2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami
The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake occurred at 00,58,53 UTC on 26 December with the epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. The shock had a moment magnitude of 9. 1–9.3 and it was one of the deadliest natural disasters in recorded history. Indonesia was the country, followed by Sri Lanka, India. It is the third-largest earthquake ever recorded on a seismograph and had the longest duration of faulting ever observed and it caused the entire planet to vibrate as much as 1 centimetre and triggered other earthquakes as far away as Alaska. Its epicentre was between Simeulue and mainland Indonesia, the plight of the affected people and countries prompted a worldwide humanitarian response. In all, the community donated more than US$14 billion in humanitarian aid. The event is known by the community as the Sumatra–Andaman earthquake. The resulting tsunami was given names, including the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, South Asian tsunami, Indonesian tsunami, the Christmas tsunami. The tsunami was initially documented as moment magnitude 8.8, in February 2005 scientists revised the estimate of the magnitude to 9.0.
Although the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center has accepted these new numbers, the most recent studies in 2006 have obtained a magnitude of Mw 9. 1–9.3. Dr. Hiroo Kanamori of the California Institute of Technology believes that Mw 9.2 is a representative value for the size of this great earthquake. The hypocentre of the earthquake was approximately 160 km off the western coast of northern Sumatra. The northern section of the Sunda megathrust ruptured over a length of 1,300 km, the earthquake was felt in Bangladesh, Malaysia, Thailand and the Maldives. Splay faults, or secondary pop up faults, caused long and this quickly elevated the height and increased the speed of waves, causing the complete destruction of the nearby Indonesian town of Lhoknga. Of all the seismic moment released by earthquakes in the 100 years from 1906 through 2005 and this quake, together with the Good Friday earthquake and the Great Chilean earthquake, account for almost half of the total moment. The much smaller but still catastrophic 1906 San Francisco earthquake is included in the diagram for perspective, Mw denotes the magnitude of an earthquake on the moment magnitude scale.
Since 1900 the only recorded with a greater magnitude were the 1960 Great Chilean earthquake. The only other recorded earthquakes of magnitude 9.0 or greater were off Kamchatka, Russia, on 4 November 1952 and Tōhoku, each of these megathrust earthquakes spawned tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean
A webcam is a video camera that feeds or streams its image in real time to or through a computer to a computer network. When captured by the computer, the stream may be saved, viewed or sent on to other networks via systems such as the internet. When sent to a location, the video stream may be saved, viewed or on sent there. Unlike an IP camera, a webcam is generally connected by a USB cable, or similar cable, or built into computer hardware, some of them, for example, those used as online traffic cameras, are expensive, rugged professional video cameras. Webcams are known for their low manufacturing cost and their high flexibility and they have become a source of security and privacy issues, as some built-in webcams can be remotely activated by spyware. The most popular use of webcams is the establishment of video links, other popular uses include security surveillance, computer vision, video broadcasting, and for recording social videos. Researchers claim that this method is accurate to ±5 bpm, Webcams may be installed at places such as childcare centres, offices and private areas to monitor security and general activity.
Webcams have been used for augmented reality experiences online, one such function has the webcam act as a magic mirror to allow an online shopper to view a virtual item on themselves. The Webcam Social Shopper is one example of software that utilizes the webcam in this manner, improved video quality has helped webcams encroach on traditional video conferencing systems. Webcam features and performance can vary by program, computer operating system, video calling support has been added to several popular instant messaging programs. Webcams can be used as security cameras, software is available to allow PC-connected cameras to watch for movement and sound, recording both when they are detected. These recordings can be saved to the computer, e-mailed, unauthorized access of webcams can present significant privacy issues. In December 2011, Russia announced that 290,000 Webcams would be installed in 90,000 polling stations to monitor the Russian presidential election,2012, Webcams can be used to take video clips and still pictures.
Various software tools in use can be employed for this, such as PicMaster, Photo Booth. For a more complete list see Comparison of webcam software, special software can use the video stream from a webcam to assist or enhance a users control of applications and games. Video features, including faces, shapes and colors can be observed and tracked to produce a form of control. This can be applied to games, providing additional control, improved interactivity, by removing the IR filter of the webcam, IR LEDs can be used, which has the advantage of being invisible to the naked eye, removing a distraction from the user. TrackIR is a version of this technology
Video is an electronic medium for the recording, playback and display of moving visual media. Video systems vary greatly in the resolution of the display and refresh rate, video can be carried on a variety of media, including radio broadcast, tapes, DVDs, computer files etc. Video was originally exclusively a live technology, charles Ginsburg led an Ampex research team developing one of the first practical video tape recorder. In 1951 the first video tape recorder captured live images from television cameras by converting the electrical impulses. Video recorders were sold for $50,000 in 1956, prices gradually dropped over the years, in 1971, Sony began selling videocassette recorder decks and tapes into the consumer market. The use of techniques in video created digital video, which allowed higher quality and, eventually. After the invention of the DVD in 1997 and Blu-ray Disc in 2006, sales of videotape, the advent of digital broadcasting and the subsequent digital television transition is in the process of relegating analog video to the status of a legacy technology in most parts of the world. PAL standards and SECAM specify 25 frame/s, while NTSC standards specify 29.97 frames, film is shot at the slower frame rate of 24 frames per second, which slightly complicates the process of transferring a cinematic motion picture to video.
The minimum frame rate to achieve a comfortable illusion of an image is about sixteen frames per second. Video can be interlaced or progressive, analog display devices reproduce each frame in the same way, effectively doubling the frame rate as far as perceptible overall flicker is concerned. NTSC, PAL and SECAM are interlaced formats, abbreviated video resolution specifications often include an i to indicate interlacing. For example, PAL video format is specified as 576i50, where 576 indicates the total number of horizontal scan lines, i indicates interlacing. In progressive scan systems, each refresh period updates all scan lines in each frame in sequence, when displaying a natively progressive broadcast or recorded signal, the result is optimum spatial resolution of both the stationary and moving parts of the image. Deinterlacing cannot, produce video quality that is equivalent to true progressive scan source material, aspect ratio describes the dimensions of video screens and video picture elements.
All popular video formats are rectilinear, and so can be described by a ratio between width and height, the screen aspect ratio of a traditional television screen is 4,3, or about 1.33,1. High definition televisions use a ratio of 16,9. The aspect ratio of a full 35 mm film frame with soundtrack is 1.375,1. Therefore, a 720 by 480 pixel NTSC DV image displayes with the 4,3 aspect ratio if the pixels are thin, the popularity of viewing video on mobile phones has led to the growth of vertical video
An icon is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, from Eastern Christianity and certain Eastern Catholic churches. The most common subjects include Christ, saints and/or angels, icons may be cast in metal, carved in stone, embroidered on cloth, painted on wood, done in mosaic or fresco work, printed on paper or metal, etc. Comparable images from Western Christianity are generally not described as icons, Eastern Orthodox tradition holds that the creation of Christian images dates back to the very early days of Christianity, and there is has been a continuous tradition since then. The icons of centuries can be linked, often closely, to images from the 5th century onwards, there was enormous destruction of images during the Byzantine Iconoclasm of 726-842, although this did settle for good the question of the appropriateness of images. Since icons have had a continuity of style and subject. At the same time there has been change and development, Christian tradition dating from the 8th century identifies Luke the Evangelist as the first icon painter.
Aside from the legend that Pilate had made an image of Christ and he relates that King Abgar of Edessa sent a letter to Jesus at Jerusalem, asking Jesus to come and heal him of an illness. In this version there is no image, further legends relate that the cloth remained in Edessa until the 10th century, when it was taken to Constantinople. It went missing in 1204 when Crusaders sacked Constantinople, but by numerous copies had firmly established its iconic type. They crown these images, and set them up along with the images of the philosophers of the world that is to say, with the images of Pythagoras, and Plato, and Aristotle, and the rest. They have other modes of honouring these images, after the manner of the Gentiles. And he called him and said, what do you mean by this matter of the portrait, can it be one of thy gods that is painted here. For I see that you are living in heathen fashion. Later in the passage John says, But this that you have now done is childish and imperfect, at least some of the hierarchy of the Christian churches still strictly opposed icons in the early 4th century.
At the Spanish non-ecumenical Synod of Elvira bishops concluded, Pictures are not to be placed in churches, so that they do not become objects of worship and adoration. to our religion. After the emperor Constantine I extended official toleration of Christianity within the Roman Empire in 313 and this period of Christianization probably saw the use of Christian images became very widespread among the faithful, though with great differences from pagan habits. Robin Lane Fox states By the early century, we know of the ownership of private icons of saints. 480-500, we can be sure that the inside of a saints shrine would be adorned with images and votive portraits, when Constantine himself apparently converted to Christianity, the majority of his subjects remained pagans
Kraftwerk is a German electronic music band formed by Ralf Hütter and Florian Schneider in 1969 in Düsseldorf. In the 1970s, they were among the first successful pop acts to popularize electronic music and are considered to be innovators and pioneers of the genre. The band was fronted by both Hütter and Schneider until Schneiders departure in 2008, following the releases of Computer World and Electric Café, member Wolfgang Flür left the group in 1987. They released their final album Tour de France Soundtracks in 2003, founding member Schneider departed in 2008. According to The Observer, no other band since the Beatles has given so much to pop culture, in January 2014, the Recording Academy honored Kraftwerk with a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. As of 2016, the members of Kraftwerk continue to tour. The duo had performed together as part of a quintet known as Organisation. This ensemble released one album, Tone Float in 1969, issued on RCA Records in the UK, Schneider was more and more synthesizers by keyboards, a new electronic intrument that had recently arrived on the market, and decided to acquire one in 1970.
While visiting an exhibition in their hometown about visual artists Gilbert and George, the same year, Hütter and Schneider start bringing everyday life into art and form Kraftwerk as critic Jude Rogers remarked it. Hütter, who left the band for eight months, played synthesizer and their first three albums were free-form experimental rock without the pop hooks or the more disciplined song structure of work. Post-production modifications to these recordings were used to distort the sound of the instruments, particularly audio-tape manipulation, live performances from 1972 to 1973 were made as a duo, using a simple beat-box-type electronic drum machine, with preset rhythms taken from an electric organ. These shows were mainly in Germany, with shows in France. Later in 1973, Wolfgang Flür joined the group for rehearsals, with Ralf und Florian, released in 1973, Kraftwerk began to move closer to its now classic sound, relying more heavily on synthesizers and drum machines. Although almost entirely instrumental, the album marks Kraftwerks first use of the vocoder, Kraftwerks futuristic and robotic sound was influenced by the adrenalized insurgency of Detroit artists of the late 60s such as MC5 and the Stooges.
The input and influence of producer and engineer Konrad Conny Plank was highly significant in the years of Kraftwerk. Plank worked many of the other leading German electronic acts of that time, including members of Can. As a result of his work with Kraftwerk, Planks studio near Cologne became one of the most sought-after studios in the late 1970s, Plank coproduced the first four Kraftwerk albums. The release of Autobahn in 1974 saw Kraftwerk moving away from the sound of its first three albums, Hütter and Schneider had invested in newer technology such as the Minimoog and the EMS Synthi AKS, helping give Kraftwerk a newer, disciplined sound
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. It is headquartered at Broadcasting House in London, the BBC is the worlds oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees. It employs over 20,950 staff in total,16,672 of whom are in public sector broadcasting, the total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed contract staff are included. The BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Culture and Sport. The fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, and used to fund the BBCs radio, TV, britains first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920. It was sponsored by the Daily Mails Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian Soprano Dame Nellie Melba, the Melba broadcast caught the peoples imagination and marked a turning point in the British publics attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications.
By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts. But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests, John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast. The company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved manufacturers, to this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to inform and entertain. The financial arrangements soon proved inadequate, set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee and this was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired.
The BBCs broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, the BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00, and required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee, by now the BBC under Reiths leadership had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a service rather than a commercial enterprise. The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production and with restrictions on news bulletins waived the BBC suddenly became the source of news for the duration of the crisis.
The crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position, the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PMs own
A blog is a discussion or informational website published on the World Wide Web consisting of discrete, often informal diary-style text entries. Posts are typically displayed in chronological order, so that the most recent post appears first. Until 2009, blogs were usually the work of an individual, occasionally of a small group. In the 2010s, multi-author blogs have developed, with posts written by large numbers of authors, MABs from newspapers, other media outlets, think tanks, advocacy groups, and similar institutions account for an increasing quantity of blog traffic. The rise of Twitter and other microblogging systems helps integrate MABs, Blog can be used as a verb, meaning to maintain or add content to a blog. In the 2010s, the majority are interactive Web 2.0 websites, allowing visitors to leave online comments, in that sense, blogging can be seen as a form of social networking service. Indeed, bloggers do not only produce content to post on their blogs, there are high-readership blogs which do not allow comments.
Many blogs provide commentary on a subject or topic, ranging from politics to sports. Others function as more personal online diaries, and others function more as online brand advertising of an individual or company. A typical blog combines text, digital images, and links to blogs, web pages. The ability of readers to leave publicly viewable comments, and interact with other commenters, is an important contribution to the popularity of many blogs, blog owners or authors often moderate and filter online comments to remove hate speech or other offensive content. Most blogs are primarily textual, although focus on art, videos, music. In education, blogs can be used as instructional resources and these blogs are referred to as edublogs. Microblogging is another type of blogging, featuring very short posts, on 16 February 2011, there were over 156 million public blogs in existence. On 20 February 2014, there were around 172 million Tumblr and 75.8 million WordPress blogs in existence worldwide, according to critics and other bloggers, Blogger is the most popular blogging service used today.
However, Blogger does not offer public statistics, Technorati lists 1.3 million blogs as of February 22,2014. The term weblog was coined by Jorn Barger on 17 December 1997, the short form, was coined by Peter Merholz, who jokingly broke the word weblog into the phrase we blog in the sidebar of his blog Peterme. com in April or May 1999. Shortly thereafter, Evan Williams at Pyra Labs used blog as both a noun and verb and devised the term blogger in connection with Pyra Labs Blogger product, in the 1990s, Internet forum software, created running conversations with threads
A camcorder is an electronic device combining a video camera and recorder. Although marketing materials may use the term camcorder, the name on the package. The earliest camcorders are tape-based, recording analog signals onto videotape cassettes, in 2006, digital recording became the norm, with tape replaced by storage media such as internal flash memory and SD cards. Earlier, the term camcorder exclusively referred to a camera with a recorder, but almost all of the electronic cameras built in 2006 provide recording capability essentially making them a camcorder. The term camcorder is now used for a particular camera range which provides advanced functions over more common cameras. Video cameras originally designed for television broadcast were large and heavy, mounted on special pedestals, as technology improved, out-of-studio video recording was possible with compact video cameras and portable video recorders, a detachable recording unit could be carried to a shooting location. Although the camera itself was compact, the need for a separate recorder made on-location shooting a two-person job, specialized videocassette recorders were introduced by JVC and Sony releasing a model for mobile work.
Portable recorders meant that video footage could be aired on the early-evening news. In 1982, Sony released the Betacam system, a key component was a single camera-recorder unit, eliminating a cable between the camera and recorder and increasing the camera operators freedom. The Betacam used the same format as the Betamax, and became standard equipment for broadcast news. Sony released the first consumer camcorder in 1983, the Betamovie BMC-100P used a Betamax cassette and rested on the operators shoulder, due to a design not permitting a single-handed grip. That year, JVC released the first VHS-C camcorder, Sony introduced its compact Video8 format in 1985. That year, Panasonic, RCA and Hitachi began producing camcorders using a full-size VHS cassette with a three-hour capacity and these shoulder-mount camcorders were used by videophiles, industrial videographers and college TV studios. Full-size Super-VHS camcorders were released in 1987, providing a way to collect news segments or other videographies.
Sony upgraded Video8, releasing the Hi8 in competition with S-VHS, Digital technology emerged with the Sony D1, a device which recorded uncompressed data and required a large amount of bandwidth for its time. In 1992 Ampex introduced DCT, the first digital video format with data compression using the cosine transform algorithm present in most commercial digital video formats. In 1995 Sony, JVC, Panasonic and other video-camera manufacturers launched DV, Panasonic launched DVCPRO HD in 2000, expanding the DV codec to support high definition. The format was intended for professional camcorders, and used full-size DVCPRO cassettes, in 2003 Sony, JVC, Canon and Sharp introduced HDV as the first affordable HD video format, due to its use of inexpensive MiniDV cassettes
Popping is a street dance and one of the original funk styles that came from Fresno, California during the late 1960s–1970s. This is done continuously to the rhythm of a song in combination with various movements, closely related illusory dance styles and techniques are often integrated into popping to create a more varied performance. These dance styles include the robot and tutting, popping is distinct from breaking and locking, with which it is often confused. A popping dancer is referred to as a popper. As one of the earliest funk styles, popping is closely related to hip hop dancing and related styles such as waving and tutting have been incorporated into the electronica dance scene to some extent, influencing new styles such as liquid and digits and turfing. It is often assumed that popping is a style of breakdance and this is due in large part to the movies Breakin and Breakin 2, Electric Boogaloo. In these movies all styles of dance represented, were put under the breakdance label and this caused the media to associate funk styles with hip hop music and assume that popping and electric boogaloo were the same as breaking.
Popping is centered around the technique of popping, which means to quickly contract, Popping can be concentrated to specific body parts, creating variants such as arm pops, leg pops, chest pops and neck pops. They can vary in explosiveness, stronger pops normally involve popping both the lower and upper body simultaneously. Normally, pops are performed at regular intervals timed to the beat of the music, to create variation, poppers often mix in other styles as well, such as waving or tutting, which creates a sharp contrast to the popping itself. Poses in popping make heavy use of angles, mime style movements, the lower body has many ways to move around from basic walking and stepping to the more complex and gravity defying styles of floating and electric boogaloo. Movements and techniques used in popping are generally focused on sharp contrasts and extremes, being robotic and rigid or very loose. Having its roots in the late 1970s funk era, popping is commonly danced to funk, popular artists include Zapp, Dazz Band and Cameo.
During the 1980s, many poppers utilized electro music, with such as Kraftwerk, Yellow Magic Orchestra, Egyptian Lover. More mainstream hip hop music was employed by poppers during the 1980s, including Afrika Bambaataa, Kurtis Blow and Run DMC. Today, it is common to see popping danced to more current music genres such as hip hop. The pops performed by the popper normally occur on every beat or on the distinct back beats, the popper can choose to follow the music more freely such as by timing the pops to the rhythm of a melody or other rhythmic elements. There are a number of styles that are commonly mixed with popping to enhance the dancers performance and create a more varied show
Celebrity status is often associated with wealth, while fame often provides opportunities to make money. Successful careers in sports and entertainment are commonly associated with celebrity status, People may become celebrities due to media attention on their lifestyle, wealth, or controversial actions, or for their connection to a famous person. Throughout recorded history there are accounts of people who attracted the trappings of celebrity which would be recognized today, athletes in Ancient Greece were welcomed home as heroes, had songs and poems written in their honor, and received free food and gifts from those seeking celebrity endorsement. Ancient Rome similarly lauded actors and notorious gladiators, and Julius Caesar appeared on a coin in his own lifetime, in the 12th century, Thomas Becket became famous following his murder. He was promoted by the Christian Church as a martyr and images of him, the cult of personality can be traced back to the Romantics in the 18th Century, whose livelihood as artists and poets depended on the currency of their reputation.
The establishment of cultural hot-spots became an important factor in the process of generating fame, for example, newspapers started including gossip columns and certain clubs and events became places to be seen in order to receive publicity. The movie industry spread around the globe in the first half of the 20th Century, celebrity wasnt always tied to actors in films, especially when cinema was starting out as a medium. The second half of the century saw television and popular music bring new forms of celebrity, such as the rock star, unlike movies, television created celebrities who were not primarily actors, for example, talk show hosts and news readers. In the sixties and early seventies the book publishing industry began to persuade major celebrities to put their names on autobiographies and other titles in a genre called celebrity publishing. In most cases the book was not written by the celebrity but by a ghost-writer and regions with a significant population may have their own independent celebrity systems, with distinct hierarchies.
For example, the Canadian province of Quebec, which is French-speaking, has its own system of French-speaking television, movie, a person who garners a degree of fame in one culture may be considered less famous or obscure in another. S. Whereas the francophone Canadian singer Celine Dion is well known in both the French-speaking world and in the United States, regions within a country, or cultural communities can have their own celebrity systems, especially in linguistically or culturally distinct regions such as Quebec or Wales. Regional radio personalities, politicians or community leaders may be local or regional celebrities and these informal rankings indicate a placing within a hierarchy. However, due to differing levels of celebrity in different regions, a Brazilian actor might be a B-list action film actor in the U. S. but an A-list star in Portugal. Some elements are associated with fame, such as appearing on the cover of Time, being spoofed in Mad, having a wax statue in Madame Tussauds, certain people are known even to people unfamiliar with the area in which they excelled.
If one has to name a famous boxer, they are likely to name Muhammad Ali or Mike Tyson. The same phenomenon is true for fictional characters, Spider-Man, The Hulk, Wonder Woman and Batman represent super heroes to a far wider audience than that of the comics and graphic novels in which they appear. Disney have themeparks around the world rely on the fame of its creations headed by Mickey Mouse
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London. Continuous publication began under its founder, James Wilson, in September 1843, in 2015 its average weekly circulation was a little over 1.5 million, about half of which were sold in the United States. The publication belongs to the Economist Group and it is 50% owned by the English branch of the Rothschild family and by the Agnelli family through its holding company Exor. The remaining 50% is held by investors including the editors. The Rothschilds and the Agnellis are represented on the board of directors, a board of trustees formally appoints the editor, who cannot be removed without its permission. Although The Economist has an emphasis and scope, about two-thirds of the 75 staff journalists are based in the London borough of Westminster. For the year to March 2016 the Economist Group declared operating profit of £61m, previous major shareholders include Pearson PLC.
The Economist takes a stance of classical and economic liberalism which is supportive of free trade, free immigration. The publication has described itself as a product of the Caledonian liberalism of Adam Smith and it targets highly educated readers and claims an audience containing many influential executives and policy-makers. The publications CEO described this recent global change, which was first noticed in the 1990s and accelerated in the beginning of the 21st century, on the contents page of each issue, The Economists mission statement is written in italics. The Economist was founded by the British businessman and banker James Wilson in 1843, to advance the repeal of the Corn Laws, articles relating to some practical, agricultural, or foreign topic of passing interest, such as foreign treaties. An article on the principles of political economy, applied to practical experience, covering the laws related to prices, rent, revenue. Parliamentary reports, with focus on commerce and free trade.
Reports and accounts of popular movements advocating free trade, general news from the Court of St. Jamess, the Metropolis, the Provinces and Ireland. Law reports, confined chiefly to areas important to commerce, books, confined chiefly, but not so exclusively, to commerce and agriculture, and including all treatises on political economy, finance, or taxation. A commercial gazette, with prices and statistics of the week and inquiries from the news magazines readers. It has long respected as one of the most competent. Its logo was designed in 1959 by Reynolds Stone, in January 2012 The Economist launched a new weekly section devoted exclusively to China, the first new country section since the introduction of a section about the United States in 1942