In Ancient Rome, the vicus was a neighbourhood or settlement. During the Republican era, the four regiones of the city of Rome were subdivided into vici. In the 1st century BC, Augustus reorganized the city for administrative purposes into 14 regions, comprising 265 vici; each vicus had its own board of officials. These administrative divisions are recorded as still in effect at least until the mid-4th century; the Latin word vicus was applied to the smallest administrative unit of a provincial town within the Roman Empire. It is notably used today to refer to an ad hoc provincial civilian settlement that sprang up close to and because of a nearby military fort or state-owned mining operation; each vicus elected four local magistrates who commanded a sort of local police force chosen from among the people of the vicus by lot. The officers of the vicomagistri would feature in certain celebrations in which they were accompanied by two lictors; these vici differed from the planned civilian towns, which were laid out as official, local economic and administrative centres, the coloniae, which were settlements of retired troops, or the formal political entities created from existing settlements, the municipia.
Unplanned, lacking any public administrative buildings, vici had no specific legal status and developed in order to profit from the presence of Roman troops. As with most garrison towns, they provided entertainment and supplies for the troops, but many developed significant industries metal and glass working; some vici seem not to have had direct connections to troop placement. Vici is the term used for the extramural settlements of forts for military units, while canabae is used to describe extramural settlements of the major legionary fortresses. Ephemeral, many vici were transitory sites that followed a mobile unit; the number of official civitates and coloniæ were not enough to settle everyone who wished to live in a town and so vici attracted a wider range of residents, with some becoming chartered towns where no other existed nearby. Some, such as that at Vercovicium, outgrew their forts altogether in the 3rd century once soldiers were permitted to marry. Early vici had no civilian administration and were under the direct control of the Roman military commander.
Those that attracted significant numbers of Roman citizens were permitted to form local councils and some, such as the vicus at Eboracum, grew into regional centres and provincial capitals. The Latin term, pronounced with an initial'u', was adopted into Old English as wic, wich, or wych, it became one of the most occurring common placename elements, e.g. Wyck, Hackney Wick, Exwick, Aldwych, Ipswich and indirectly York, from Eoforwic via Old Norse Jorvik. In the Brittonic languages, the cognate word is guic in Breton. In continental languages, the term became Old High German wih "village", Modern German Weichbild "municipal area", Dutch wijk "quarter, district", Old Frisian wik, Old Saxon wic "village". 14 regions of Augustan Rome Pagus
Foodland Ontario, founded in 1977, is a consumer promotion program for the government of Ontario. Foodland Ontario falls under the administration of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs in Ontario. Through market research, advertising campaigns, working with local farmers and reaching out to retail locations, Foodland Ontario's mission is to "spread the word about the great taste and economic benefits of buying Ontario food to all people in Ontario". Foodland Ontario promotes produce, dairy products and maple syrup, processed foods made with Ontario grown food products. Foodland Ontario is a long-established consumer promotion program of the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs. From its inception in 1977, Foodland Ontario has partnered with producers to achieve the maximum penetration of the Ontario market by Ontario-produced fresh and processed agricultural products. One of the main objectives of the program is to maintain consumer intent to purchase over 80%, thereby assisting Ontario producers to maximize their market share.
To achieve its market objective, Foodland communicates the benefits of Ontario food, encourages the purchase of Ontario food, co-ordinates promotion and research activities with producer organizations and industry stakeholders, promotes the Ontario "brand." The target group for these strategies are the secondary food purchasers in Ontario. During the life of the Foodland program, the target market has evolved from the "principal grocery shopper" – mothers 25 to 49 years, to adults 25 to 64 years; the latter definition includes both males and females and reflects recent research that food buying is a shared activity – many households have two "principal grocery shoppers." The program includes advertising campaigns that are designed to increase interest in, demand for Ontario foods in the age 24-59 demographic. There are two slogans used as part of the Foodland Ontario program; the slogan and musical jingle "Good Things Grow in Ontario" was introduced with the Foodland Ontario logo in 1977. The second slogan "Ontario...
There's No Taste Like Home" was introduced in 1986 to promote the connection between local food and Ontarian values such as family, community and support. According to the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Foodland Ontario commercials reach more than 90% of the target audience including television, radio and print media campaigns. Food retailers such as grocery stores and farmer's markets display the logo to promote Ontario foods and capture niche markets for products such as health food. In 2011-12, over 700,000 copies of Foodland calendars and 250,000 copies of two Foodland cookbooks were distributed across the province. Foodland Ontario offers a Retailer Awards Program, designed to encourage vendors to display and promote Ontario foods. Different categories award retailers for different levels of merchandising including awards for seasonal displays, creative displays, cross-merchandised displays, continued merchandising over set periods of time. Displays must be well stocked visible, have customer impact, result in sales increases.
Foodland Ontario website Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs
Chamisso Wilderness is a 455-acre wilderness area in the U. S. state of Alaska. It was designated by the United States Congress in 1975. A small subunit of the Chukchi Sea Unit of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, Chamisso Island and nearby Puffin Island were combined as a wildlife refuge in 1912, designated Wilderness in 1975, added to the AMNWR in 1980. Chamisso Island, named after the naturalist Adelbert von Chamisso, comprises one large sand spit and a low beach zone surrounding a covering of tundra with a few marshy bogs. Although Chamisso Island is much larger, Puffin Island houses many more nesting birds horned puffins, black-legged kittiwakes, thick-billed murres which build their nests on the steep-walled cliffs that fall into Spafarief Bay. Iñupiat cross from the mainland to gather eggs from kittiwakes and murres. With the exception of birds and the occasional fox that crosses frozen sea in winter, nothing lives on the islands that make up Chamisso Wilderness. Walruses and whales can be seen in Spafarief Bay.
Chamisso Wilderness - Wilderness.net