France national rugby league team
The France national rugby league team represent France in international rugby league tournaments. They are referred to as les Chanticleers or less as les Tricolores; the team is run under the auspices of the Fédération Française de Rugby à XIII and is made up of players from Super League and the Elite One Championship. The French rugby league team first played in 1934 on a tour of England, they have taken part in all World Cups, twelve in total, with the first being held in 1954 in France. They have never won the title but finished runners-up in both 1954 and 1968; these are considered the glory years of French rugby league as from the 1950s to the 1970s the team were strong and beat Australia, New Zealand and Great Britain. Since those days, les Chanticleers have not done as well, not managing to win a single match in the 1995 World Cup, but doing better in the 2000 World Cup with wins over Tonga and South Africa before losing to eventual finalists, New Zealand. In 2006, the Perpignan based team Catalans Dragons entered Super League Europe, have since produced a number of top-class French players.
Despite improved professionalism, France finished 10th in the 2008 World Cup in Australia. The team reached the quarter-finals of the 2013 World Cup; the team is ranked fifth in the world. In Europe alone they are ranked second, ahead of Ireland and Lebanon, but behind their main rival, England. On New Year's Eve 1933, England and Australia played in Paris – the first game of rugby league football in France; the match was one-sided, with Australia winning 63-13 in front of a crowd of about 5,000, but the seed was sown. French rugby union players, disgruntled that France had been suspended from the Five Nations Championship, formed the "Ligue Francaise de Rugby à XIII" on 6 April 1934. Jean Galia, a former rugby union international and champion boxer, led France on a six-match tour of England in 1934 and they recorded their first win in Kingston upon Hull; the national team's first game was in Paris on 15 April 1934, losing 21-32 to England in front of a crowd of 20,000. By 1939, the French League had 225 clubs and the national side won the 1938–39 European Rugby League Championship where they became the first French team in any sport to beat England at home.
The game of rugby league suffered in France during the Second World War, as administrators within French rugby union worked with the collaborating Vichy regime to have rugby league banned. Some players and officials of the sport were punished, whilst the total assets of the rugby league and its clubs were handed over to the union. After the war the French game was re-established and the French became one of rugby league's major powers, competing in the Rugby League World Cup and in major international series against Great Britain and New Zealand, despite continuing persecution. In 1949, they became the first French sporting team to win at Wembley Stadium. In 1951 France embarked on their first tour of Australasia, coached by Bob Samatan and led by the legendary chain-smoking fullback, Puig Aubert, their flamboyant style of unorthodox attacking rugby attracted huge crowds. When the two nations met for the first Test, the match became the first "all ticket" international to be staged at the Sydney Cricket Ground, attracted a crowd of over 60,000.
On Saturday 30 June 1951, Australia secured a hard-fought second Test victory over France in Brisbane by 23 points to 11. The third Test took place at Sydney Cricket Ground three weeks before a crowd of 67,009. Late tries from Duncan Hall and Brian Davies could not prevent the Kangaroos from suffering an embarrassing 35-14 defeat. France played 28 matches during the three-month tour, winning 21 matches, drawing twice and losing just five times. In November 1951, France met "Other Nationalities" in an International Championship match at the Boulevard, Hull which became known as the "Battle of the Boulevard". Other Nationalities won 17-14 but the match centred on the behaviour of Edouard Ponsinet, involved in most of the violence that happened at the game; the Other Nationalities were down to eleven players at one stage, with Arthur Clues being the most serious casualty, hospitalised with head injuries. Ponsinet was sent off, ten minutes from time after breaking the nose of Jeff Burke. Despite this defeat France went on to retain the title with home victories over Wales.
In the 1954 World Cup, the first of either rugby code and was instigated by France, Les Tricolores defeated both Australia and New Zealand, drew with Great Britain to reach the final. This was the closest they went to getting their hands on the World Cup, going down narrowly, 16-12, to Great Britain in the final in Parc des Princes. France donated the original World Cup trophy. France repeated the success of their 1951 tour in 1955, with bigger attendances greeting the team. Puig Aubert did not tour. Despite this, France played splendidly to win the second test in Brisbane and the third test at the SCG; the 1951 and 1955 French sides that toured Australia are still regarded as two of the strongest sides to tour that country. In the 1957 World Cup, held in Australia, the winner was decided by finishing top of the table with no final being played. France finished winning one match against New Zealand. History was made when the returning French and British squads visited South Africa and played a series of exhibition matches in
Rugby Football League
The Rugby Football League is the governing body for professional rugby league in England. The name Rugby Football League also referred to the main league competition run by the organisation; this has since been supplanted by Super League, the Championship and League 1. Based at Red Hall in Leeds, it administers the England national rugby league team, the Challenge Cup, Super League and the Rugby League Championships; the social and junior game is administered in association with the British Amateur Rugby League Association. The Rugby Football League is a member of the Rugby League European Federation and as a senior Full Member has a combined veto power over the Council with France; the RFL is part of the Community Board, which has representatives from BARLA, Combined Services, English Schools Rugby League and Student Rugby League. Tony Adams will take over as the president in 2019, taking over from Andy Burnham. Established as the Northern Rugby Football Union in August 1895 by representatives of twenty-one Rugby Football Union clubs at a meeting at the George Hotel, Huddersfield, it changed its name in 1922 to the Rugby Football League, mirroring its sister organisations overseas, the Australian Rugby Football League and New Zealand Rugby Football League.
The turnover of the RFL was reported as £27m in 2011. On Tuesday 27 August 1895, as a result of an emergency meeting in Manchester, prominent Lancashire rugby clubs Broughton Rangers, Oldham, Rochdale Hornets, St Helens, Warrington and Wigan declared that they would support their Yorkshire colleagues in their proposal to form a Northern Union. Two days on Thursday 29 August 1895, representatives of 21 clubs met in the George Hotel, Huddersfield to form the "Northern Rugby Football Union". Twenty clubs agreed to resign from the Rugby Football Union, but Dewsbury felt unable to comply with the decision; the Cheshire club, had telegraphed the meeting requesting admission to the new organisation and was duly accepted with a second Cheshire club, admitted at the next meeting. The 22 clubs and their years of foundation were: In 1908 the Northern Union's brand of rugby was taken up in Australia and New Zealand; the Union hosted touring sides from both countries before assembling a Great Britain representative team for a 1910 tour of Australia and New Zealand.
These nations Australia, would go on to excel in the sport and gain significant influence over it over the following century. The British Amateur Rugby League Association was created in 1973 in Huddersfield by a group of enthusiasts concerned about the dramatic disappearance of many amateur leagues and clubs. Fewer than 150 amateur teams remained with a mere 30 youth rugby league teams. The'breakaway' from the RFL was acrimonious and was contested, with a vote 29-1 against recognising BARLA. Thanks to Tom Mitchell, this changed to a unanimous vote of approval for BARLA within 12 months. Maurice Lindsay became the Chief Executive of the RFL in 1992, proposing the Super League, which replaced Championship as the sport's premier league competition from 1996 onwards. Lindsay returned to Wigan in 1999 for his second stint at the club after Sir Rodney Walker chairman of the RFL, sacked him after a campaign to unseat him failed; the RFL accumulated losses of £1.9 million at the end of 2001, shortly before a major restructuring of the governing body and the appointment of Richard Lewis as executive chairman in May 2002.
Within a year of joining the RFL, he oversaw reunification with BARLA after nearly 30 years of division. Lewis left in 2012 to become Chief Executive of the Croquet Club; the RFL net value has been positive every year since 2004, being £1.7M in 2011. In 2011 a major change to the game was agreed, changing from a winter to a summer game, starting in 2012 with a playing season from March to November, aligning with the Super League, which has played this way since 1996; the regional leagues may include winter competitions in addition. In 2012, the Rugby Football League were awarded the Stonewall Sport Award in recognition of their work in embracing inclusivity and tackling homophobia, they became the first UK sporting organisation to make the top 100 employers in the Stonewall Index that measures attitudes towards lesbian and bisexual staff. The RFL operates a five-tier system and is responsible for running the top three professional divisions as well as the National Conference League and various regional leagues below that.
The RFL runs two cup competitions for professional clubs and is involved with the organization of the World Club Challenge and World Club Series. The England national rugby league team represent England in international rugby league football tournaments; the team has now seen a revival, having formed from the Great Britain team, who represented Wales and Ireland. The team is run under the auspices of the Rugby Football League; as of 2008, the team now participates in all World Cups, Four Nations, Test matches. The team dates back to 1904 when they played against a mixture of Welsh and Scottish players in Wigan. Since and right up until the 1950s, they toured Australia and New Zealand and played both home and away matches against neighbours Wales and France, but when it was decided that Great Britain would tour the Southern Hemisphere instead of England and Wales became the only regular opponents. Though, there are some long periods where England played any matches, their first appearance in the Rugby League World Cup was in 1975, since they have become runners-up in 1975 and 1995, the latter tournament being held in England.
In 2008 they competed in the 2008 W
England national rugby league team
The England national rugby league team represents England in international rugby league. The team formed from the Great Britain team which represented Wales and Ireland, is run under the auspices of the Rugby Football League, it participates in the Rugby League World Cup, Four Nations and Test matches. The team dates to 1904, when they played against a mixture of Scottish players in Wigan; until the 1950s, they toured Australia and New Zealand and played both home and away matches against neighbours Wales and France, but when it was decided that Great Britain would tour the Southern Hemisphere instead of England and Wales became the only regular opponents. Their first appearance in the Rugby League World Cup was in 1975, they finished runners-up in 1975, 1995 and 2017. England competed in the European Nations Cup and in 2006, an England'A' team competed for the Federation Shield. England's main rivals were Wales and France, with the rivalries stretching back to 1908 and 1934 respectively. England's main rivals now are New Zealand.
Traditionally a predominantly white kit is worn including white socks. However the jersey features some form of red, like red stripes, crosses or chevrons; these colours are similar to other English sporting teams and are the colours used on the national flag. In 2008, a new kit was introduced featuring a red cross on the front and red strips down the sides of the jersey and socks were white too with red strips. In 2008, the Rugby Football League chose to abandon the traditional English lion on the badge in favour of a much simpler shield and cross design; the team is ranked third in the world, behind Australia and New Zealand. Wayne Bennett is the head coach, Sean O'Loughlin the captain. In 1895, twenty-one clubs split with the Rugby Football Union, citing that they wanted to play professionally, formed the Northern Rugby Football Union; the twenty-one clubs were all from Northern England and the players were working class. However it was not just English players who made the switch and Welsh players switched allegiance to the new code, wanting payments for playing.
Switching heightened in the early 20th century with more Scottish and Welsh players leaving the RFU than before. The England national rugby union team had been playing international matches since 1871, but it was not until 1904, nine years after the formation of the new code, that an international rugby league match was played. At the start of 1903 season the Northern Union thought about international matches and scheduled a match for England on New Year's Day 1904 in Oldham. On that day though, the ground was frosty and the match was cancelled and it was rescheduled for April. On 5 April 1904 England competed against a team called "Other Nationalities", who were made up of ten Welshman and two Scotsman, including George Frater, who captained the side, it was a period of experimentation for the Northern Union and each team had twelve players, not thirteen. At Central Park, Wigan the ground was muddy and in poor condition, however the match went ahead. England steamed into a 3–0 lead, from a try by Warrington's Jackie Fish.
This is despite Salford's James Lomas arriving late and causing England to start the match with eleven players. Fish missed the conversion and so the Other Nationalities were able to level the scores a little Welshman Thomas crashing over for a try; the conversion was missed and going into half-time the score was tied 3–3. In the second half Thomas went over for another try before Wigan's Harris sealed a 9–3 win for the Other Nationalities in the final minutes of the match. A total of 6,000 spectators turned up for the match, considered a poor showing despite a Broughton Rangers v Bradford cup clash being scheduled on the same day. In 1905 a match between the two sides was played at Bradford; this time England won 26–11 though they were losing 11–0 at half-time. Wigan's Jim Leytham scored four tries in a record that still stand today; the match was played with fifteen players on each side and so was the 1906 match. Played in Wigan again, the match finished a 3–3 draw; the concept was abandoned after the 1906 match.
By 1908 the game had expanded much more into Australia, New Zealand and Wales and England began playing those teams. Harold Wagstaff made his debut for England in 1908 against the touring Kangaroos team at 17 years and 228 days; the Other Nationalities side did return in 1921. An England side beat the Australasian team of the 1921–22 Kangaroo tour of Great Britain 4–5 at Highbury. England played only one international between 10 May 1956 and 7 November 1968 an 18–6 victory at Headingley Rugby Stadium, Leeds. England played at the World Cup in 1975 coached by Alex Murphy, played over several months in both hemispheres on a league basis. Great Britain would represent England in the World Cup, but the RLIF wanted to capitalise on the large amount of Welsh players in the game at the time, so England and Wales fielded separate teams. England won a 20 -- 2 victory over France in Leeds in March. In June the Lions suffered their first defeat in just their second match of the tournament, losing 12–7 against a strong Wales side in Brisbane.
A little England managed to hold on for a draw against Australia in Sydney, the final score being 10–10. And they picked up a point in Auckland, drawing 17–17 against New Zealand. At the end of October, after the domestic season had finished, England beat the Welsh 22–16 in Warrington and crossed the English Channel to thrash a French side 48–2 in Bordeaux. Bradford played host the England versus New Zealand match, in which England won comfortably 27–12. At the start of November, England sque
Scotland national rugby league team
The Scotland national rugby league team represent Scotland in international rugby league football tournaments. Following the break-up of the Great Britain team in 2008, Scottish players play for Scotland, apart from occasional Southern Hemisphere tours, for which the Great Britain team is expected to be revived; the team is nicknamed the Bravehearts. Though its foundations may date back to as early as 1904, the team formally began in 1995, making them the newest international rugby league team in Great Britain. In their first match they played Ireland. Since Ireland has become the team's main rival, the two teams having played each other many times in their short histories. In 2000 they qualified for their first World Cup, but failed to make an impact, losing all three of their group matches. In 2008 they beat. Scotland play in a dark blue strip, similar to the nation's football and rugby union teams, with blue shirt and socks. A blue and white shield with a thistle, the Scottish emblem, is the team's badge.
The shirt has been changed, although in the early days of the team, white was used on the shirts. The team is ranked seventh in the RLIF World Rankings, having jumped from fourth after going winless in the 2017 World Cup. Englishman Steve McCormack is the team's coach, having coached since 2004, with Danny Brough captaining the side, it could be argued that the foundations for the Scottish team began in 1904. On 5 April 1904 England played an international match against the "Other Nationalities", a team of Welshmen and Scotsmen, in Wigan, it was a 12-a-side game. Of the twelve players who played for the Other Nationalities team two of them were Scotsmen coming from Northern Union clubs, including captain George Frater. After 80 minutes the Other Nationalities had beaten England 9–3; the team carried on for another two years, playing England in 1905, losing 26–11, in 1906, drawing 3–3. The team was revived, most notably in the early 1930s, in 1949. Both Scotland and Ireland had been developing rugby league in their respective nations for several years.
This was true at student level, with a Scotland student team having played since 1987 and having competed in the 1992 Students World Cup. But it was decided that the time was right for an open-age national team to attempt to be entered into an Emerging Nations Tournament that would coincide with the 1995 World Cup, that the Rugby League International Federation had announced. Both Scotland Rugby League and Rugby League Ireland arranged a match on 13 August 1995 at the Royal Dublin Showground in Dublin, Ireland; however the Rugby Football League provided no financial support to either team. Luckily the Scotland team managed to get sponsored, the money was used for the ferry crossing, but each individual player had to pay for basic accommodation; the Scotland squad was made up of players who had played in the student squads, but a few professionals were included. Just before the start of the match, after the Scottish team had spent a night at a youth hostel, the Irish Rugby Football Union prevented the teams from getting changed at the arranged Blackrook College.
A new location was found but it was half a mile away from the ground, so the players had to walk that distance in their playing kit. The match was looking like it would be scoreless at half-time until just before the break, centre Lee Child scored to put Ireland ahead. After the break Scotland hit back, Sean Cusack scoring Scotland's first try. Gavin Manclark scored to propel Scotland into the lead; this did not last long though. Ireland scored again, with Seamus McCallion going over. Four minutes in the 69th minute, Scotland scored two tries with Manclark and Shelford sealing the eight points. However, this was not enough as Ketteridge had only kicked three conversions compared to Ireland's Ian Devery who had kicked five; the match finished with Ireland winning 26 -- 22. After this international Scotland were allowed to take place in the Emerging Nations Tournament, to be held in England. On 16 October 1995 at Featherstone they faced Russia, playing international rugby league since 1991, in their opening game in Group A. Coached by former Great Britain and England player, George Fairbairn, who put together a team of former Scotland students, rugby union players, a few league professionals including Alan Tait, who played for Leeds, who would captain the side.
The whole of the Scotland team had hired kilts to be worn pre-match. The game started off well for Scotland, and minutes Tait doubled the Bravehearts lead. But the Russia Bears dragged themselves back into the match, stand-off Victor Netchaev scoring first, in the 30th minute Alexander Otradnov scored. Scotland were ahead though at half-time by four points because Russia had failed to convert their tries. In the second half it was all Scotland with only Andrey Scheglov's drop goal adding to the Bears points. On the other hand, former Great Britain international Hugh Waddell, Ali Blee and Tait again all scored to seal a Scottish victory. Scotland's second match was against the United States in Northampton, traditionally a rugby union city; the Tomahawks were made up of AMNRL players but Scotland took a while to get going. In the twelfth minute winger Rory Lewis unexpected put America ahead, which caused The Bravehearts to start playing well for the remainder of the first half, Scotland going into
Italy national rugby league team
The Italy national rugby league team represents Italy in rugby league football. With origins dating back to the 1950s and 1960s, the team has competed in international competitions since 2008, when their current governing body, the Federazione Italiana Rugby League, was formed, they are ranked 13th in the RLIF World Rankings. In 1950, a team from Turin toured the North of England. Italy started a domestic competition. A year the first official match of the Italian national team took place in Cahors, France. Italy lost 29–17 although the Azzurri ended the first half leading 10–7. Sixteen official matches were played against English teams in the season 1952–53, as well as a triangular tournament between Italy and England. In 1958, in Treviso under the Italian Federation of Amateur Rugby 13 was formed and was recognised by the Rugby Football League. With this recognition and funding from England, the sport of rugby league became popular in Italy. In their first year, the FIAR had 620 players. In 1960, Italy played Australia in two international matches held in Italy, the results were 37–15 and 67–22 losses.
In the late 1960s, threats made by the rugby union governing body, the Italian Rugby Federation, to ban players who played rugby league from their sport had the effect of killing off the sport in Italy by the 1970s. As a consequence the Italian national team ceased to exist. In the mid-1990s the team were revived by two Italian-Australians, Domenic Pezzano and John Benigni, known as'The Italian Rugby League A XIII' was formed in 1993. Pezzano coached Italy in the Coca-Cola Rugby League World Sevens in Australia with the team being predominately players from Italy and one Italo-Australian player captained the team – Orazio D'arro in this tournament, Pezzano coached the Italian team that participated in the first Super League World Nines tournament, hosted by Fiji, that team was made up off Italian players, Italian Origin players and included 1st Graders such as Dean Schifilliti, Mark Corvo, Luke Davico and Italian dual International Orazio Arancio. After that event, the Italia Rugby League began competing in various international tournaments, such as the Super League rugby league nines tournament in Fiji, World Sevens, St.
Marys Sevens, Wollogong Sevens and the Mediterranean Cup in 1999. They attempted to qualify for the 2000 Rugby League World Cup and ended up in the Rugby League Emerging Nations Tournament in which they were runners-up to British Amateur Rugby League Association. In 2002, the Azzurri were back playing internationals in Italy with a triangular tournament featuring Scotland and Russia. Italy tied their second game with Scotland 16 all. In 2003 Italy contested the Ionio Cup against Greece, which they won. In 2006, Italy played three matches, two against South Africa and one against British Amateur Rugby League Association; the Federazione of Italia Rugby League was moved to the "official observer" status by the Rugby League European Federation from an unranked position on 15 April 2008. Italy won the RLEF European Shield in 2008 and 2009, as such were drafted into the 2009 European Cup following Russia's withdrawal from the tournament. During this tournament, Italy were handed their record defeat by Scotland, but they did manage to record one victory, over Serbia at The Old Parish in Maesteg, Wales.
In Autumn 2010 Italy embarked on a short tour of Wales, culminating in a match in Wrexham on 6 October in which they faced Wales for the first time in a full Rugby League international. The Italian side obtained a remarkable 13–6 victory, the first against a national team of the British Isles. In 2013 they won a warm up match against 3rd ranked England 15–14 making it their most stunning victory. In 2011, Italy contested the qualifying tournament for the 2013 Rugby League World Cup, competing against Russia and Lebanon. Coached by Carlo Napolitano and captained by Anthony Minichiello, Italy's draw with Lebanon was enough for them to gain the 14th and final place in the 2013 World Cup. Italy were drawn in Pool C alongside Scotland and they played an inter-group match against co-hosts Wales, their tournament began with an upset victory over the co-hosts at Cardiff's Millennium Stadium. In their second match, the'Azzuri' took on Scotland who were coming off an upset win of their own against Tonga.
The match turned out to be a thriller and it was tight with a high scoring draw being the end result. Italy had to just win their last pool match against Tonga after Scotland won their match and finished their pool-stage campaign with the same points differential the Italians were on. Tonga had nothing but pride to play for after their hopes of qualification had vanished but they shocked Napolitano's men by keeping them scoreless and therefore eliminating Italy from having any chance to play in the 2013 World Cup knockout round. Italy participated in the qualification for the 2017 Rugby League World Cup; the first stage of qualifying involved having to finish in the top 3 in their 2014–15 European Shield competition. Italy only managed to secure qualification for the'final qualification tournament' after winning their second to last game against bottom placed Ukraine. Italy finished the Shield in third place with 3 wins and 3 defeats in six matches; the final qualification tournament consisted of 6 teams - the top three teams from the European B tournament, the winners of the European C tournament and seeded nations Wales and Ireland.
The tournament featured two groups of three teams playing in a single round-robin format. The winners of each group qualified for the World Cup, while the runners-up faced each other in a play-off match on 5 November 2016 to determine the final spot. A seeded
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Rugby League European Championship
The Rugby League European Championship is a rugby league football tournament for European national teams, first held in 1935. The European Cup had three teams, with England and France each playing each other once. Unlike the Tri-Nations series, there was no final. From 1949 to 1956, a fourth Other Nationalities team entered the European Cup. From 2003 to 2009, the tournament featured six teams, including Scotland. Since 2014, the European Cup is contested with four teams and the most recent was held in 2018, it is run by the Rugby League European Federation. The tournament was played annually, with the exception of the years of the Second World War. In 1946–47, the tournament was altered, with each team playing each other twice, at home and away; the 1949–50 season saw a return to playing only once, but a new team, "Other Nationalities", was added. This team consisted of players who were not English, Welsh, or French playing in the British and French leagues: Australian, New Zealand, Irish players, others all played for this new side.
The 1955–56 tournament had no Welsh team, though Welsh players featured for Other Nationalities. The tournament was not played again until 1969–70, it was revived in 1975, with the three-team format of England and France playing each other team only once being made standard. The tournament was cancelled after 1981, but it was revived under the same format for 1995 and 1996; the tournament was revamped for 2003, with Scotland and Russia all joining. The new structure saw two groups of three, with the winner of each group meeting in a final; this structure was continued for the 2004 tournament. From 2004 Scotland and Wales had to have at least four'home grown' players from their domestic competitions in their squad; this means that at least one home grown player is guaranteed a start. The 2005 tournament did not include England as a participant. Georgia won the first European Nations qualifying tournament in 2005, beating both Serbia and the Netherlands to win a spot in the tournament; the 2010 and 2014 tournaments were used to choose the team that compete with Australia, New Zealand and England in the subsequent Four Nations.
Starting in 2018, the tournament is being used as apart of the qualification process for the Rugby League World Cup. List of international rugby league teams Rest of the world Rugby League International Federation