; the island of Guernsey and the other Channel Islands represent the last remnants of the medieval Duchy of Normandy. In 1204, when King John lost the continental portion of the Duchy to Philip II of France, the islands remained part of the kingdom of England; the islands were recognised by the 1259 Treaty of Paris as part of Henry III's territories. During the Middle Ages, the island was a haven for pirates that would use the "lamping technique" to ground ships close to her waters.
This intensified during the Hundred Years War, starting in 1339, the island was occupied by the Capetians on several occasions. The Guernsey Militia was first mentioned as operational in 1331 and would help defend the island for a further 600 years. In 1372, the island was invaded by Aragonese mercenaries under the command of Owain Lawgoch, in the pay of the French king. Owain and his dark-haired mercenaries were absorbed into Guernsey legend as invading fairies from across the sea; as part of the peace between England and France, Pope Sixtus IV issued in 1483 a Papal bull granting the Privilege of Neutrality, by which the Islands, their harbours and seas, as far as the eye can see, were considered neutral territory. Anyone molesting Islanders would be excommunicated. A Royal Charter in 1548 confirmed the neutrality; the French attempted to invade Jersey a year in 1549 but were defeated by the militia. The neutrality lasted another century, until William III of England abolished the privilege due to privateering activity against Dutch ships.
In the mid-16th century, the island was influenced by Calvinist reformers from Normandy. During the Marian persecutions, three women, the Guernsey Martyrs, were burned at the stake for their Protestant beliefs, along with the infant son of one of the women; the burning of the infant was ordered by Bailiff Hellier Gosselin, with the advice of priests nearby who said the boy should burn due to having inherited moral stain from his mother. On Hellier Gosselin fled the island to escape widespread outrage. During the English Civil War, Guernsey sided with the Parliamentarians; the allegiance was not total, however. In December 1651, with full honours of war, Castle Cornet surrendered – the last Royalist outpost anywhere in the British Isles to surrender. Wars against France and Spain during the 17th and 18th centuries gave Guernsey shipowners and sea captains the opportunity to exploit the island's proximity to mainland Europe by applying for letters of marque and turning their merchantmen into privateers.
By the beginning of the 18th century, Guernsey's residents were starting to settle in North America, in particular founding Guernsey County in Ohio in 1810. The threat of invasion by Napoleon prompted many defensive structures to be built at the end of that century; the early 19th century saw a dramatic increase in the prosperity of the island, due to