King, or king regnant is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, while the title of queen on its own refers to the consort of a king. In the context of prehistory and contemporary indigenous peoples, the title may refer to tribal kingship. Germanic kingship is cognate with Indo-European traditions of tribal rulership. In the context of classical antiquity, king may translate in Latin as rex and in Greek as archon or basileus. In classical European feudalism, the title of king as the ruler of a kingdom is understood to be the highest rank in the feudal order subject, at least nominally, only to an emperor. In a modern context, the title may refer to the ruler of one of a number of modern monarchies; the title of king is used alongside other titles for monarchs: in the West, emperor, duke or grand duke, in the Middle East, sultan or emir, etc. The term king may refer to a king consort, a title, sometimes given to the husband of a ruling queen, but the title of prince consort is sometimes granted instead.
A king dowager is the male equivalent of the queen dowager. A king father is a king dowager, the father of the reigning sovereign; the English term king is derived from the Anglo-Saxon cyning, which in turn is derived from the Common Germanic *kuningaz. The Common Germanic term was borrowed into Estonian and Finnish at an early time, surviving in these languages as kuningas; the English term "King" translates, is considered equivalent to, Latin rēx and its equivalents in the various European languages. The Germanic term is notably different from the word for "King" in other Indo-European languages, it is a derivation from the term *kunjom "kin" by the -inga- suffix. The literal meaning is that of a "scion of the kin", or "son or descendant of one of noble birth"; the English word is of Germanic origin, refers to Germanic kingship, in the pre-Christian period a type of tribal kingship. The monarchies of Europe in the Christian Middle Ages derived their claim from Christianisation and the divine right of kings influenced by the notion of sacral kingship inherited from Germanic antiquity.
The Early Middle Ages begin with a fragmentation of the former Western Roman Empire into barbarian kingdoms. In Western Europe, the kingdom of the Franks developed into the Carolingian Empire by the 8th century, the kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England were unified into the kingdom of England by the 10th century. With the breakup of the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century, the system of feudalism places kings at the head of a pyramid of relationships between liege lords and vassals, dependent on the regional rule of barons, the intermediate positions of counts and dukes; the core of European feudal manorialism in the High Middle Ages were the territories of the former Carolingian Empire, i.e. the kingdom of France and the Holy Roman Empire. In the course of the European Middle Ages, the European kingdoms underwent a general trend of centralisation of power, so that by the Late Middle Ages there were a number of large and powerful kingdoms in Europe, which would develop into the great powers of Europe in the Early Modern period.
In the Iberian Peninsula, the remnants of the Visigothic Kingdom, the petty kingdoms of Asturias and Pamplona, expanded into the kingdom of Portugal, the Crown of Castile and the Crown of Aragon with the ongoing Reconquista. In southern Europe, the kingdom of Sicily was established following the Norman conquest of southern Italy; the Kingdom of Sardinia was claimed as a separate title held by the Crown of Aragon in 1324. In the Balkans, the Kingdom of Serbia was established in 1217. In eastern-central Europe, the Kingdom of Hungary was established in AD 1000 following the Christianisation of the Magyars; the kingdoms of Poland and Bohemia were established within the Holy Roman Empire in 1025 and 1198, respectively. In Eastern Europe, the Kievan Rus' consolidated into the Grand Duchy of Moscow, which did not technically claim the status of kingdom until the early modern Tsardom of Russia. In northern Europe, the tribal kingdoms of the Viking Age by the 11th century expanded into the North Sea Empire under Cnut the Great, king of Denmark and Norway.
The Christianization of Scandinavia resulted in "consolidated" kingdoms of Sweden and Norway, by the end of the medieval period the pan-Scandinavian Kalmar Union. Fifteen kings are recognized as the heads of state of sovereign states. Most of these are heads of state of constitutional monarchies. Thomas J. Craughwell, 5,000 Years of Royalty: Kings, Princes, Emperors & Tsars. David Cannadine, Simon Price, Rituals of Royalty: Power and Ceremonial in Traditional Societies. Jean Hani, Sacred Royalty: From the Pharaoh to the Most Christian King. Media related to Kings at Walter Alison. "King". Encyclopædia Britannica. 15. Pp. 805–806
A marquess is a nobleman of high hereditary rank in various European peerages and in those of some of their former colonies. The term is used to translate equivalent Asian styles, as in Imperial China and Imperial Japan. In the German lands, a margrave was a ruler of an immediate Imperial territory, not a nobleman like a marquess or marquis in Western and Southern Europe. German rulers did not confer the title of marquis; the word marquess entered the English language from the Old French marchis in the late 13th or early 14th century. The French word was derived from marche, itself descended from the Middle Latin marca, from which the modern English words march and mark descend; the distinction between governors of frontier territories and interior territories was made as early as the founding of the Roman Empire when some provinces were set aside for administration by the senate and more unpacified or vulnerable provinces were administered by the emperor. The titles "duke" and "count" were distinguished as ranks in the late empire, with dux being used for a provincial military governor and the rank of comes given to the leader of an active army along the frontier.
Several marquesses lived in Belgium, still today this title exists. The Marquis of Beauffort; the Marquis of la Boëssière-Thiennes the Marquis of Trazegnies d'Ittre the Marquis du Parc. the Marquis Imperiali. The Marquis of Radiguès; the Marquis of Ruffo de Bonneval de la Fare the Marquis of Spontin the Marquis of Assche the Marquis of Yve. the Marquis of Saint-Floris the Marquis of Becelaere the Marquis of Wemmel the Marquis of Bergen op Zoom the Marquis of Rode the Marquis of Lede Currently in Spain the rank of Marquess/Marchioness still exists. 142 of them are Spanish grandees. A'marqués is addressed as "Illustrious Lord", or if he/she is a grandee as "Your Excellency". Examples include 10th Marquis of Villaverde; the honorific prefix "The Most Honourable" is an honorific that precedes the name of a marquess or marchioness in the United Kingdom. In Great Britain and in Ireland, the correct spelling of the aristocratic title of this rank is marquess. In Scotland the French spelling is sometimes used.
In Great Britain and in Ireland, the title ranks below a duke and above an earl. A woman with the rank of a marquess, or the wife of a marquess, is called a marchioness in Great Britain and Ireland, or a marquise elsewhere in Europe; the dignity, rank or position of the title is referred to as a marquessate. The theoretical distinction between a marquess and other titles has, since the Middle Ages, faded into obscurity. In times past, the distinction between a count and a marquess was that the land of a marquess, called a march, was on the border of the country, while a count's land, called a county was not; as a result of this, a marquess was trusted to defend and fortify against hostile neighbours and was thus more important and ranked higher than a count. The title is ranked below that of a duke, largely restricted to the royal family; the rank of marquess was a late introduction to the British peerage: no marcher lords had the rank of marquess, though some were earls. On the evening of the Coronation of Queen Victoria in 1838, the Prime Minister Lord Melbourne explained to her why: I spoke to Ld M. about the numbers of Peers present at the Coronation, & he said it was quite unprecedented.
I observed that there were few Viscounts, to which he replied "There are few Viscounts," that they were an old sort of title & not English. Like other major Western noble titles, marquess is sometimes used to render certain titles in non-Western languages with their own traditions though they are, as a rule unrelated and thus hard to compare. However, they are considered "equivalent" in relative rank; this is the case with: In ancient China, 侯 was the second of five noble ranks 爵 created by King Wu of Zhou and is translated as marquess or marquis. In imperial China, 侯 is but not always, a middle-to-high ranking hereditary nobility title, its exact rank varies from dynasty to dynasty, within a dynasty. It is created with different sub-ranks. In Meiji Japan, 侯爵, a hereditary peerage rank, was introduced in 1884, granting a hereditary seat in the upper house of the imperial diet just as a British peerage did, with the ranks rendered as baron, count and duke/prince. In Korea, the title of 현후, of which the meaning is "marquess of district", existed for the hereditary nobility in the Goryeo dynasty.
It was equivalent to the upper fifth rank of nine bureaucratic orders, was in the third rank of six nobility orders. In the Joseon dynasty, there was no title equivalent to marquess. In Vietnam's Annamite realm / empire, hầu
Dauphine of France
The Dauphine of France was the wife of the Dauphin of France. The position was analogous to the Princess of Wales. Dauphine of Auvergne List of Angevin consorts Countesses and Duchesses of Maine List of consorts of Alençon List of consorts of Bourbon List of consorts of Vendôme Countess of Artois Countess of Provence List of consorts of Lorraine List of Princesses of Condé List of consorts of Montpensier List of consorts of Conti List of consorts of Étampes Countess of Évreux Countess of Champagne List of consorts of Joinville
Tsesarevich was the title of the heir apparent or presumptive in the Russian Empire. It either replaced the given name and patronymic, it is confused with "tsarevich", a distinct word with a different meaning: Tsarevich was the title for any son of a tsar, including sons of non-Russian rulers accorded that title, e.g. Crimea, Georgia. There was only one tsesarevich at a time, the title was used in Russia; the title came to be used invariably in tandem with the formal style "Successor", as in "His Imperial Highness the Successor Tsesarevich and Grand Duke". The wife of the Tsesarevich was the Tsesarevna. In 1721 Peter the Great discontinued use of "tsar" as his main title, adopted that of imperator, whereupon the title of tsarevich fell into desuetude; the Emperor's daughters were henceforth referred to as "tsesarevna". In 1762, upon succeeding to the imperial throne, Peter III accorded his only son Paul Petrovich the novel title of tsesarevich, he being the first of nine Romanov heirs who would bear it.
However, at the time the title was conferred, Paul was recognized as Peter's legal son, but not as his legal heir. Nor would he be recognized as such by his mother after her usurpation of the throne. More he was referred to by his other title of "grand duke", which pre-dated tsesarevich, being a holdover from the Rurikid days before the grand dukes of Muscovy adopted the title of tsar; when Paul acceded to the throne in 1796, he declared his son Aleksandr Pavlovich tsesarevich, the title was confirmed by law in 1797 as the official title for the heir to the throne. In 1799 Paul I granted the title tsesarevich to his second son Constantine Pavlovich, oddly, retained the title after he renounced the throne in 1825 in favor of their younger brother, Nicholas I. Thenceforth, each Emperor's eldest son bore the title until 1894, when Nicholas II conferred it on his brother Grand Duke George Aleksandrovich, with the stipulation that his entitlement to it would terminate upon the birth of a son to Nicholas, betrothed to Alix of Hesse.
When George died in 1899, Nicholas did not confer the title upon his oldest surviving brother Michael Aleksandrovich, although Nicholas's only son would not be born for another five years. That son, Alexei Nikolaevich, became the Russian Empire's last tsesarevich; the wife of an heir-tsesarevich bore the title Tsesarevna – Grand Duchess. In first years of Russian Empire the female heirs of Peter I of Russia bore this title - his daughters Elizabeth of Russia, Anna Petrovna and Natalia Petrovna. Not to be confused with Tsarevna for all the tsar's daughters. Many princesses from Western Europe, who converted to Orthodox Christianity and changed their given names accordingly, were given the patronymic Fyodorovna not because their fathers were named "Theodore" but as an allegory based on the name of Theotokos of St. Theodore, the patron icon of the Romanov family. After claiming the Russian throne in exile in 1924 Grand Duke Cyril Vladimirovich of Russia designated his son, Grand Duke Vladimir Cyrillovich of Russia, Tsesarevich.
Since 1997 the title has been attributed to Vladimir's grandson, George Mikhailovich Romanov, whose mother, Maria Vladimirovna, conferred it on him in her capacity as pretender to the throne. Those who refer to him by a dynastic title, more address him as "grand duke"; until the end of the empire most people in Russia and abroad, verbally and in writing continued to refer to the Sovereign as "tsar". For that reason the title of tsesarevich was less used to refer to the heir apparent than either "tsarevich" or "grand duke" in less educated circles. List of heirs to the Russian throne
A viscount or viscountess is a title used in certain European countries for a noble of varying status. In many countries a viscount, its historical equivalents, was a non-hereditary, administrative or judicial position, did not develop into an hereditary title until much later. In the case of French viscounts, it is customary to leave the title untranslated as vicomte and vicomtesse; the word viscount comes from Old French visconte, itself from Medieval Latin vicecomitem, accusative of vicecomes, from Late Latin vice- "deputy" + Latin comes. During the Carolingian Empire, the kings appointed counts to administer provinces and other smaller regions, as governors and military commanders. Viscounts were appointed to assist the counts in their running of the province, took on judicial responsibility; the kings prevented the offices of their counts and viscounts from becoming hereditary, in order to consolidate their position and limit chance of rebellion. The title was in use in Normandy by at least the early 11th century.
Similar to the Carolingian use of the title, the Norman viscounts were local administrators, working on behalf of the Duke. Their role was to administer justice and to collect taxes and revenues being castellan of the local castle. Under the Normans, the position developed into a hereditary one, an example of such being the viscounts in Bessin; the viscount was replaced by bailiffs, provosts. As a rank in British peerage, it was first recorded in 1440, when John Beaumont was created Viscount Beaumont by King Henry VI; the word viscount corresponds in the UK to the Anglo-Saxon shire reeve. Thus early viscounts were normally given their titles by the monarch, not hereditarily, they were a late introduction to the British peerage, on the evening of the Coronation of Queen Victoria in 1838, the Prime Minister Lord Melbourne explained to her why: I spoke to Ld M. about the numbers of Peers present at the Coronation, & he said it was quite unprecedented. I observed that there were few Viscounts, to which he replied "There are few Viscounts," that they were an old sort of title & not English.
In Belgium a few families are recognised as Viscounts: Viscount of Audenaerde Viscount of Hombeke Viscount de Spoelberch Viscount Eyskens Viscount Frimout Viscount Poullet A viscount is the fourth rank in the British peerage system, standing directly below an earl and above a baron. There are 270 viscountcies extant in the peerages of the British Isles, though most are secondary titles. In British practice, the title of a viscount may be either a place name, a surname, or a combination thereof: examples include the Viscount Falmouth, the Viscount Hardinge and the Viscount Colville of Culross, respectively. An exception exists for Viscounts in the peerage of Scotland, who were traditionally styled "The Viscount of ", such as the Viscount of Arbuthnott. In practice, however few maintain this style, instead using the more common version "The Viscount " in general parlance, for example Viscount of Falkland, referred to as Viscount Falkland. A British viscount is addressed in speech as Lord, while his wife is Lady, he is formally styled "The Right Honourable The Viscount ".
The children of a viscount are known as The Honourable. The title of viscount was introduced to the Peerage of Ireland in 1478 with the creation of the title of Viscount Gormanston, the senior viscountcy of Britain and Ireland, held today by Jenico Preston, 17th Viscount Gormanston. Other early Irish viscountcies were Viscount Baltinglass, Viscount Clontarf, Viscount Mountgarret and Viscount Decies. A British custom is the use of viscount as a courtesy title for the heir of an earl or marquess; the peer's heir apparent will sometimes be referred to as a viscount, if the second most senior title held by the head of the family is a viscountcy. For example, the eldest son of the Earl Howe is Viscount Curzon, because this is the second most senior title held by the Earl. However, the son of a marquess or an earl can be referred to as a viscount when the title of viscount is not the second most senior if those above it share their name with the substantive title. For example, the second most senior title of the Marquess of Salisbury is the Earl of Salisbury, so his heir uses the lower title of Viscount Cranborne.
Sometimes the son of a peer can be referred to as a viscount when he could use a more senior courtesy title which differs in name from the substantive title. Family tradition plays a role in this. For example, the eldest son of the Marquess of Londonderry is Viscount Castlereagh though the Marquess is the Earl Vane. A viscount's coronet of rank bears 16 silver balls around the rim. Like all heraldic coronets, it is worn at the coronation of a sovereign, but a viscount has the right to bear his coronet of rank on his coat of arms, above the shield. In this guise, the coronet is shown featuring 9 silver balls; the island of Jersey still retains an officer whose function is purely to administer orders of the island's judiciary, whose position remains non-hereditary. The role of the Viscount of Jersey (French: V
Fürst is a German word for a ruler and is a princely title. Fürsten were, since the Middle Ages, members of the highest nobility who ruled over states of the Holy Roman Empire and its former territories, below the ruling Kaiser or König. A Prince of the Holy Roman Empire was the reigning sovereign ruler of an Imperial State that held imperial immediacy in the boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire; the territory ruled is referred to in German as a Fürstentum, the family dynasty referred to as a Fürstenhaus, the descendants of a Fürst are titled and referred to in German as Prinz or Prinzessin. The English language uses the term prince for both concepts. Latin-based languages employ a single term, whereas Dutch as well as the Scandinavian and Slavic languages use separate terms similar to those used in German. Since the Middle Ages, the German designation and title of Fürst refers to: the highest members of the nobility who ruled over the Holy Roman Empire, below the ruling Kaiser or König; the title Fürst is used for the heads of princely houses of German origin.
From the Late Middle Ages, it referred to any vassal of the Holy Roman Emperor ruling over an immediate estate. Unless he holds a higher title, such as grand duke or king, he will be known either by the formula "Fürst von + ", or by the formula "Fürst zu + "; these forms can be combined, as in "...von und zu Liechtenstein". The rank of the title-holder is not determined by the title itself, but by his degree of sovereignty, the rank of his suzerain, or the age of the princely family; the Fürst ranked below the Herzog in the Holy Roman Empire's hierarchy, but princes did not rank below dukes in non-German parts of Europe. The style associated with the title of Fürst in post-medieval Europe, was considered inferior to Hoheit in Germany, though not in France; the present-day rulers of the sovereign principality of Liechtenstein bear the title of Fürst, the title is used in German when referring to the ruling princes of Monaco. The hereditary rulers of the one-time principalities of Bulgaria, Serbia and Albania were all referred to in German as Fürsten before they assumed the title of "king".
Fürst is used more in German to refer to any ruler, such as a king, a reigning duke, or a prince in the broad sense. Before the 12th century, counts were included in this group, in accordance with its usage in the Holy Roman Empire, in some historical or ceremonial contexts, the term Fürst can extend to any lord; the descendants of a Fürst, when that title has not been restricted by patent or custom to male primogeniture, is distinguished in title from the head of the family by use of the prefix Prinz. A nobleman whose family is non-dynastic, i.e. has never reigned or been mediatised, may be made a Fürst by a sovereign, in which case the grantee and his heirs are deemed titular or nominal princes, enjoying only honorary princely title without commensurate rank. In families thus elevated to princely title in or after the 18th century, the cadets hold only the title of Graf, such as in the families of the princes of Bismarck and Hardenberg. However, in a few cases, the title of Fürst was shared by all male-line descendants of the original grantee.
Several titles were derived from the term Fürst: Reichsfürst was a ruling Prince whose territory was part of the Holy Roman Empire. He was entitled to a vote, either individually or as a member of a voting unit, in the Imperial Diet. Reichsfürst was used generically for any ruler who cast his vote in either of the Reichstag's two upper chambers, the Electoral College or the College of Princes: Their specific title might be king, grand duke, margrave, count palatine, Imperial prince or Imperial count. Included in this group were the reichsständisch Personalisten, Imperial princes and counts whose small territories did not meet the Fürstenrat's criteria for voting membership as an Imperial estate, but whose family's right to vote therein was recognised by the Emperor. A Prince of the Church who voted in the Electoral or Princely College, along with a handful of titular princes might be referred to as Reichsfürsten. Kirchenfürst was a hierarch who held an ecclesiastic fief and Imperial princely rank, such as prince-bishops, prince-abbots, or Grand Masters of a Christian military order.
Landesfürst is a princely head of state, i.e. not just a titular prince
Archduke was the title borne from 1358 by the Habsburg rulers of the Archduchy of Austria, by all senior members of that dynasty. It denotes a rank within the former Holy Roman Empire, below that of Emperor and King and above that of a Grand Duke and Prince; the territory ruled by an Archduke or Archduchess was called an Archduchy. All remaining Archduchies ceased to exist in 1918; the English word is first recorded in 1530, derived from Middle, via Old, French archeduc, from Merovingian Latin archidux, from Greek arch-, ἀρχι- meaning "authority" or "primary" and dux "duke" "Archduke" is a title distinct from "Grand Duke", a monarchic title borne by the rulers of other European countries. The first known claim to the title of Archduke was by the rulers of Austrasia, one of the Merovingian realms resulting from the complex successions in the house of Clovis comprising Germany and the Low Countries. In the Carolingian Empire, the title Archduke was awarded not as rank of nobility, but as a unique honorary title to the Duke of Lotharingia.
The Lotharingian Duchy could be seen as the successor to the former Carolingian Kingdom of Lotharingia, a realm, of equal stature with West Francia in the dynastic divisions under the early heirs of Charlemagne. Lotharingia was absorbed by East Francia, becoming part of the Holy Roman Empire rather than a independent Kingdom. After the split of the Duchy of Lotharingia in 959 into the Duchies of Upper Lotharingia in the south and Lower Lotharingia in the north, the title Archduke disappeared for 400 years; the extended fragmentation of both territories created two "succeeding" Duchies in the Low Countries and Geldre. Both claimed archducal status but were never recognised as such by the Holy Roman Emperor. Archduke of Austria, the only archducal title to re-emerge, was invented in the Privilegium Maius in the 14th century by Duke Rudolf IV of Austria, it was meant to emphasize the claimed precedence of the Duchy of Austria, in an effort to put the Habsburgs on an level with the Prince-Electors of the Holy Roman Empire, as Austria had been passed over when the Golden Bull of 1356 assigned that dignity to the four highest-ranking secular Imperial princes and three Archbishops.
Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV refused to recognise the title, as did all the other ruling dynasties of the member countries of the Empire. But Duke Ernest the Iron and his descendants unilaterally assumed the title of Archduke; the archducal title was only recognized in 1453 by Emperor Frederick III, when the Habsburgs had solidified their grip on the throne of the de jure elected Holy Roman Emperor, making it de facto hereditary. Despite that imperial authorization of the title, which showed a Holy Roman Emperor from the Habsburg dynasty deciding over a title claim of the Habsburg dynasty, many ruling dynasties of the countries which formed the Empire refused to recognize the title "Archduke". Ladislaus the Posthumous, Duke of Austria, who died in 1457, did never get in his lifetime the imperial authorization to use it, accordingly, neither he nor anyone in his branch of the dynasty used the title. Emperor Frederick III himself used the title "Duke of Austria", never Archduke, until his death in 1493.
The title was first granted to Frederick's younger brother, Albert VI of Austria, who used it at least from 1458. In 1477, Frederick III granted the title of Archduke to his first cousin, Sigismund of Austria, ruler of Further Austria. Frederick's son and heir, the future Emperor Maximilian I, started to use the title, but only after the death of his wife Mary of Burgundy, as Archduke never appears in documents issued jointly by Maximilian and Mary as rulers in the Low Countries; the title appears first in documents issued under the joint rule of Maximilian and his son Philip in the Low Countries. Archduke was borne by those dynasts who ruled a Habsburg territory—i.e. Only by males and their consorts, appanages being distributed to cadets, but these "junior" archdukes did not thereby become sovereign hereditary rulers, since all territories remained vested in the Austrian crown. A territory might be combined with a separate gubernatorial mandate ruled by an archducal cadet. From the 16th century onward, "Archduke" and its female form, "Archduchess", came to be used by all the members of the House of Habsburg.
Upon extinction of the male line of the Habsburgs and the marriage of their heiress, the Holy Roman Empress-consort Maria Theresa, Queen of Hungary and Archduchess of Austria, to Francis Stephen, Duke of Lorraine, elected Holy Roman Emperor, their descendants formed the House of Habsburg-Lorraine. After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire this usage was retained in the Austrian Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire; the official use of titles of nobility and of all other hereditary ti