St Kilda Road, Melbourne
St Kilda Road is a street in Melbourne, Australia. It is part of the locality of Melbourne which has the postcode of 3004, along with Swanston Street forms a major spine of the city. St Kilda Road begins at Flinders Street, in the central business district and crosses Princes Bridge, which spans the Yarra River and connects the central business district of Melbourne with the suburb of St Kilda, ending at Carlisle Street, St Kilda; the road continues as Brighton Road, which becomes Nepean Highway, forming a major arterial connecting the bayside suburbs and Mornington Peninsula to the city. The east side of the road to High Street, Prahran is in the municipality of the City of Melbourne while the west side of the road and the road south of High Street is in the municipality of the City of Port Phillip; the first sale of Crown lands in St. Kilda took place on 7 December 1842. Within a few years, St Kilda became a fashionable area for wealthy settlers, with the high ground above the beach offering a cool fresh breeze during Melbourne's hot summer months.
St Kilda Road was a dirt track. The road was impassable by carriage after rains. Prior to the building of the first bridge spanning the Yarra River in 1844, traffic crossed the river by operated punts. In 1844, a built wooden trestle toll bridge was built across the river at Swanston Street. In 1850, a government-built sandstone free bridge replaced the wooden bridge. In 1853, the Immigrants' Aid Society established the Immigrant's Home in St Kilda Road, which accommodated'neglected' and orphaned children and had a reformatory for children; the Home existed until 1902. In 1854, Kings Domain garden was established. In the same year the government offered four religious groups land on, it offered the Wesleyan Methodist Church 10 acres facing St Kilda Road. It took a while to find sufficient funds to build the actual school; the foundation stone of Wesley College was laid on 4 January 1865 and the school was opened on 11 January 1866. In 1855, the government granted 15 acres on St Kilda Road to the Anglican Church on which Melbourne Grammar School was built.
The foundation stone was laid on 30 July 1856 and the school was opened on 7 April 1858. During the early 1850s, St Kilda Road was the scene of frequent hold-ups by armed bandits and bushrangers which collectively became known as the St Kilda Road robberies. Victoria Barracks were built between 1856 and 1872. In the 1860s, St Kilda was a major bayside resort village. St Kilda Road was a main arterial connecting it with Melbourne, was planned as a wide European-style boulevard to accommodate horse-drawn traffic. Fawkner Park was created in 1862. In 1865 the government made a grant of land on the corner of St. Kilda Road and High Street, Prahran, to the Victorian Deaf and Dumb Institution, which built a blue-stone building which opened in 1866; the Alfred Hospital was established in 1871. From the 1870s, some of Melbourne's wealthiest residents erected grand mansions on significant lots along the street. In 1877, Cooper and Bailey's Great American International Circus set up on the site of the present Arts Centre.
The present Princes Bridge was built in 1888 to replace the 1850 structure, cable trams commenced running from Swanston Street over the bridge along St Kilda Road to Toorak and St Kilda. At this time, the beautiful elm trees were planted along the road; the Prince Henry's Hospital was opened in St Kilda Road in 1885, existed until 1991. Until the end of the 19th century, the Yarra River was subject to regular flooding. A new channel for the Yarra River was dug from 1896 to 1900 to widen the river; the spoil was used to fill the swampy lagoons and brickmakers pits and raise the height of the river bank where Alexandra Gardens now stands. The Gardens were opened in 1901. In 1901 the Arts Centre site became home to a permanent circus, built by the Fitzgerald Brothers' Circus. In 1904, the area of the site not occupied by Fitzgerald's was developed as a fashionable meeting place called Prince's Court; this area featured a Japanese Tea House, open-air theatre, miniature train, water chute and a 15-member military band.
In 1907, Wirth Brother's Circus took over the entire site from Fitzgerald's and remained there for the next 50 years. By 1911 they had built a new circus Hippodrome and a roller skating rink, had leased the original Olympia as a cinema. During World War I some of the buildings were used as nursing homes for nurses. During the 1920s a new Green Mill Dance Hall replaced Olympia Dancing Palace. In 1925, electric trams along St Kilda Road and the side streets replaced cable trams, Prince's Bridge was reinforced to take the extra weight of the new trams; the Melbourne Hebrew Congregation opened a 1300-seat synagogue on the corner of Toorak Road in 1930. During the depression of the 1930s, many of the mansions on St Kilda Road were subdivided into units with extensions to the rear of the buildings, resulting in only a few of them remaining today; the Shrine of Remembrance was completed in September 1934. The Repatriation Commission Outpatient Clinic, the only example of an Art Deco building on St Kilda Rd north of Toorak Rd, was opened on 15 November 1937.
In the 1950s, an effort was made to introduce higher-density residential living to the area. Housing Commission of Victoria flats, like the Stanhill Flats were erected along nearby Queens Road. In the 1960s, local planning agencies changed the zoning from residential to commercial, in an effort to create more office space for a growing loc
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Victoria is a state in south-eastern Australia. Victoria is Australia's smallest mainland state and its second-most populous state overall, thus making it the most densely populated state overall. Most of its population lives concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australia's second-largest city. Victoria is bordered by Bass Strait and Tasmania to the south,New South Wales to the north, the Tasman Sea to the east, South Australia to the west; the area, now known as Victoria is the home of many Aboriginal people groups, including the Boon wurrung, the Bratauolung, the Djadjawurrung, the Gunai/Kurnai, the Gunditjmara, the Taungurong, the Wathaurong, the Wurundjeri, the Yorta Yorta. There were more than 30 Aboriginal languages spoken in the area prior to the European settlement of Australia; the Kulin nation is an alliance of five Aboriginal nations which makes up much of the central part of the state. With Great Britain having claimed the half of the Australian continent, east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria formed part of the wider colony of New South Wales.
The first European settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, much of what is now Victoria was included in 1836 in the Port Phillip District, an administrative division of New South Wales. Named in honour of Queen Victoria, who signed the division's separation from New South Wales, the colony was established in 1851 and achieved self government in 1855; the Victorian gold rush in the 1850s and 1860s increased both the population and wealth of the colony, by the time of the Federation of Australia in 1901, Melbourne had become the largest city and leading financial centre in Australasia. Melbourne served as federal capital of Australia until the construction of Canberra in 1927, with the Federal Parliament meeting in Melbourne's Parliament House and all principal offices of the federal government being based in Melbourne. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate. At state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
The Labor Party led Daniel Andrews as premier has governed Victoria since 2014. The personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria Linda Dessau. Victoria is divided into 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, which the state administers directly; the economy of Victoria is diversified, with service sectors including financial and property services, education, retail and manufacturing constitute the majority of employment. Victoria's total gross state product ranks second in Australia, although Victoria ranks fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne hosts a number of museums, art galleries, theatres, is described as the world's sporting capital; the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the largest stadium in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere, hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. The ground is considered the "spiritual home" of Australian cricket and Australian rules football, hosts the grand final of the Australian Football League each year, drawing crowds of 100,000.
Nearby Melbourne Park has hosted the Australian Open, one of tennis' four Grand Slam events, annually since 1988. Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, dating from 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851. After the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788, Australia was divided into an eastern half named New South Wales and a western half named New Holland, under the administration of the colonial government in Sydney; the first British settlement in the area known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. It consisted of 402 people, they had been sent from England in HMS Calcutta under the command of Captain Daniel Woodriff, principally out of fear that the French, exploring the area, might establish their own settlement and thereby challenge British rights to the continent.
In 1826, Colonel Stewart, Captain Samuel Wright, Lieutenant Burchell were sent in HMS Fly and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. The expedition landed at Settlement Point, on the eastern side of Western Port Bay, the headquarters until the abandonment of Western Port at the insistence of Governor Darling about 12 months afterwards. Victoria's next settlement was on the south west coast of what is now Victoria. Edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, John Pascoe Fawkner. From settlement, the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after, the site now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe, three weeks after Melbourne, and in 1838, Geelong was declared a town, despite earlier European settlements dating back to 1826
Southbank is an inner urban neighbourhood of Melbourne, Australia, 1 km south of the Melbourne central business district. Its local government area are the cities of Port Phillip. At the 2016 Census, Southbank had a population of 18,709, its southernmost area is considered part of the central business district of the city. Southbank is bordered to the north by the Yarra River, to the east by St Kilda Road. Southbank's southern and western borders are bounded by Dorcas Street, Kings Way, the West Gate Freeway and Montague Street. Southbank was an industrial area and part of South Melbourne, it was transformed into a densely populated district of high rise apartment and office buildings beginning in the early 1990s, as part of an urban renewal program. With the exceptions of the cultural precinct along St Kilda Road, few buildings built before this time were spared by redevelopment. Today, Southbank is dominated by high-rise development, it is one of the primary business centres in Greater Melbourne, being the headquarters of Treasury Wine Estates, Crown Limited, Incitec Pivot, The Herald & Weekly Times, as well as regional offices of many major corporations, in a cluster of towers with over 340,000 square metres of office space in 2008.
It is one of the most densely populated areas of Melbourne, with a large cluster of apartment towers, including Australia's tallest tower measured to its highest floor, the Eureka Tower. Southbank Promenade and Southgate Restaurant and Shopping Precinct, on the southern bank of the Yarra River, extending to Crown Casino, is one of Melbourne's major entertainment precincts. Southgate's landmark Ophelia sculpture by Deborah Halpern has been used to represent Melbourne in tourism campaigns. Before European settlement, the area now called South Melbourne was a series of low lying swamps inhabited by Aboriginal tribes. From European settlement the area, now Southbank consisted of some old factories and wharves built between the 1860s–1920s when the area was part of the first port of Melbourne, it had several bridges connecting it to the city, the first being the original Princes Bridge and the Sandridge Bridge, part of the Port Melbourne railway line from 1888 to 1987. The Arts Centre precinct opened in the 1980s on former parkland, once used as an amusement park and featured the Southgate Fountain.
The area was the subject of urban renewal in early 1990s. In part, this was aimed at stimulating development in a period when Melbourne was experiencing an acute economic downturn during the global recession on 1991–92. Denton Corker Marshall designed and oversaw the original Southbank Promenade in 1990, which paved the way for development of apartments. Southgate, Sheraton Towers and new tall office buildings for The Herald & Weekly Times Ltd and IBM were built along with an award-winning pedestrian footbridge at about the same time in late 1992, combined with a new Sunday arts and crafts market, attracted locals and tourists to the area. At the eastern end of the area is the Victorian Arts Centre. Since the pylon underneath the award-winning Southbank Pedestrian Bridge has been utilised and is now home to Ponyfish Island. Further buildings including the Esso headquarters were built between 1992 and 1995. Development expanded along the Yarra River westward, with the Melbourne Convention & Exhibition Centre in 1996 and Crown Casino in 1997, stimulating the first residential towers.
In 2001, the boutique "Melburnian" apartments, designed by Bates Smart, were one of the first to be aimed at the owner occupier market and included the most expensive penthouse sold in Melbourne at the time. Clarendon Towers attracted the owner occupiers. Beginning with Southbank Towers in 1997, Central Equity began a swathe of apartment towers. In 2002 the neighbouring Yarra's Edge precinct of the new Melbourne Docklands began to kick off; the arts precinct was extended with the construction of the award-winning buildings for the Australian Centre for Contemporary Art in 2002 and the Victorian College of the Arts school of drama. At around the same time a new headquarters for the State Emergency Service was built. Central Equity continued construction of several blocks of apartment buildings on much of the Southbank land, which it had acquired including Riverside Place, The Summit, Victoria Tower, Melbourne Tower and City Tower. Central Equity apartments are aimed at both the owner occupier and rental market with management provided by Melbourne Inner City Management, a owned subsidiary of Central Equity.
With a boom in apartment building and the success of the Melburnian, the areas closer to the river began to attract developers. The 91 floor Eureka Tower was begun in 2002, aimed at being the tallest residential tower in the world and was completed in 2006; as part of the initial construction of Southgate, St Johns Lutheran Church relocated from the land, now the site of the Herald Sun building a few metres up City Road, to 20 City Road, serves the Southbank community as a church and spiritual centre. The Church can be accessed either from the Southgate Shopping complex; the Queensbridge Precinct began development in 2005 with Freshwater Place. A plaza linked to the north bank and Flinders Street railway station via a pedestrian and cycle path developed from the Sandridge Bridge; the disused bridge was opened to the public on 12 March 2006, just in time for the 2006 Commonwealth Games. The Northbank promenade was completed in 2006 to link the sections. An increasing number of corporations began opening their offices in Southbank.
PricewaterhouseCoopers relocated their office from Spring Street to Freshwater Place in 2005. Other names on the list include Fuj
National Institute of Dramatic Art
The National Institute of Dramatic Art is an Australian national education and training institute for students in the performing arts. Since 1958, NIDA has educated students in performance and production for theatre and television, it offers programs ranging from degrees to public short courses, including holiday programs and corporate training. In 2018, NIDA was ranked as the 10th best drama school in the world by The Hollywood Reporter. NIDA's main campus is based in the Sydney suburb of Kensington, located adjacent to the University of New South Wales, is made up of a range of rehearsal and performance venues. NIDA is affiliated with the University of New South Wales. NIDA receives funding from the Australian Government through the Minister for the Arts, Attorney-General's Department and is a member of the "Australian Roundtable for Arts Training Excellence:" an initiative between the national performing arts training organisations and the Australian Government providing training for emerging artists.
Founded in 1958, NIDA commenced acting classes in 1959. More than 50 years NIDA has grown to 232 full-time students annually 70 full-time staff members. Entry to NIDA's higher education courses is competitive, with 5,000 applicants from around the country competing for an annual offering of 75 places across undergraduate and graduate disciplines; the student body for these courses totalled 199 in 2014. NIDA is located on Anzac Parade in the Sydney suburb of Kensington, across the road from the University of New South Wales; the campus was first opened in 1987, followed by additional buildings opened in 2001, which were awarded the 2002 Sir John Sulman Medal for public architecture. NIDA has five theatres; the largest of these is the Parade Theatre offering seating for audiences of up to 707 people in its three-tiered, horseshoe-shaped auditorium. The Playhouse, Studio Theatre, the Space and the Atrium offer a variety of flexible performance spaces; the Rodney Seaborn Library is a specialist library for NIDA students and staff and is open to the general public by appointment.
Created in 1980. The NIDA Archives collects and preserves archival records created by or relating to NIDA; the NIDA campus includes rehearsal rooms, multi-media and computer-aided design studios, a sound stage, a lighting studio, production workshops, audio-visual facilities, the Reg Grundy Studio film and television training and production facility. Graduates from the National Institute of Dramatic Art include: Adrian Britnell Dale Ferguson Catherine Martin Ralph Myers, Former Artistic Director Belvoir St Theatre Michael Wilkinson, 2014 Academy Award Nominee for American Hustle Paul Curran Gale Edwards Jennifer Kent Dane Laffrey Tommy Murphy Kip Williams, artistic director of Sydney Theatre Company Jim Sharman, Director of The Rocky Horror Picture Show In 2012, former NIDA board member and Liberal senator Chris Puplick, who had served on the board from 1994 to 2000 and 2007 to 2010, wrote an essay titled "Changing Times at NIDA", published in the October issue of the publication Platform Papers.
In the essay, Puplick criticised the teaching standards of the school and its director and chief executive, Lynne Williams, stating that she has had no significant experience in theatre to head the school and that her style was "Thatcherite". Soon after Puplick's statements were reported, chairman of NIDA's board, Malcolm Long, Lynne Williams replied back to the comments, with Long stating that Williams had the complete support of the board and described Puplick as "an disaffected former board member." Williams had defended herself stating her management style was not "Thatcherite". Long mentioned that amongst Williams' supporters were Cate Blanchett and Ralph Myers. Supporting Puplick were actor, director and a graduate of the school Jeremy Sims, who had launched the essay, Kevin Jackson, who had taught acting at the school for 27 years. Official website
Newtown High School of the Performing Arts
Newtown High School of the Performing Arts is a state government school located in the suburb of Newtown in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It is one of the few performing arts and visual arts schools in Australia. All the students that attend the school are required to study Drama, Music and Visual Arts as part of the school’s curriculum for the first year of secondary school; the school participates in a few concerts both on and off school grounds in all types of performing and visual arts as well as video, technical and design. It is best known for being the former high school of Stray Kids' Bang Chan; the school is run by the New South Wales Department of Training. The school was founded in 1990 as the first state selective high school for performing arts in New South Wales. NHSPA was formed from the merger of the nearby Petersham Girls High School and Newtown Boys' High School on the latter's King Street site. Newtown's foundation principal was Robin Amm the principal at Petersham Girls.
The school remains open and accessible to the local population, however a larger percentage of prospective students from outside the local acceptance boundaries can audition to obtain a place at the school. The campus is located on King Street and bounded by Newman and Whitehorse Streets; the campus has a grass oval. The various faculties within the school are located in different areas ranging from A to G Blocks and the gymnasium located near the school oval; the school has an operational theatre, known as the Studio Theatre, that it uses for its biannual Showcase concerts and other productions. The school manages the adjacent St Georges Hall, used for larger productions and school activities; the student body consists of 1,061. 1/2 of the student body is recruited through a short audition process. 30 pupils are in the music class, 30 in drama and 30 in dance per year, although families living within the catchment area are prioritised to send their children there. Students can audition to gain entry to the school for Years 7 and 11.
The Prefecture at NHSPA consists of Year 12 students who are elected by both their fellow students and teachers. Its primary role is act as role models for other students and represent the school at any public event. Newtown High School of the Performing Arts has an elected Student Representative Council composed of two students from each grade. Members are elected for a one-year term by the students; the SRC underwent significant reform in 2004 when the students drafted and adopted a formal constitution, the council changed from a volunteer institution to its current elected structure. The SRC's primary objectives are to provide input on policy that affects students and to run charity fundraisers. NHSPA offers these subjects for the HSC: The most notable extracurricular activities available to the students of the high school are the ensembles and companies in the Music and Dance departments; these are: Christopher Bang - professionally known as Bang Chan.
University of Melbourne
The University of Melbourne is a public research university located in Melbourne, Australia. Founded in 1853, it is the oldest in Victoria. Melbourne's main campus is located in Parkville, an inner suburb north of the Melbourne central business district, with several other campuses located across Victoria. Melbourne is a sandstone university and a member of the Group of Eight, Universitas 21 and the Association of Pacific Rim Universities. Since 1872 various residential colleges have become affiliated with the university. There are 10 colleges located on the main campus and in nearby suburbs offering academic and cultural programs alongside accommodation for Melbourne students and faculty. Melbourne comprises 11 separate academic units and is associated with numerous institutes and research centres, including the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, the Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research and the Grattan Institute.
Amongst Melbourne's 15 graduate schools the Melbourne Business School, the Melbourne Law School and the Melbourne Medical School are well regarded. Times Higher Education ranked Melbourne 32nd globally in 2017-2018, while the Academic Ranking of World Universities places Melbourne 38th in the world, in the QS World University Rankings 2019 Melbourne ranks 39th globally and ranked sixth in the world according to the 2019 QS Graduate Employability Rankings. Four Australian prime ministers and five governors-general have graduated from the University of Melbourne. Ten Nobel laureates have been the most of any Australian university; the University of Melbourne was established by Hugh Childers, the Auditor-General and Finance Minister, in his first Budget Speech on 4 November 1852, who set aside a sum of £10,000 for the establishment of a university. The university was established by Act of Incorporation on 22 January 1853, with power to confer degrees in arts, medicine and music; the act provided for an annual endowment of £9,000, while a special grant of £20,000 was made for buildings that year.
The foundation stone was laid on 3 July 1854, on the same day the foundation stone for the State Library Classes commenced in 1855 with three professors and sixteen students. The original buildings were opened by the Lieutenant Governor of the Colony of Victoria, Sir Charles Hotham, on 3 October 1855; the first chancellor, Redmond Barry, held the position until his death in 1880. The inauguration of the university was made possible by the wealth resulting from Victoria's gold rush; the institution was designed to be a "civilising influence" at a time of rapid settlement and commercial growth. In 1881, the admission of women was a seen as victory over the more conservative ruling council; the university's 150th anniversary was celebrated in 2003. The Melbourne School of Land and Environment was disestablished on the first of January, 2015, its agriculture and food systems department moved alongside veterinary science to form the Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, while other areas of study, including horticulture, forestry and resource management, moved to the Faculty of Science in two new departments.
As of May 2009 the university "suspended" the Bachelor of Music Theatre and Puppetry courses at the college and there were fears they may not return under the new curriculum. A 2005 heads of agreement over the merger of the VCA and the university stated that the management of academic programs at the VCA would ensure that "the VCA continues to exercise high levels of autonomy over the conduct and future development of its academic programs so as to ensure their integrity and quality" and that the college's identity will be preserved. New dean Sharman Pretty outlined drastic changes under the university's plan for the college in early April 2009; as a result, it is now being called into question. Staff at the college responded to the changes, claiming the university did not value vocational arts training, voicing fears over the future of quality training at the VCA. Former Victorian arts minister Race Mathews has weighed in on the debate expressing his hope that, "Melbourne University will not proceed with its proposed changes to the Victorian College of the Arts", for'good sense' to prevail.
In 2011, the Victorian State Government allocated $24 million to support arts education at the VCA and the faculty was renamed the Faculty of the Victorian College of the Arts and the Melbourne Conservatorium of Music. The Parkville Campus is the primary campus of the university. Established in a large area north of Grattan Street in Parkville, the campus has expanded well beyond its boundaries, with many of its newly acquired buildings located in the nearby suburb of Carlton; the university is undertaking an'ambitious infrastructure program' to reshape campuses. Melbourne University has 10 residential colleges in total, seven of which are located in an arc around the cricket oval at the northern edge of the campus, known as College Crescent; the other three are located outside of university grounds. The residential colleges aim to provide accommodation and holistic education experience to university students. Most of the university's residential colleges admit students from RMIT University and Monash University, Parkville campus, with selected colleges accepting students from the Australian Catholic University and Victoria University.
Several of the earliest campus buildings, such as the Old Quadrangle and Baldwin Spencer buildings, feature period architecture. The new Wilson Hall replaced th