The Cessna 205, 206, 207, known as the Stationair are a family of single-engined, general aviation aircraft with fixed landing gear, used in commercial air service and for personal use. The family was developed from the popular retractable-gear Cessna 210 and produced by the Cessna Aircraft Company; the line's combination of a powerful engine, rugged construction and a large cabin has made these aircraft popular bush planes. Cessna describes the 206 as "the sport-utility vehicle of the air." These airplanes are used for aerial photography and other utility purposes. They can be equipped with floats, amphibious floats and skis. Alternatively, they can be fitted with luxury appointments for use as a personal air transport. From 1962 to 2006 Cessna produced 8,509 aircraft in the 206 and 207 variants; the aircraft remains in production. The Cessna 205 was introduced late in 1962 as a 1963 model year; the six-seat aircraft was a Cessna 210 with fixed landing gear and with changes to the crew and passenger door arrangement, being designated by Cessna as a "Model 210-5".
The 205 retained the early 210’s engine cowling bulge where the 210 stowed its nosewheel on retraction. This distinctive cowling was made more streamlined on the Cessna 206; the 205 is powered by a Continental IO-470-S engine producing 260 hp. The 205 was produced in only two model years, 1963 and 1964, before being replaced in production by the Cessna 206. A total of 576 Cessna 205s were produced; the six-seat Model 206 was introduced as a 1964 model and was built until 1986, when Cessna halted production of its single-engined product line. It was re-introduced in 1998 and remains in production in 2018. There were many sub-variants, including the U206, P206 all certified to CAR3 standards and 206H certified to FAR Part 23; the total Model 206 production between 1964 and 2004 was 6,581 aircraft. The original 1964 model was the U206, powered by a 285 hp Continental IO-520-A; the “U” designation indicated “utility” and this model was equipped with a pilot side door and large clamshell rear door serving the back two rows of seats, allowing easy loading of oversized cargo.
There was a TU206 turbocharged version powered by the Continental TSIO-520-C engine producing 285 hp. After 1967 the turbo TU206 was powered by a TSIO-520-F of 300 hp; the extra 15 hp was obtained by turning the engine at a higher rpm, was allowed for only five minutes. Due to the large propeller diameter, the additional engine speed meant that the propeller tips were pushed to transonic speeds, which required much more power. From 1964 to 1969 the U206 was known as the “Super Skywagon”. From 1970 it was named the “Stationair”, a contraction of “Station Wagon of the Air”, a good description of the aircraft's intended role. Sub-variants were designated U206 to U206G. In 1977 the U206 had its engine upgraded to a Continental IO-520-F of 300 hp and the TU206 powerplant was changed to the TSIO-520-M producing 310 hp. Production of all versions of the U206 was halted in 1986 when Cessna stopped manufacturing all piston-engined aircraft. A total of 5,208 U206s had been produced; the P206 was added to the line in 1965.
In this case the “P” stood for “people”, as the P206 had passenger doors similar to the Cessna 210 from which it was derived, on both sides. The P206 was powered by a Continental IO-520-A of 285 hp. There was a turbocharged model designated TP206, powered by a Continental TSIO-520-A of 285 hp.647 P206s were produced under the name “Super Skylane” which made it sound like a version of the Cessna 182, which it was not. Sub-variants were designated P206 to P206E. After a production hiatus of twelve years, Cessna started manufacturing a new version of the venerable 206 in 1998, with the introduction of the newly certified 206H; the “H” model is similar to the previous U206 configuration, with a pilot entry door and a rear double clamshell door for access to the middle and back seats. The "H" is marketed under the name "Stationair"; the 206H is powered by a Lycoming IO-540-AC1A powerplant producing 300 hp. The turbocharged T206H is powered by a Lycoming TSIO-540-AJ1A engine of 310 hp. Though the Cessna 206H is certified as a six-seat aircraft in its country of origin, the Canadian aviation regulator, Transport Canada has certified it to carry only five people in Canada.
This is due to concerns about passenger egress through the rear clamshell door with the flaps extended. Cessna addressed one part of this problem early on, after a flight-test aircraft was damaged when the pilot extended the flaps while taxiing, his passenger had the clamshell door open. A switch was added to the flap actuation circuit; the other part of the problem is that if the flaps are down, the passenger must perform the complicated procedure of opening the front part as far as possible open the rear door and restow the rear door handle. This gives enough clearance to open the rear part of the door. Both the 206H and the T206H remain in production in 2013. By the end of 2004 Cessna had produced 221 206Hs and 505 T206Hs, for a total production of 726 "H" models. Cessna has indicated that they do not intend to produce a P206-configuration aircraft in the future, due to lack of market demand; the Model 207 was a seven- and eight-seat development of the 206, achieved by stretching the design further by 45 inches (114
Piaggio P.180 Avanti
The Piaggio P.180 Avanti is an Italian executive transport aircraft with twin turboprop engines mounted in pusher configuration. It seats up to nine people in a pressurized cabin, may be flown by one or two pilots; the design is of three-surface configuration, having both a small forward wing and a conventional tailplane as well as its main wing, with the main wing spars passing behind the passenger cabin area. A 1980s wave of new-generation planes, developed to appeal to Fortune 500 clients, included Piaggio's Avanti and Beech Aircraft Corp.'s similar Starship. Engineering studies for the airplane that would be named Avanti began in 1979 and designs were tested in wind tunnels in Italy and the United States in 1980 and 1981, conducted by Professor Jan Roskam from the University of Kansas along with Professor Gerald Gregorek at Ohio State University. Piaggio's chief engineer, Alessandro Mazzoni, filed in 1982 to patent the Avanti design. Beginning in 1983, Gates Learjet partnered with Piaggio to develop a fuselage for the new aircraft.
Learjet's design influence can be seen in the steeply raked windshield and the two large ventral delta fins under the tail. At high angles of attack these delta fins provide a nose-down pitching moment and help to avoid a potential stall, they increase stability in flight by damping yaw and Dutch roll. Gates Learjet's financial problems ended their collaboration in January 1986, but Piaggio continued the project, the first prototype flew on 23 September 1986; the P.180 Avanti received Italian certification on 7 March 1990 and American certification was obtained on 2 October 1990. The first 12 fuselages were manufactured in Wichita, with H & H Parts and Plessey Midwest flown to Italy for final assembly. Avanti Aviation Wichita ran out of money in 1994; the 100th aircraft was delivered in October 2005 and the 150th in May 2008. Piaggio reported that, as of October 2010, the Avanti and Avanti II fleets had logged over 500,000 flying hours. An improved Avanti II obtained European and U. S. certification in November 2005.
Six months 70 planes had been ordered, including 36 by Avantair. Avanti II received type approval for Russia in 2011; the Avanti II featured uprated Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-66B turboprop engines and flies about 18 km/h faster, with better fuel economy. In addition to heading and navigation information, flat panel color liquid crystal displays add collision avoidance, ground proximity and real-time graphic weather depiction; the Avanti is marketed as being faster than other turboprops and many midsized jets, with cost efficiency as much as 40 percent better than market-competing jets, as a result of less drag and a lower fuel burn rate. Powered by the same Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-66 engines as the Beechcraft King Air B200, the Avanti II is 100 knots faster than that model King Air. Flying magazine judged the Avanti to be the "Fastest Civilian Turboprop Twin" in 2014, saying "Avanti's speed is pretty much on par with Cessna's M2, while providing more space and a lower operating cost."First flew in 2013, the P.1HH UAV prototype crashed off Sicily in May 2016 after 100h of flight tests, a second prototype flew in July 2017 before two others joined.
The first Avanti EVO manufactured at the new $150 million factory at Albenga Airport was delivered in 2016, one year after moving production from its previous Genoa Cristoforo Colombo Airport plant. On 22 November 2018, Piaggio Aerospace requested to be placed into receivership after declaring itself insolvent as its restructuring plan failed. After the 2008 financial crash, a key US fractional customer went bust and the P.180 Evo sales are struggling since, from a 2008 peak of 30 deliveries to just three in 2018. By November 2018, no P.1HH was delivered to the UAE and the Italian Ministry of Defence €766 million support for the P.2HH program was frozen as populist coalition partner Five Star Movement prioritise social programmes over defence spending. The Avanti's turboprop engines are placed on a mid-set, high aspect ratio wing located just behind the cabin; the three-surface design incorporates both a T-tail and a pair of small, fixed forewings having slight anhedral and landing flaps. On the Avanti II these flaps automatically deploy in concert with the main wing flaps.
This reduces the load on the tailplane when the flaps are deployed, by reducing the pitch-down moment created by the deployment of the main wing flaps. This in turn allows the size of the main wing to be reduced; this particular three-lifting-surface configuration was patented in 1982. The forward wing's angle of incidence is greater than that of the main wing, so that it stalls before the main wing, producing an automatic nose-down effect prior to the onset of main wing stall; the cabin cross-section varies continuously along the length of the aircraft. Piaggio claims that the fuselage contributes up to 20% of the Avanti's total lift, with the front and rear wing providing the remaining 80%. Due to the unusual fuselage shape, the mid cabin is wider than the cockpit; the front and rear airfoils are custom sections designed by Jerry Gregorek of Ohio State University's Aero
Piper PA-31 Navajo
The Piper PA-31 Navajo is a family of cabin-class, twin-engined aircraft designed and built by Piper Aircraft for the general aviation market, most using Lycoming engines. It was license-built in a number of Latin American countries. Targeted at small-scale cargo and feeder liner operations and the corporate market, the aircraft was a success, it continues to prove a popular choice, but due to decreased demand across the general aviation sector in the 1980s, production of the PA-31 ceased in 1984. At the request of company founder William T. Piper, Piper began development of a six- to eight-seat twin-engined corporate and commuter transport aircraft in 1962 under the project name Inca; the type, now designated the PA-31 and looking like a scaled-up Twin Comanche, was announced in late 1964 after its first flight on 30 September that year. It was a low-wing monoplane with a conventional tail, powered by two 310 hp Lycoming TIO-540-A turbocharged engines in so-called "tiger shark" cowlings, a feature shared with the Twin Comanche and the PA-23 Aztec.
As testing proceeded two cabin windows were added to each side of the fuselage and the engines moved further forward. The PA-31, now named "Navajo" after a Native American tribe, was not certified by the Federal Aviation Administration until 24 February 1966, deliveries did not begin until the following year, after the type was recertified in mid-1966 with an increase in maximum takeoff weight from 6,200 lb to 6,500 lb; the PA-31-300 was the next model, certified by the FAA in June 1967. This model was the only one of the PA-31 series not to have turbocharged engines. A pair of 300 hp Lycoming IO-540-M1A5 engines were fitted to the PA-31-300, driving two-bladed propellers. Following the introduction of the PA-31-300 the turbocharged model began to be known unofficially as the PA-31-310; the PA-31-300 was only produced in 1968 and 1969 and had the smallest production total for any PA-31 series model, with only 14 aircraft built. The next member of the family was Piper's first pressurized aircraft, the PA-31P Pressurized Navajo, certified in late 1969.
Development of the PA-31P had begun in January 1966, before the FAA had awarded the PA-31 a type certificate. The PA-31P was powered by 425 hp Lycoming TIGO-541-E engines and compared to earlier models had a longer nose and smaller windows, 25 US gal fuel tanks in the engine nacelles and a one-piece airstair cabin entry door instead of the split pair of doors on the unpressurized models. MTOW was increased at 7,800 lb. Known unofficially as the PA-31P-425, the PA-31P was produced from 1970 to 1977. In 1971 Piper introduced improvements to the PA-31 model; the Navajo B featured airconditioning, increased baggage space achieved by the addition of storage lockers in the rear part of extended nacelles, a third door next to the cabin entry doors to facilitate the loading of baggage, an optional separate door for the pilot to enter the cockpit. In September 1972, Piper unveiled the PA-31-350 Navajo Chieftain, a stretched version of the Navajo B with more powerful engines and counter-rotating propellers to prevent critical engine handling problems.
The fuselage was lengthened by 2 ft 0 in. Variants of the Lycoming TIO-540 developing 350 hp were fitted to the Chieftain, with an opposite-rotation LTIO-540 installed on the right-hand wing; the Chieftain's introduction was delayed by a flood at Piper's factory at Lock Haven, Pennsylvania caused by Hurricane Agnes, deliveries did not commence until 1973. In 1974, Piper used a Navajo B as the basis for developing a new model, the PA-31-325 Navajo C/R; the Navajo C/R had lower-power versions of the counter-rotating engines of the Chieftain, rated at 325 hp. After certification of the PA-31-325 in May 1974, production commenced in the 1975 model year; the Navajo B was superseded in the 1975 model year, by the Navajo C version of the PA-31 model. Piper established its T1000 Airliner Division in May 1981 at Florida factory. There were two aircraft in the T1000 series; the T1020, or more the PA-31-350T1020 was a PA-31-350 Chieftain optimized for and marketed for the commuter airline market. It featured reduced fuel capacity compared to the standard Chieftain, with the 40 US gal auxiliary fuel tanks in each wing of the Chieftain not fitted to the T1020.
It had reduced baggage capacity and up to eleven seats. The first T1020 was delivered in December 1981; the second aircraft in the T1000 stable was the T1040 – the PA-31T3 model. The T1040 was a hybrid, featuring the main fuselage of the PA-31-350T1020 with the nose and tail of the PA-31T1 Cheyenne I; the wings were similar to the Cheyenne I's, but with reduced fuel capacity and baggage lockers in the engine nacelles similar to those of the Chieftain. An optional underbelly cargo pod was available; the Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-11 turboprop engines were the same as those of the Cheyenne I. Deliveries of the T1040 began in July 1982. A T1050 variant with a fuselage stretch of 11 ft 6 in and seating capacity for 17 was proposed as a factory conversion of existing aircraft, but did not proceed; the last member of the PA-31 family to enter production was the PA-31P-350 Mojave. Like the T1040 the Mojave was a hybrid, but whereas the T1040 was a turboprop Chieftain the Mojave was more or less a piston-engined version of the Cheyenne.
The Mojave combined the fuselage of the Cheyenne I with the tail of the Chieftain. The wings were similar to the Chieftain's, but with greater structural strength, a 4 ft increase in wingspan a
The Cessna 150 is a two-seat tricycle gear general aviation airplane, designed for flight training and personal use. The Cessna 150 is the fifth most produced civilian plane with 23,839 aircraft produced; the Cessna 150 was offered for sale in the 150 basic model, Commuter II, Patroller and the aerobatic Aerobat models. Development of the Model 150 began in the mid-1950s with the decision by Cessna Aircraft to produce a successor to the popular Cessna 140 which finished production in 1951; the main changes in the 150 design were the use of tricycle landing gear, easier to learn to use than the tailwheel landing gear of the Cessna 140, replacing the rounded wingtips and horizontal and vertical stabilizers with more modern, squared-off profiles. In addition, the narrow, hinged wing flaps of the 140 were replaced by larger, far more effective Fowler flaps; the Cessna 150 prototype first flew on September 12, 1957, with production commencing in September 1958 at Cessna's Wichita, Kansas plant. 1,764 aircraft were produced by Reims Aviation under license in France.
These French manufactured 150s were designated Reims F-150, the "F" indicating they were built in France. American-made 150s were all produced with the Continental O-200-A 100 hp engine, but the Reims-built aircraft are powered by a Rolls Royce-built Continental O-200-As; some versions have Continental O-240-A engines. All Cessna 150s have effective flaps that extend 40 degrees; the best-performing airplanes in the 150 and 152 fleet are the 1962 Cessna 150B and the 1963 Cessna 150C. Thanks to their light 1,500 lb gross weight and more aerodynamic rear fuselage, they climb the fastest, have the highest ceilings, require the shortest runways, they have a 109-knot cruise speed, faster than any other model year of either the 150 or 152. All models from 1966 onwards have increased baggage space. With the 1967 Model 150G the doors were bowed outwards 1.5 inches on each side to provide more cabin elbow room. A total of 22,138 Cessna 150s were built in the United States, including 21,404 Commuters and 734 Aerobats.
Reims Aviation completed 1,764 F-150s, of which 1,428 were 336 were Aerobats. A Reims affiliate in Argentina assembled 47 F-150s, including 38 Commuters and 9 Aerobats. Of all the Cessna 150-152 models, the 1966 model year was the most plentiful with 3,067 1966 Cessna 150s produced; this was the first year the aircraft featured a swept tail fin, increased baggage area and electrically operated flaps. The 150 was succeeded in the summer of 1977 by the related Cessna 152; the 152 is more economical to operate due to the increased TBO of the Lycoming O-235 engine. The 152 had its flap travel limited to 30 degrees, from the 150's 40 degree flap deflection, for better climb with full flaps and the maximum certified gross weight was increased from 1,600 lb on the 150 to 1670 lb on the 152. Production of the 152 ended in 1985. In 2007 Cessna announced the two-seat successor to the Model 162 Skycatcher. 150The first model year of the Cessna 150 carried no suffix letter. It was available as the "150" or the upgraded "Commuter".
The engine was a 100 horsepower Continental O-200, the gross weight was 1,500 lb and flaps were actuated manually with a lever between the seats. Production commenced late in 1958 as the 1959 model year; the cost was US$6,995 for the Standard Model 150, $7,940 for the Trainer and $8,545 for the Commuter. The 1960 model introduced a 35-ampere generator on the Commuter; the "patroller" was introduced in 1960. This was a standard 150 with acrylic glass windows on the lower doors, 35 US gallon long-range fuel tanks and a message chute for dropping packages to the ground. Production was 122 in 1958, 648 in 1959 and 354 in 1960. 150AThe 1961 model incorporated enough changes to justify a suffix letter and thus was designated the “150A”. The "A" had its main landing gear moved aft by two inches to eliminate the problem of the aircraft ending up on its tail while loading people and baggage and to improve nosewheel steering authority; the "A" had 15% larger rear side windows and new adjustable seats. 344 were constructed.
150BThe 150B was the 1962 model. It had a new propeller that increased cruise speed by 2 knots and the option of a two-passenger child seat for the baggage compartment. 331 "B" models were built. The Commuter version cost US$8,995. 150CThe 1963 model was the "C", which introduced the option of larger 6.00×6 inch tires to replace the standard 5.00×5 tires and fuel quick drains. 472 were completed. 150DThe 1964 "D" model brought the first dramatic change to the 150 – the introduction of a rear window under the marketing name Omni-Vision. The rear window cost 3 mph in cruise speed, it resulted in a larger baggage compartment and a greater structural weight allowance for baggage from 80 to 120 lb. The unswept tailfin from previous years was retained for another two years. Elevator and rudder mass balances were increased to reduce flutter potential caused by the less aerodynamic rear fuselage; the gross weight of the aircraft was increased in 1964 to 1,600 lb, where it would stay until the advent of the Cessna 152.
804 150Ds were built. Many people find the new cabin more "airy" and due to the increased light. 150EThe 1965 Cessna 150E saw only the addition of new seats, although the standard empty weight went up 40 lb that year to 1,010 lb. The "E" model saw production increase to 1637 aircraft. 150FThe 1966 model saw great changes to the 150 design. The tailfin was swept back 35 degrees to match the styling of the C
The Cessna 172 Skyhawk is an American four-seat, single-engine, high wing, fixed-wing aircraft made by the Cessna Aircraft Company. First flown in 1955, more 172s have been built than any other aircraft. Measured by its longevity and popularity, the Cessna 172 is the most successful aircraft in history. Cessna delivered the first production model in 1956 and as of 2015, the company and its partners had built more than 44,000; the aircraft remains in production today. The Skyhawk's main competitors have been the Beechcraft Musketeer and Grumman AA-5 series, the Piper Cherokee, more the Diamond DA40 and Cirrus SR20; the Cessna 172 started life as a tricycle landing gear variant of the taildragger Cessna 170, with a basic level of standard equipment. In January 1955, Cessna flew an improved variant of the Cessna 170, a Continental O-300-A-powered Cessna 170C with larger elevators and a more angular tailfin. Although the variant was tested and certified, Cessna decided to modify it with a tricycle landing gear, the modified Cessna 170C flew again on 12 June 1955.
To reduce the time and cost of certification, the type was added to the Cessna 170 type certificate as the Model 172. The 172 was given its own type certificate, 3A12; the 172 became an overnight sales success, over 1,400 were built in 1956, its first full year of production. Early 172s were similar in appearance to the 170s, with the same straight aft fuselage and tall landing gear legs, although the 172 had a straight tailfin while the 170 had a rounded fin and rudder. In 1960, the 172A incorporated revised landing gear and the swept-back tailfin, still in use today; the final aesthetic development, found in the 1963 172D and all 172 models, was a lowered rear deck allowing an aft window. Cessna advertised this added rear visibility as "Omni-Vision."Production halted in the mid-1980s, but resumed in 1996 with the 160 hp Cessna 172R Skyhawk. Cessna supplemented this in 1998 with the 180 hp Cessna 172S Skyhawk SP; the Cessna 172 may be modified via a wide array of supplemental type certificates, including increased engine power and higher gross weights.
Available STC engine modifications increase power from 180 to 210 hp, add constant-speed propellers, or allow the use of automobile gasoline. Other modifications include additional fuel tank capacity in the wing tips, added baggage compartment tanks, added wheel pants to reduce drag, or enhanced landing and takeoff performance and safety with a STOL kit; the 172 has been equipped with the 180 hp fuel injected Superior Air Parts Vantage engine. A Cessna 172 was used in 1958 to set the world record for flight endurance. On December 4, 1958, Robert Timm and John Cook took off from McCarran Airfield in Las Vegas, Nevada, in a used Cessna 172, registration number N9172B, they landed back at McCarran Airfield on February 7, 1959, after 64 days, 22 hours, 19 minutes and 5 seconds in flight. The flight was part of a fund-raising effort for the Damon Runyon Cancer Fund. Food and water were transferred by matching speeds with a chase car on a straight stretch of road in the desert and hoisting the supplies aboard with a rope and bucket.
Fuel was taken on by hoisting a hose from a fuel truck up to the aircraft, filling an auxiliary belly tank installed for the flight, pumping that fuel into the aircraft's regular tanks and filling the belly tank again. The drivers steered while a second person matched speeds with the aircraft with his foot on the vehicle's accelerator pedal. Engine oil was added by means of a tube from the cabin, fitted to pass through the firewall. Only the pilot's seat was installed; the remaining space was used for a pad. The right cabin door was replaced with an easy-opening, accordion-type door to allow supplies and fuel to be hoisted aboard. Early in the flight, the engine-driven electric generator failed. A Champion wind-driven generator was hoisted aboard, taped to the wing support strut, plugged into the cigarette lighter socket; the pilots decided to end the marathon flight because with 1,558 hours of continuously running the engine during the record-setting flight, plus several hundred hours on the engine beforehand, the engine's power output had deteriorated to the point at which they were able to climb away after refueling.
The aircraft is on display in the passenger terminal at McCarran International Airport. Photos and details of the record flight can be seen in a small museum on the upper level of the baggage claim area. After the flight, Cook said: Next time I feel in the mood to fly endurance, I'm going to lock myself in our garbage can with the vacuum cleaner running; that is. 172The basic 172 appeared in November 1955 as the 1956 model and remained in production until replaced by the 172A in early 1960. It was equipped with a Continental O-300 145 hp six-cylinder, air-cooled engine and had a maximum gross weight of 2,200 lb. Introductory base price was US$8,995 and a total of 4,195 were constructed over the five years. 172AThe 1960 model 172A introduced a swept-back rudder, as well as float fittings. The price was US$9,450 and 1,015 were built. 172BThe 172B was introduced in late 1960 as the 1961 model and featured a shorter landing gear, engine mounts lengthened three inches, a reshaped cowling, a pointed propeller spinner.
For the first time, the "Skyhawk" name was applied to an available deluxe option package. This added optional equipment included full exteri
Beechcraft King Air
The Beechcraft King Air family is part of a line of American utility aircraft produced by Beechcraft. The King Air line comprises a number of twin-turboprop models that have been divided into two families; the Model 90 and 100 series developed in the 1960s are known as King Airs, while the T-tail Model 200 and 300 series were marketed as Super King Airs, with the name "Super" being dropped by Beechcraft in 1996. The King Air was the first aircraft in its class and has been in continuous production since 1964, it has outsold all of its turboprop competitors combined. It now faces competition from jet aircraft such as the Embraer Phenom 100, Honda HA-420 HondaJet and Cessna Citation Mustang; the Model 90 King Air was conceived as the Model 120 in 1961. In May 1963, Beechcraft began test flights of the proof-of-concept Model 87, a modified Queen Air with Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-6 engines. On July 14, Beech announced a new type, a month began accepting orders for the "King Air", with deliveries to commence in Autumn 1964.
On January 24, 1964, the first definitive prototype, by now designated Model 65-90 and fitted with PT6A-6 engines, flew for the first time. After 10 months of test flying, in 1964 the Model 87 was delivered to the United States Army as the NU-8F; the first production aircraft was delivered on October 8, by the end of the month, 152 aircraft had been ordered. In 1966, after 112 65-90s were completed, production switched to the Model 65-A90 with PT6A-20 engines; as a measure of the type's popularity, 206 65-A90s were built in less than two years when production switched to the Model B90, the first of these rolling off the production line in 1968. Military versions built during these years included the 65-A90-1, 65-A90-2, 65-A90-3, 65-A90-4, all being unpressurised models based on the Model 87; these were produced for the US Army. A total of 162 of these were built between 1967 and 1971. A total of 184 B90 models were produced before the Model C90 was introduced in 1971, with wingspan increased over earlier models by 4 ft 11 in to 50 ft 3 in, Maximum Take-Off Weight increased by 350 lb to 9,650 lb, PT6A-20A engines.
The broadly similar Model E90 was introduced the following year, with PT6A-28 engines. Further refinement of the 90 series resulted in the Model F90 and follow-on Model F90-1; the F-models featured the T-tail of the Model 200 King Air mated to the fuselage and wings of the E90, with PT6A-135 engines of 750 shp driving four-bladed propellers. The F90 prototype flew on January 16, 1978 and 203 production versions followed between 1979 and 1983, when the F90 was superseded by the F90-1; the F90 prototype was re-engined with Garrett AiResearch TPE-331 engines to test the feasibility of a Model G90, but this model was not put into production. The Model C90-1 entered production in 1982 after 507 C90s and 347 E90s had been built, featured PT6A-21 engines and improvements to the pressurization system. 54 were built. The following year the F90-1 was put into production with redesigned engine cowlings, upgraded PT6A-135A engines, hydraulic landing gear, triple-fed electrical bus; the C90-1 was soon followed by the Model C90A, which featured the redesigned engine cowlings of the F90-1.
The C90A received an increase in MTOW in 1987. The C90A model was in production until 1992, by which time 235 had been built, all but 74 with the increased MTOW. Only two C90As were built in 1992, the Model C90B followed that year with airframe improvements, four-bladed propellers, propeller synchrophasing, all in an effort to reduce cabin noise; this model had PT6A-21s. In 1994 a cheaper version was introduced as the C90SE, with three-bladed propellers, standardised interior and mechanical instruments instead of the Electronic Flight Instrument System fitted to the C90B. A total of 456 C90Bs and C90SEs were delivered by the time production of these models ended in late 2005. In July 2005, during the Oshkosh Airshow, Beechcraft introduced the C90GT; the C90GT was fitted with 750 shp PT6A-135As, flat rated to the same 550 shp as the earlier King Airs. This engine change increased performance due to lower operating temperatures, improving both cruise speed and climb rate. With a 275 kt cruise speed, the C90GT was competitive with the new generation of Very Light Jets over short to medium distances, while providing a larger and more luxurious cabin.
C90GT deliveries commenced at the beginning of 2006. On May 21, 2007, during the 7th Annual European Business Aviation Convention & Exhibition in Geneva, Beechcraft announced the Model C90GTi updated version of the C90GT, featuring the Rockwell Collins Proline 21 avionics package only offered for the B200 and B300 King Airs. Deliveries commenced in 2008 after 97 C90GTs were delilvered to customers over the previous two years; the Model 100 is a stretched derivative of the Model 90 featuring five cabin windows instead of the Model 90's three. The 100 used the wings and engines from the Model 99 airline
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000