Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U. S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, is known by the slogan the "Land of 10,000 Lakes", its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord. Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U. S. states. This area is the center of transportation, industry and government, while being home to an internationally known arts community; the remainder of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture. Minnesota was inhabited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. French explorers and fur traders began exploring the region in the 17th century, encountering the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe tribes. Much of what is today Minnesota was part of the vast French holding of Louisiana, purchased by the United States in 1803.
Following several territorial reorganizations, Minnesota in its current form was admitted as the country's 32nd state on May 11, 1858. Like many Midwestern states, it remained centered on lumber and agriculture. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European immigrants from Scandinavia and Germany, began to settle the state, which remains a center of Scandinavian American and German American culture. In recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, Latin America has broadened its demographic and cultural composition; the state's economy has diversified, shifting from traditional activities such as agriculture and resource extraction to services and finance. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, the state is among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation; the word Minnesota comes from the Dakota name for the Minnesota River: The river got its name from one of two words in the Dakota language,'Mní sóta' which means "clear blue water", or'Mnißota', which means cloudy water.
Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls, Minneota, Minnetonka and Minneapolis, a combination of mni and polis, the Greek word for "city". Minnesota is the second northernmost U. S. state and northernmost contiguous state. Its isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the only part of the 48 contiguous states lying north of the 49th parallel; the state is part of the U. S. region known as part of North America's Great Lakes Region. It shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are to the north. With 86,943 square miles, or 2.25% of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state. Minnesota has gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean.
The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state's landscape and sculpted its terrain; the Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago, its bed created the fertile Red River valley, its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling.
Minnesota is geologically quiet today. The state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low of 601 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean; the state's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over 10 acres in size. Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of wate
Loring Park, on the southwest corner of downtown Minneapolis, is the largest park in the Central Community of Minneapolis, Minnesota. It lends its name to the surrounding neighborhood. Loring Park hosts several annual events including the Twin Cities Pride Festival and the Loring Park Artists' Festival; the park contains a small lake and paths for biking. Named Central Park, it was renamed in honor of Charles M. Loring, known as the "Father of Minneapolis Parks." The park is the site of various cultural and political events. It features a playground and walking paths, public art, a fishing pier, it displays two well-known pieces of public art: the "Dandelion Fountain," a 1975 gift of Parks Commissioner Ben Berger, a statue of Norwegian composer Ole Bull. Loring Park was established in 1883 after the passage of the Park Act, which first created the Minneapolis Park and Recreation Board; the park was first named Central Park. In 1890 the park was renamed again in honor of Charles Morgridge Loring, the first president of the park board in Minneapolis.
Loring Park was purchased by the Minnesota Public Parks board on April 28, 1883. The land was contained 30 acres of land. A few more pieces of land were added to the park for a total cost of $350,000; this was the first plot of land, purchased by the Minnesota Public Parks board. Shortly after purchasing the land, the Minneapolis Public Parks board hired George Brakett and Horace Cleveland to design the park and to drain the bog in the lake, they used plants. They decided at this time to make the park pedestrian only. In 1906 the first permanent building in any Minneapolis park was constructed in Loring Park; the heated two-story shelter was donated by Charles Loring and was used as a warming house, recreation center and kindergarten. In 1960, the park renovated the shelter to be used as a space for senior programs, it was the first Minneapolis park to provide senior activities. Loring Park was the first park in Minnesota to have electric lights; the lights were installed in fall of 1884 to be used to illuminate the pond during winter skating season.
In 1916 the local General Mills Company provided the park with 91 electric lights. Loring Park was the center of the case Minneapolis Park and Recreation Board; this lawsuit was between the Minneapolis Park and Recreation Board and Brian Johnson over First Amendment rights. The United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit ruled that MSRB can not ban non-commercial material distribution in the park unless the material violates the law. Loring Park is the venue for various annual events; the Twin Cities Pride Festival and the Loring Park Artists' Festival are some of the more famous events. Loring Park's location directly across from the Walker Art Museum makes it a fitting venue for the annual Loring Park Artists' Festival and a series of smaller artist gatherings. Starting in summer 2014, Chipotle has held their Cultivate free music and culinary festival in Loring Park; the 2014 lineup included Portugal. The Man, The Mowgli's, Grouplove. Walk the Moon, Atlas Genius, X Ambassadors, Anderson East, Hippo Campus were all slotted to appear at the 2015 festival.
Andrew Zimmern and Richard Blais attended the event, a part of the festival's gratuitous "Chef Demos."In addition, Loring Park is home to the annual "Winterfest at Loring Park," which in 2016 included horse-drawn carriage rides, holiday crafts and the local Kairos Dance Company. It is hosted by the Minneapolis Parks and Recreation Board; the official boundaries of the neighborhood are Lyndale Avenue to the west, Interstate 394 to the north, 12th Street to the northeast, Highway 65 to the east, Interstate 94 to the south. Notable buildings near Loring Park include the Walker Art Center,430 Oak Grove, Basilica of St. Mary, St. Mark's Episcopal Cathedral, Minneapolis Community and Technical College, Minneapolis Convention Center, the Minneapolis Sculpture Garden; the park is surrounded by apartment buildings, many dating from the early 1900s, although recent construction in the area has brought many new town homes and condominiums to the area. Loring Park is locally known for its diverse social environment and as a nexus for many arts and cultural events, boasting over 300 businesses and institutions.
The Loring Park District, according to its official site, offers the "quintessential urban lifestyle," a blend of "condominium and apartment living." The philosophy of the district is one of coalescence: it seeks to mix the old with the new, desiring to become quaint and charming through its combining of the modern with the "historic brownstone." Loring Park is mentioned extensively by Craig Finn by the name "Penetration Park" in songs by his bands Lifter Puller and Hold Steady. Portions of the television series Man v. Food's first-season finale were filmed in Loring Park. Minneapolis Neighborhood Profile - Loring Park Citizens for a Loring Park Community Loring Business Association
Longfellow is a defined community in Minneapolis, Minnesota which includes five smaller neighborhoods inside of it: Cooper, Howe and Longfellow. Grouped with South Minneapolis between the city's eastern border with the Mississippi River and the Metro Blue Line, Longfellow takes its name from Longfellow neighborhood which in turn is named after Henry Wadsworth Longfellow; the renowned American poet incorporated elements into his poem The Song of Hiawatha from Henry Schoolcraft's accounts of native Dakota lore in Minnesota which included Minnehaha Falls in Longfellow's southern tip. The early reference of Highway 55 as Hiawatha Avenue, along the west border, may have influenced the naming decision when community borders were drawn in the 1960s. Hiawatha Avenue is the main thoroughfare leading north into Downtown Minneapolis and south to the Minneapolis-Saint Paul Airport. Longfellow is home to the Danish American Center, Minnehaha Academy, Christ Church and the Longfellow House; the area is recognized by bungalow style Craftsman homes built in the 1920s.
However it contains the Ray and Kay Price House, designed by the famed Ralph Rapson, the Frederick Lang House, designed by Herb Fritz. Minnehaha Falls was once a national attraction and still is an important cultural node of the Twin Cities; the neighborhood's central corridor runs along 42nd Avenue South and is home to many businesses including the Riverview Theater, Turtle Bread Company, The Blue Door Pub, Solid State Vinyl Records and Mother Earth Gardens. Along the northern edge runs the Midtown Greenway trail and the vibrant East Lake business district, home to many award winning restaurants including Le Town Talk Diner, Sonora Grill, The Craftsman; the west border was once an agri-industrial and milling processing center served by the Northern Pacific Railway. Today the grain silos and factories along the length of the highway are set to make way for new residential condos, apartment buildings, a new greenway connecting Minnehaha Falls and the Midtown Greenway; this area is anchored by the Minnehaha Mile, a biking street that contains more antique, vintage and secondhand shops than any other commercial corridor in the state of Minnesota The city did not acquire land south of Franklin Avenue until 1881 and 1883 with the last half of Longfellow annexed in 1887 from Richfield.
The area was built from 1906 through the 1920s when streetcar and residential rail became accessible. The advent of ready-to-assemble homes such as Sears Catalog Homes made homeownership accessible to the immigrant population of the city who could not afford the carpentry or craftsmanship to build single-family homes of the era. Most of these early homeowners were first and second generation Scandinavians who moved out from Cedar Riverside. By 1930, the south area was still a major immigrant hub compared to the southwest area with a high foreign-born or second generation population. Longfellow's popular The Song of Hiawatha spurred national interest in Minnehaha Falls and his name became associated with the area; the poet's name would be further emphasized when the Longfellow House was built in 1906. A local businessman, Robert Fremont "Fish" Jones, commissioned the 2/3 scale replica of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's original home in Cambridge, Massachusetts; the house was placed as part of the Longfellow Zoological Gardens at 4001 Minnehaha Parkway East, which Jones ran.
Jones died in 1934 and the house was deeded to the city. For a short period it was a Minneapolis public library serving the community until it was moved and restored by the Park Board in 1994 to its current location near Minnehaha Falls, it is now an information center for the Minneapolis Park System. Lock and Dam No. 1 is located on the southern edge of the neighborhood and offers a bird's-eye view of the locking procedure and other topics ranging from barge traffic in the transportation network to the Corps 9-foot channel project. Minnehaha Park is a historic city park on the shores of the Mississippi River that includes picnic areas, trails and the 53 foot falls. An old snack shack in the Minnehaha Pavilion is home to the popular Sea Salt Eatery. Mississippi National River and Recreation Area provides trails for biking and hiking on along the river and provides access to sandy beaches and viewing points. Minnehaha Mile is a street containing nine antique, vintage and secondhand shops, more than any other commercial corridor in the state of Minnesota.
East Lake Street is a commercial corridor that hosts an extraordinary collection of restaurants that serve foods from around the world and unique shopping & business venues. Eric Dregni, writer Longfellow Community Council Twin Cities Bungalow Club Longfellow outlier: Suburbia on the banks of the Mississippi
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
The Central community in Minneapolis is located in the central part of the city, consisting of 6 smaller official neighborhoods, includes Downtown Minneapolis, the central business district. It includes some high-density residential areas surrounding it, excluding areas east of the Mississippi River. Businesses based in the Central area include the corporate headquarters of Target, US Bank, the broadcast facilities of Minnesota CBS station WCCO-TV. Downtown East Downtown West where most of the high-rise office buildings are located Elliot Park Loring Park North Loop referred to as the Warehouse District Stevens Square/Loring Heights Neighborhoods of Minneapolis
The Webber-Camden neighborhood is located in the Camden community of Minneapolis, Minnesota. Its boundaries are Penn and Newton Avenues to the west, the Canadian Pacific Railway tracks to the north, Interstate 94 to the east, Dowling Avenue to the south; the neighborhood was just known as "Camden" until 1995. Webber Park and Webber Parkway are located in the neighborhood. Media related to Webber-Camden, Minneapolis at Wikimedia Commons Minneapolis Neighborhood Profile - Webber-Camden Webber-Camden Neighborhood Organization Northwest Minneapolis Business Association
Stevens Square, Minneapolis
Stevens Square is the southernmost neighborhood of the Central community in Minneapolis. It is bordered on Lyndale Avenue on the west, Franklin Avenue on the south, Interstates 94 and 35W on the north and east, respectively. Although one of the densest neighborhoods in Minneapolis today, the land was occupied by a few large mansions. Today, the area is composed of old brownstone apartment buildings or mansions that have been subdivided into apartments, giving the neighborhood a heavy population density within its small geographical area. Much of the neighborhood is a National Historic District, five of the apartments were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1993. Although Stevens Square faced many of the same challenges which confronted other inner-city neighborhoods through the 1990s, the neighborhood has seen significant increases in safety and average income in recent years; these have been attributed both to a successful Neighborhood Revitalization Program and to limited gentrification, with many apartments buildings converted to condominiums or co-ops.
The half of the neighborhood east of Nicollet Avenue is part of City Council Ward 6, while the part to the west is in Ward 7. The whole neighborhood is represented in the Minnesota State House of Representatives in district 62A, in the Minnesota State Senate in district 62, in the United States House of Representatives in Minnesota's 5th congressional district. Before the arrival of European settlers, the area was inhabited by Dakota Sioux. Although the area was platted in 1856, it remained sparsely occupied for several decades. Most land in the area was purchased by Richard Mendenhall, who developed the land into a small number of large houses and several massive greenhouses, which supplied Mendenhall's floral business. However, the neighborhood's central location and the rapid growth of the city in the 1890s, facilitated by the introduction of horse-drawn and electric streetcars which passed through the area on several streets, made the area an attractive area for redevelopment. In 1907, the property owners, along with one of the biggest property developers in town, petitioned the Park Board to purchase the site of Stevens Square Park, whose irregular grade made development impractical.
The Park Board accepted the offer, purchasing the site for $41,820, financed by an assessment on local landowners. The park was named in honor of Col. John H. Stevens, the first authorized settler on the west bank of what would become Minneapolis. Construction on the Abbott Hospital, now converted to apartments, began in 1910. Apartment construction soon followed in the Renaissance Revival style set by Stevens Court. Most buildings were constructed to the limits of fire codes at the time, maximizing land coverage and density while building to the three and a half story limits established for non-fire safe construction. Most of the older buildings in the neighborhood were constructed by the mid-1920s, when a slump in the housing market combined with a lack of available land drastically slowed the pace of further construction. Although the neighborhood was inhabited by middle-class office workers and single women, by the mid-century the rise of the automobile and white flight to the growing suburbs led to significant decline, as average incomes in the neighborhood dropped precipitously.
Although spared from destruction by the construction of Interstate 35W planned to pass directly through the center of the neighborhood, the two new Interstates isolated the neighborhood from downtown except by a few bridges on major arterials. Several large high-rise public housing projects were completed in the 1960s, which contributed to the reputation of the neighborhood as dangerous and low-income. Starting in the 1970s, however, an active neighborhood organization and interested landowners began working to revitalize the neighborhood, renovating many buildings and addressing quality-of-life issues in the neighborhood. Much of that renovation was financed by General Mills, which believed there were significant profits to be made in revitalizing the inner city, although disappointing financial returns led the company to divest from the project in 1980. A successful block patrol program was set up, in 1994 the Emily Peake Memorial Garden was established at the corner of Third Avenue and 19th St, in part to discourage what was a favorite location for drug sales.
In recent decades, crime has declined precipitously. Several important arterial streets pass through the neighborhood, including Nicollet Avenue, First Avenue, Franklin Avenue. In addition, the neighborhood has easy access to nearby Interstate highways, to downtown Minneapolis, located less than a mile to the north. In addition, the neighborhood is served by several important transit lines, including the high-frequency 18 bus on Nicollet, as well as the 2, the 11, the 17. Although the neighborhood was considered as part of the routing for the METRO Green Line extension, an alternate route was chosen; the planned Nicollet-Central Streetcar would pass directly through the neighborhood. In addition, there is a Nice Ride station located at the corner of Franklin and Nicollet, providing easy access to the city's bike sharing system. Several buildings within the neighborhood are listed on the National Register of Historic Places; these include the historic Amos B. Coe House on Third Avenue, home to the Minnesota African American History Museum and