English Electric diesel engines
English Electric diesel engines were manufactured by the English Electric company of the United Kingdom for both stationary and rail transport use. The range was derived from the "K type" engine, developed in the 1930s; these diesel engines were marketed under the English Electric name into the 1960s and under the name Ruston-Paxman. The "K" type engine ran at 600-680 rpm; the Mark I "RK" and "V" types had 2-valve cylinder heads. The Mark II "RK" and "V" types had 4-valve cylinder heads, they ran at 750-900 rpm, were available with turbochargers and intercoolers. Number of cylinders: K and RK types, 4, 6, 7 and 8 in line V type, V8, V12 or V16 Cylinder bore: 10" Piston stroke: 12" Displacement: 942 cu. in per cylinder Power range: 60-275 bhp per cylinder Rotational speed: 630-900 rpm Cooling: water Designations: 12 = number of cylinders C = intercooler S = turbocharger V = V engine T = traction, M was used for Marine use A large number of these engines were built and these are just a few examples: All cylinder numbers were used in Australia.
7SKM 500BHP @ 600RPM Manly Ferries: North Head and Baragoola and Bellubera 16CSVM Royal Aust Navy Oberon class submarine Port Phillip Bay pilot ship DE Wyuna having three 8RKM and two 4RKM engines having a third 4RKM but this was removed in 1980's and is with the Australian Maritime College. 4SRKT, SAR 500 class 6KT, VR F class 6RKT, SAR 350 class 6SRKT, SAR 800 class, WAGR F class, Tasmanian Government Railways Y class, Tasmanian Government Railways X class 6CSRKT, WAGR H class, Queensland Railways 1600 class & 1620 class, Aust Iron & Steel 8SRKT, Aust Iron & Steel 8SVT, WAGR G class 12SVT, Queensland Railways 1200 class, 1250 class & 1270 class 12CSVT, WAGR C class, K class & R class, Queensland Railways 1300 class, 2350 class & 2370 class, Tasmanian Government Railways Z class & Za class, Aust Iron & Steel 16SVT, SAR 900 classNSW was the only state not to have EE powered locos, Vic only had a few. 6KT Malayan Railways Class 15 12SVT Malayan Railways Class 20 8CSVT Malayan Railways Class 22 6KT NS Class 600 6SRKT Mk 1 NZR DE class 12SVT Mk 2 NZR DF class 6SRKT Mk 2 New Zealand DG and DH class locomotive 6CSRKT NZR DI class, 6CSRKM NZR rail ferries Aramoana, Aratika, Arahunga 16CSVM NZR rail ferries Aramoana, Aranui 8CSVT CP Class 1400 16CSVT CP Class 1800 12CSVT Rhodesia Railways class DE3 16SVT Rhodesia Railways class DE2 6KT Litt V1 Nr 3 & 4 350 hp 4SRKT British Rail Class 201, UTA 70 Class, NIR Class 80 & 4SRKT MkII British Rail Class 73, British Rail Class 202, British Rail Class 205, British Rail Class 207 6KT British Rail Class 08, British Rail Class 09, British Rail Class 11, British Rail Class 12, British Rail Class 13, British Rail Class D3/11 8SVT British Rail Class 20 8CSV Power Generation 12SVT British Rail Class 31 12CSVT British Rail Class 37 16SVT 1,600 bhp with Brown Boveri turbochargers, British Rail Class D16/1 1,750 bhp with Napier turbochargers, British Rail Class D16/2 2,000 bhp British Rail Class 40 16CSVT British Rail Class 50 16RK3CT British Rail Class 56 as Ruston-Paxman 12RK3ACT British Rail Class 58 as Ruston-Paxman
Prime mover (locomotive)
In engineering, a prime mover is an engine that converts fuel to useful work. In locomotives, the prime mover is thus the source of power for its propulsion. In an engine-generator set, the engine is the prime mover, as distinct from the generator. In a diesel-mechanical locomotive, the prime mover is the diesel engine, mechanically coupled to the driving wheels. In a diesel-electric locomotive, the prime mover is the diesel engine that rotates the main generator responsible for producing electricity to power the traction motors that are geared to the drivers; the prime mover can be a gas turbine instead of a diesel engine. In either case, the generator, traction motors and interconnecting apparatus are considered to be the power transmission system and not part of the prime mover. A wired-electric or battery-electric locomotive has no on-board prime mover, instead relying on an external power station; the engine and generator set of a diesel-electric locomotive are sometimes coupled as a removable unit called "the power unit".
The power unit represents the main weight in a locomotive design, other than the body. Its position back and forth is at the designer's choice and may be used to control overall weight distribution. In most locomotives designs, the power unit is placed centrally. In some locomotives, it is offset to one end. In extreme cases, such as C-B wheel arrangements, the weight on each bogie may differ so much that the engine-end bogie is given an extra carrying axle, to keep individual axle loads more consistent. Power pack
Victorian Railways AA class
The AA class was an express passenger locomotive that ran on the Victorian Railways between 1900 and 1932. The largest and most powerful 4-4-0 steam locomotive to run in Australia, it was the final development of this locomotive type in Australia. In 1900, Victorian Railways still ran express passenger trains with the successful but ageing B class 2-4-0 which dated back to 1862. The'New A' class 4-4-0 of 1889 had proven to be a successful design, as had its close cousin and exact contemporary the X class 0-6-0. With traffic needs continuing to grow, the VR drafting office decided to take the best features of the New A and X class, but enlarge the locomotive with a larger, higher pressure boiler and larger cylinders. Innovative design features of the AA class included air sanding equipment, improved Gresham No. 9 injectors, horizontal grid spark arrestors, steam for auxiliaries supplied directly from the dome, a sloped ashpan to provide easier cleaning. With a comparatively high 185 pounds per square inch boiler increased to 200 pounds per square inch, it was considered impractical to use traditional slide valves.
A trial installation of overhead piston valves on New A class locomotive No. 422 demonstrated greater efficiency and reduced maintenance, the AA became the first of many subsequent VR locomotive classes to be built with piston valves. With an axle load of 16.85 long tons, the AA had reached the design limits of size and power possible with a two coupled axle locomotive type with Victoria's light track infrastructure. Its high tractive effort and limited adhesive weight combined to produce a less than ideal factor of adhesion of 3.5. Future VR locomotive designs were based on four coupled axles. Twenty of the class were built by the Phoenix Foundry in Ballarat, entering service between 1900 and 1903; the first batch of ten, delivered in 1900-01, were delivered with a traditional three-axle tender. The second batch had a larger firebox and grate, a 200 psi boiler pressure and larger four-axle tenders. Upon introduction in 1900, the AA went into service on mainline passenger service, hauling key express services such as the Sydney Express.
They were chosen to haul the Royal Train of the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall in 1901. With the introduction of larger, heavier express passenger rolling stock in the form of the E type carriages of 1906, the VR introduced the more powerful A2 class 4-6-0 in 1907, which superseded the AA class on premier services. However, the AA continued in service in assistant duties, as well as hauling show and race train specials; the AA class inherited a number of design improvements from the Dd class mixed traffic locomotives which were introduced in 1902. The second batch of AA locomotives utilised a bogie tender design based on that of the Dd in place of the original six wheel design, offering a far greater water capacity. During 1923-24, Nos. 542, 544, 566 and 570 were fitted with Robinson superheaters, based on the successful trial of Schmidt pattern superheaters on Dd 882. As was common VR practice at the time for locomotives converted to superheating, the boiler pressure was reduced - in this case to 175 pounds per square inch - to reduce maintenance and prolong boiler life.
Nominal tractive effort was reduced to a quoted 19,131 lbf at 85% boiler pressure, with total weight rising to 92.95 long tons. Another key improvement was the fitting of tablet exchangers to No. 552 and 570 for non-stop running on single-track sections of the North-eastern line, a portent of improvements on this line that would lead to the non-stop Melbourne-Albury Spirit of Progress service of 1937. Three AA class locomotives were involved in the Sunshine rail disaster of 1908, when an Up Bendigo service hauled by AA 564 and 544 crashed into the rear of an Up Ballarat excursion service hauled by AA 534 and'Old A' 202, resulting in the deaths of 44 people and the injury of over 400; the AA class was made redundant by the delivery of large numbers of 4-6-0 locomotives of the new Dd and A2 classes between 1902 and 1922, which totalled 446 locomotives. The A2 offered more power, while the Dd offered similar tractive effort to the AA but much greater route availability due to its lower axle load.
Withdrawals commenced in 1919 and by 1926 only the superheated AA locomotives remained on the register. A number of the boilers of the withdrawn locomotives saw further use powering river boats, while AA 532 served at Newport Workshops after withdrawal as a mobile stationary boiler. By January 1932, the entire class had been recorded as withdrawn, they were all scrapped shortly after withdrawal, with the exception of Newport Workshops boiler locomotive AA 532, which lasted until 1940. VPRS 12903/P1 Box 299/04 Drawing of original series AA class steam locomotive with three axle tender VPRS 12903/P1 Box 299/05 Drawing of series AA class steam locomotive with four axle tender VPRS 12800/P1 H 3750 Sydney Express at Wodonga, comprising E class cars, hauled by the series AA No.556 with four axle tender. VPRS 12800/P1 H 1137 Original series AA class steam locomotive No.544, with three axle tender and original livery with polished brasswork, hauling Sydney Express circa 1900
The Victorian Railways operated in the Australian state of Victoria from 1859 to 1983. The first railways in Victoria were private companies, but when these companies failed or defaulted, the Victorian Railways was established to take over their operations. Most of the lines operated by the Victorian Railways were of 5 ft 3 in. However, the railways operated up to five 2 ft 6 in narrow gauge lines between 1898 and 1962, a 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge line between Albury and Melbourne from 1961. A Department of Railways was created in 1856 with the first appointment of staff. British engineer, George Christian Darbyshire was made first Engineer-in-Chief in 1857, steered all railway construction work until his replacement by Thomas Higginbotham in 1860; because of political turmoil in the Victorian Government, Higginbotham was one of 137 officials removed from office on Black Wednesday on 8 January 1878 when the Government was denied supply. He, like a number of other senior officers, was not reappointed.
Robert Watson took over as Engineer-in-Chief. But in 1880 a new Ministry expressed a wish to redress the injustice by re-instating Higginbotham. However, at the sudden death of Higginbotham in 1880, William Elsdon took over for two years before his retirement in 1882, Watson returned to his former position as Engineer-in-Chief, which he held up to the time of his death. On 1 November 1883 assent was given to the Victorian Railways Commissioners Act 47 Vic. No.767, to construct and manage the state's railways. The staff of the Department of Railways came under the authority of the Railway Commissioners, which became known as Victorian Railways; the elaborate headquarters at 67 Spencer Street were opened in 1893. Victorian Railways grew to service all parts of the state extending some lines into New South Wales under the 1922 Border Railways Act. In the late 19th century the railways became something of a political football with politicians demanding new lines to be built in places where traffic levels never justified it.
In 1864 there was just 254 miles of railway. The system expanded to reach 2,900 route miles by 1891 and to its greatest extent of 4,755 route miles in 1939; the result was that by the beginning of the 20th century, no Victorian were more than 25 miles from a railway line. The period from the end of the 1930s saw a slow decline in route mileage as unprofitable branches were closed. Conversion of the Melbourne suburban system to electric operation commenced in 1919 and was completed by 1930, creating what was claimed at the time to be the world's largest electric suburban rail system. 1937 saw the introduction of the streamlined Spirit of Progress passenger train, with air conditioning and all steel carriage construction. Diesel power was introduced in 1951 with ten F-class diesel-electric shunting locomotives, followed by B-class mainline diesel-electric locomotives in 1952/53. A standard gauge line connecting to the New South Wales system was constructed in 1961 allowing through trains to operate between Melbourne and Sydney, Australia's two largest cities, for the first time.
The last steam locomotive was withdrawn in 1972. In May 1973 the Railways Act 1972 passed the management of the Railways from the Victorian Railways Commissioners to a Victorian Railways Board. In 1974 the Victorian Railways was rebranded as VicRail, but the royal blue and gold livery used on rolling stock was retained until 1981. In 1983 VicRail was divided into two—the State Transport Authority taking responsibility for the provision of country rail and road and freight services, the Metropolitan Transit Authority taking over suburban passenger operations; the State Transport Authority traded under the V/Line name, while the Metropolitan Transit Authority used that name until the Public Transport Corporation was formed in 1989. Between 1996 and 1999 V/Line and The Met were privatised. V/Line Passenger was franchised to National Express, returning to government ownership in 2002; the V/Line Freight division is now owned by Pacific National. The infrastructure is now managed by VicTrack with the interstate rail freight infrastructure leased to the Australian Rail Track Corporation.
Metro Trains Melbourne now operates the suburban railway network. When first formed in 1857, the management of the Railways Department was vested in the President of the Board of Land and Works, this situation remaining until 1884. With the passing of the Victorian Railways Commissioners Act 1883, a board of four commissioners was put in charge, responsible to the Minister of Railways; the Chairman of Commissioners of the Victorian Railways were: Richard Speight: 1883 to 1892 Richard Hodge Francis: 1892 to 1894 James Syder: 1894 to 1896 John Mathieson: 1896 to 1901 William Francis Joseph Fitzpatrick: 1901 to 1903 Thomas James Tait: 1903 to 1910 William Francis Joseph Fitzpatrick: 1910 to 1915 Charles Ernest Norman: 1915 to 1920 Harold Winthrop Clapp: 1920 to 1939 Norman Charles Harris: 1940 to 1950 Robert George Wishart: 1950 to 1955 Edgar Henry Brownbill: 1956 to 1967 George Frederick Brown: 1967 to 1973After the Bland Report of 1972, in May 1973 the Railways Act 1972 passed the management of the Railways from the Victorian Railways Commissioners to a Victorian Railways Board.
The board could have up to seven members, with six being appointed. This remained until 1983 when the board was discontinued under the Transport Act 1983; the Victorian Railways operated a wide variety of locomotives and rolling stock to provide passenger and goods services. This included equipment acquired from the private com
North East railway line
The North East railway line is a railway line in Victoria, Australia. The line runs from Albury railway station in the border settlement of Albury–Wodonga to Southern Cross railway station on the western edge of the Melbourne central business district, serving the cities of Wangaratta and Seymour, smaller towns in northeastern Victoria; the line, owned by VicTrack but leased to and maintained by the Australian Rail Track Corporation, forms part of the Sydney–Melbourne rail corridor. Unlike other heavy rail lines in Victoria, the line is standard-gauge, after standardisation works were done in 2008 to 2010. However, the broad-gauge Tocumwal line runs parallel to the line between Broadmeadows; the Melbourne and Essendon Railway Company opened the first section of the Albury line, from North Melbourne to Essendon, in 1860. Following its takeover by the Victorian Government in 1867, the line was extended by 1872 to School House Lane on the south side of the Goulburn River near Seymour, that year to Seymour and to Longwood.
Violet Town, Wangaratta and Wodonga were reached in 1873, connecting with the New South Wales Government Railways at Albury at a break of gauge in 1883. The design engineer was Robert Watson. Construction of a standard gauge track parallel with the broad gauge from Albury to Melbourne commenced in 1959, completing the Sydney-Melbourne railway; the first freight train operated on 3 January 1962, the first passenger train on 16 April. The line was used by prestige passenger services between the state capitals of Melbourne and Sydney, including the Sydney Limited, Spirit of Progress, Southern Aurora, Intercapital Daylight. Maintaining two parallel railways has drawn criticism, including inefficiencies in maintaining track, operating trains, duplicated train control centres. By 2001 the State Government announced the conversion of the broad gauge line to standard, but action was stifled due to complex leasing arrangements. Speed restrictions had been applied to the broad gauge line due to track deterioration.
In May 2008 it was announced that the line would be upgraded, with the conversion of 200 kilometres of broad gauge track to standard gauge between Seymour and Albury, a 5 km bypass around Wodonga, upgrades between Melbourne and Seymour including new passing loops. Passenger platforms were to be built on the standard-gauge line, V/Line locomotives and carriages converted to operate on the line. Costing A$501.3 million, the Victorian Government was to contribute A$171.3 million, the Australian Government A$45 million for the Wodonga Rail Bypass, the Australian Rail Track Corporation A$285 million and take responsibility for the standard-gauge line under a 45-year lease from Victoria. The project was due for completion with passenger services disrupted for up to 12 months. On 8 November 2008, broad gauge passenger trains ceased after the evening V/Line service from Melbourne to Albury and a special train operated by the Seymour Railway Heritage Centre, the final broad-gauge passenger train from Albury to Melbourne.
In December 2008 standardisation works commenced, contracted by ARTC to the Southern Improvement Alliance. The first train on the Wodonga Rail Bypass was in March 2010. In early August 2010 CountryLink decided to terminate all Sydney-Melbourne XPTs at Albury for an indefinite length of time, due to defects in the newly resleepered track. "Mud holes" resulted in speed restrictions on more than 200 kilometres of the line, adding an extra 1.5 hours to the travelling time. Train drivers have blamed the ARTC's $285 million concrete sleeper project for the track issues, stating that the incorrect insertion of 300,000 new concrete sleepers is to blame, they have reported freight trains breaking couplings due to the rough track. CountryLink trains resumed in mid September 2010, V/Line trains the following year. A branch line opened from Heathcote Junction to Kilmore in 1888 and to Tooborac in 1890, connecting with a line from Bendigo and Heathcote opened a little earlier; the Heathcote Junction – Heathcote line closed in 1968.
A branch line from Kilmore to Lancefield opened in 1892, closed in 1904. The Mansfield line opened from Tallarook to Yea in 1883, Molesworth in 1889, Cathkin and Merton in 1890 and Mansfield in 1891, it is now closed. A branch line was built from Cathkin to Koriella in 1890 and Alexandra in 1909; this line closed in 1978. The Shepparton line opened from Mangalore to Toolamba and Shepparton in 1880. A branch line opened from Benalla to St James in 1883, Yarrawonga in 1886 and Oaklands in 1938, with a break of gauge there until the State Rail Authority line closed south of Boree Creek. An 18 1⁄4-mile branch line from Benalla to Tatong was opened in 1914 and closed in 1947; the narrow-gauge Whitfield branch line opened from Wangaratta to Whitfield in 1899, closing in 1953. A branch line opened from Bowser to Everton in 1875, extended to Beechworth in 1876 and Yackandandah in 1891; the line closed in 1954. The Bowser – Everton line was extended to Myrtleford in 1883 and Bright in 1890, now closed. A short line to Peechelba East, which opened in 1928 and closed in 1986 branched from Bowser.
A short branch line opened from Springhurst via Rutherglen to Wahgunyah in 1879. Services were suspended in 1995. A branch line opened from Wodonga to Tallangatta between 1889 and 1891, Shelley in 1916, Beetoomba in 1919 and Cudgewa in 1921. A connection from Albury was added near Wodonga, creating a turning triangle to enable the Sydney Limited and its successor Spirit of Progress with their observation cars to be turned as complete trains; the line closed beyond Bandiana in 1981
Nederlandse Spoorwegen is a Dutch state-owned company, the principal passenger railway operator in the Netherlands. Founded in 1938, NS provides rail services on the Dutch main rail network; the Dutch rail network is the 7th busiest in the European Union, 16th busiest in the world. The rail infrastructure is maintained by network manager ProRail, split off from NS in 2003. Freight services operated by NS Cargo, merged with the DB Schenker group in 2000. NS runs 4,800 scheduled domestic trains a day. NS provides international rail services from the Netherlands to other European destinations and carries out concessions on some foreign rail markets through its subsidiary Abellio. Nederlandse Spoorwegen was founded in 1938 when the two largest Dutch railway companies, the Hollandsche IJzeren Spoorweg-Maatschappij and the Maatschappij tot Exploitatie van Staatsspoorwegen, formally merged; these two companies had been intensively cooperating as early as 1917. There were both ideological reasons for the cooperation.
As a result of the First World War, the Dutch economy had declined causing HSM and SS to fall from profitability. Given their national importance, allowing them to slip into bankruptcy was not considered acceptable. While remaining independent companies, HSM and SS improved overall efficiency by cooperatively integrating their operations; the Government of the Netherlands further supported SS by purchasing shares in both firms. In 1938, the authorities merged the two companies to form the Nederlandse Spoorwegen. In the process, the Government of the Netherlands bought all remaining shares, yet never nationalised the company. Therefore, Nederlandse Spoorwegen remained, still is owned by the Dutch Government. During the Second World War the NS remained an independent company, but was forced to do the Germans' bidding; the NS went on a strike once during the war, in the winter of 1944-45, after it had declined to participate in one a year earlier. The NS played a pivotal role in the reconstruction of the country.
There was little alternative transport in the country besides the train, while there was a huge demand for logistical services which the NS could provide. While the 1950s were a good time for the company, it started to decline in the 1960s, like most other railways around the world. Not only did the NS suffer from the competition of the car and other modes of transport, but it suffered from a loss of income when natural gas started to replace coal as the main fuel in power stations and homes after a gas field was found near Slochteren; the NS had been involved in the transport of coal from the mines in Limburg to the remainder of the country. The NS responded with an aggressive strategy named Spoorslag'70; this strategy meant, among other things, that the NS increased the number of trains per hour and introduced the Intercity services. However, it was quite clear; the company was declared to be of national importance, meaning that it would receive large amounts of subsidies every year. In the early 1990s, the Dutch Government started to question the subsidies given to the NS.
Not only were there questions regarding the way the NS spent the subsidies, after the neoliberal reforms of the 1980s, it was considered not done to award generic subsidies to companies. The authorities decided on the verzelfstandiging of the NS although technically, this is not the case, but instead refers here to withdrawal of the subsidies; the idea was that not only rail transport was economically viable, but that there could be competition as well. There were two external circumstances. Firstly, the European Union passed Directive 91/440, which prescribed, among other things, the formal separation of the national railways into two separate companies, one which deals with the infrastructure, the other which deals with the transport activities. Secondly, the old CEO of the NS, Leo Ploeger, which allowed the authorities to name a new CEO which would execute the government's plans; the new CEO was Rob den Besten. The plans entailed that the Government of the Netherlands would remain responsible for the rail infrastructure, while the NS would provide the passenger transport on a commercial basis.
Where the services would prove to be economically inviable, the government would subsidize that route. The division, responsible for the infrastructure would be turned into NS Railinfratrust. To facilitate the Dutch Government's plans for the commercial operation of the NS, Den Besten planned to split the NS into many smaller independent divisions; the idea was. The plans, received massive opposition from the unions, which meant that the only divisions created were NS Reizigers, locomotive maintenance company NedTrain. There were other internal changes in the company; the route managers got de facto control over the operation, but they were dependent of a different organ in the company. The freight sector NS Cargo became part of the Deutsche Bahn after its merger with Railion in 2000; these reforms left the company in an uncontrollable state. The result was that the company started to decline and that the employees started many unorganised strikes. Following this, the complete board of directors felt it necessary to resig
Victorian Railways S class (diesel)
The S class are a class of diesel locomotives built by Clyde Engineering, Granville for the Victorian Railways between 1957 and 1961. The S class was based on the Electro-Motive Diesel F7 design and were similar to the GM12 class being built by Clyde Engineering for the Commonwealth Railways, they were mechanically similar to the 1952 built. The first order for 10 locomotives, were progressively delivered between August 1957 and February 1958; the first four took the names and numbers of the scrapped S class steam locomotives, with all being named after prominent Victorians. An additional eight locomotives were ordered for use on the new North East standard gauge line and delivered between November 1960 and December 1961; the class were used on express passenger trains such as the Intercapital Daylight, Southern Aurora, Spirit of Progress and The Overland, but were used on fast freights. On the broad gauge they operated in pairs, while on the standard gauge they ran solo. A second'hostlers' cab was provided at the number two end, but was only used around depots, or to haul empty carriages short distances.
In February 1969 two were destroyed in the Violet Town railway disaster, were deemed uneconomical to repair and scrapped. In January 1967 S317 was badly damaged in a head-on collision with X33 south of Broadford Loop and was returned to Clyde Engineering for rebuilding. In June 1982 S317 was again involved in a fatal accident when it ran into the rear of the Spirit of Progress at Barnawartha, killing the crew; as more modern locomotives were introduced, those on the standard gauge moved to the broad gauge. Examples would periodically appear on the standard gauge. Withdrawals commenced in the May 1987. In February 1994 four were sold to West Coast Railway for use on their Melbourne to Warrnambool passenger service. By April 1999 only four remained in the V/Line fleet and these were only used during periods of high demand. A few have been preserved. Privatisation brought an upturn in the class' fortunes with some overhauled and as at May 2014 remain in service with CFCL Australia, Pacific National and Southern Shorthaul Railroad.
In 2019, S300 and S311 were purchased from CFCLA. The S Class was one of the first plastic, ready-to-run model railway locomotives made to cater to the Victorian market. An initial release by Lima in 1976 recycled their 44 Class body shell with a paint scheme resembling that of the Victorian Railways. In 1977, Hornby modified their B/L Class design to create their approximation of the S Class engine, this time with the rounded bulldog nose; the model, marketed through 1977-1978, was released as either S311 or S315 with product code R.317. The model utilised the then-standard Silver Seal Ringfield motor, around 12,000 units were produced in sets. To compete with the Hornby model, Lima invested in a proper body mould for the S Class design, released in 1981 as S302 and S315; this model was re-released on multiple occasions, in V/line orange and West Coast Railway blue. With more accurate models being released in the decades since, original Lima models are repurposed as parts donors or for merging into fictional engines, i.e. a non-driving "SB" class.
In October 1991, VR Models released a series of name and number plates which could be used on any of the earlier releases. In the early 1990s, Precision Scale Models imported a range of VR Blue and V/Line orange brass locomotives. In November 2009, TrainOrama released a modern-quality take on the S Class locomotive; the engine featured a five-pole skew-wound motor, pickup from all wheels, no rubber tyres. Engines were sold individually, with an RRP of $285.00. The first batch included models of S300, S301, S303, S306, S308, S311, S312, S313, S315 and S317 in VR Blue, S309 and S310 in V/Line Orange, S303 in Freight Australia Green; some of the blue engines were with fuel tank valences and nose doors. In mid-2016, Bobs Hobbies, now the owner of TrainOrama, announced a re-release of the S Class engines, with new numbers; the price rose to $295.00 per unit, the range now includes S304, S305 and S313 in blue and S308 and S312 in orange. To date, no models have been released of S307, S314, or S316. In 1984, Weico released a kit that could be used to construct either a NSW 42 Class or VR S Class locomotive.
In 2018, Gopher Models introduced ready-to-run models of the NSW 42 class, the CR GM-12 class and the VR S class in a variety of liveries.<badgerbits.com.au> Peter Bermingham. The A7 era: the technical and evolutionary history of the Victorian Railway's S Class diesel-electric locomotive. Horsepower Histories. ISBN 0-646-25614-9. Media related to Victorian Railways S class diesel locomotives at Wikimedia Commons