Video game genre

A video game genre is a classification assigned to a video game based on its gameplay interaction rather than visual or narrative differences. A video game genre is defined by a set of gameplay challenges and are classified independently of their setting or game-world content, unlike other works of fiction such as films or books. For example, a shooter game is still a shooter game, regardless of when it takes place; as with nearly all varieties of genre classification, the matter of a specific game's genre is open to subjective interpretation. An individual game may belong to several genres at once. In Tom Hirschfeld's 1981 book How to Master the Video Games, he divides the included games into broad categories in the table of contents: Space Invaders-type, Asteroids-type, maze and miscellaneous; the first two of these correspond to the still-used genres of fixed shooter and multidirectional shooter. Maze is a modern genre. Chris Crawford attempted to classify video games in his 1984 book The Art of Computer Game Design.

In this book, Crawford focused on the player's experience and activities required for gameplay. Here, he stated that "the state of computer game design is changing quickly. We would therefore expect the taxonomy presented to become obsolete or inadequate in a short time." Since among other genres, the platformer and 3D shooter genres, which hardly existed at the time, have gained a lot of popularity. As hardware capabilities have increased, new genres have become possible, with examples being increased memory, the move from 2D to 3D, new peripherals, online functionalities, location-based mechanics; the video game industry expanded in the 1990s and both smaller and independent publishers had little chance of surviving. Because of this, games settled more into set genres that larger publishers and retailers could use for marketing. Due to "direct and active participation" of the player, video game genres differ from literary and film genres. Though one could state that Space Invaders is a science-fiction video game, author Mark J.

P. Wolf wrote that such a classification "ignores the fundamental differences and similarities which are to be found in the player's experience of the game." In contrast to the visual aesthetics of games, which can vary it is argued that it is interactivity characteristics that are common to all games. Descriptive names of genres take into account the goals of the game, the protagonist and the perspective offered to the player. For example, a first-person shooter is a game, played from a first-person perspective and involves the practice of shooting; the term "subgenre" may be used to refer to a category within a genre to further specify the genre of the game under discussion. Whereas "shooter game" is a genre name, "first-person shooter" and "third-person shooter" are common subgenres of the shooter genre. Other examples of such prefixes are real-time, turn based, side-scrolling; the target audience, underlying theme or purpose of a game are sometimes used as a genre identifier, such as with "games for girls," "Christian game" and "Serious game" respectively.

However, because these terms do not indicate anything about the gameplay of a video game, these are not considered genres. Video game genres vary in specificity, with popular video game reviews using genre names varying from "action" to "baseball." In this practice, basic themes and more fundamental characteristics are used alongside each other. A game may combine aspects of multiple genres in such a way that it becomes hard to classify under existing genres. For example, because Grand Theft Auto III combined shooting and roleplaying in an unusual way, it was hard to classify using existing terms. Since the term Grand Theft Auto clone has been used to describe games mechanically similar to Grand Theft Auto III; the term roguelike has been developed for games that share similarities with Rogue. Elements of the role-playing genre, which focuses on storytelling and character growth, have been implemented in many different genres of video games; this is because the addition of a story and character enhancement to an action, strategy or puzzle video game does not take away from its core gameplay, but adds an incentive other than survival to the experience.

According to some analysts, the percentage of each broad genre in the best selling physical games worldwide is broken down as follows. The most popular genres are Shooter, Role-playing and Sports, with Platformer and Racing having both declined in the last decade. Puzzle games have declined when measured by sales, however, on mobile, where the majority of games are free-to-play, this genre remains the most popular worldwide. List of video game genres

Celedonio Romero

Celedonio Romero was a guitarist and poet best known as the founder of The Romeros guitar quartet. Celedonio Romero was born in Cienfuegos, Cuba while his parents were on a business trip to the island, he began playing the guitar at the age of 5, studied music theory, harmony and counterpoint at the Conservatory of Málaga and at the Madrid Royal Conservatory, where he was taught by Joaquín Turina. Romero never studied with a guitar teacher. Although he made his concert debut at the age of 22 and was well known in Spain, the Franco government refused to permit him to give concerts abroad, keeping him unknown from the rest of the world, his wife, was a singer and stage actress who had studied at Málaga's Royal Academy of Fine Arts. After secretly obtaining an American visa, the family secured permission to visit an ailing relative in Portugal in 1957. However, rather than returning to Spain, the family settled in Southern California, Celedonio and his three sons Celin and Angel started a guitar quartet, The Romeros, began to take on guitar students.

Celedonio Romero was Christopher Parkening's first teacher. Angelita Romero can be heard playing castanets on some of the quartet's recordings. Celedonio made a large number of recordings, both solo and with the Romeros, which appeared on the Delos and Philips labels, he wrote over 100 compositions for guitar, including a dozen concertos. Romero died of lung cancer at the age of 83 in California, he was inducted into the Orden de Isabel la Católica by King Juan Carlos I. He was made a "Caballero del Santo Sepulcro" by Pope John Paul II. Many of the dates below are publication dates rather than. Suite andaluza: para guitarra Estudio. La Mariposa Tango Angelita: for voice and guitar or solo guitar Noche en malaga Romantic Prelude Gavota para guitarra Tema y variaciones: Homenaje a Fernando Sor: para guitarra Cinco preludios para guitarra Concierto de Malaga: por soleares La Catedral de Colonia: para guitarra Diez preludios: VI al XV, para guitarra Preludios. "The Royal Family of the Guitar." New York Times Magazine, Nov. 29, 1981, 98+.

Gernandez-Lavie, with assistance from Pepe Romero. "Beyond the Stars: Celedonio Romero 1913-1996," Classical Guitar, Vol. 16: 11-18. Ornish, Laurel. "Recuerdos de Celedonio Romero," Soundboard, Vol. 24: 21-26. Some photos of LP covers

Richard Boston

Richard Boston was an English journalist and author, a rigorous dissenter and a belligerent pacifist. An anarchist, raconteur, marathon runner and practical joker, he described his pastimes as "soothsaying, shelling peas and embroidery" and argued that Adam and Eve were the first anarchists: "God gave them only one order and they promptly broke it". Richard Boston was brought up on a Kent farm, he was educated at Regent Street Polytechnic and King's College, Cambridge. During the early 1960s he taught abroad in Sweden and Paris. In 1966, towards the end of his period in France he worked as a film extra, acting as a longshot stand-in for Jacques Tati in his film Playtime. For more than 30 years Boston contributed to a range of newspapers and broadcast programmes. Staff jobs included Peace News, New Society and The Times Literary Supplement, he became known for an oddball but passionate take on the passing scene. From 1972 Boston was a freelance columnist and editorial writer on The Guardian. Soon after starting, together with Michael McNay, came up the idea of a column about beer.

Keg beers such as Watneys Red Barrel and Ind Coope Double Diamond were being pushed on the beer drinker with widespread distribution and high advertising budgets. These bland and gassy beers provided Aunt Sallies for his regular Saturday column in The Guardian, "Boston on Beer", which started shortly after the launch of the Campaign for Real Ale; some regular readers might have been disappointed to hear that: "Despite all the talk of real ale, I have to say that, if I saw Richard in the village pub, he was drinking something stronger."In 1977 he founded the environmentalist magazine Vole. On his candidature in the 1994 European elections: It's a big trough and I want to get my nose in it. On beer: Beer horrible stuff, mine's a pink gin. Can't stand the stuff! On Watership Down when re-examining some well known books: The rabbits upheld the public school virtues of getting up early, having cold showers, going on long runs. On Adam and Eve: were the first anarchists, God gave them only one order and they promptly broke it.

John Falcke, the painter: Above everything, I admired his moral courage in standing by his principles in everything he did. Alan Rusbridger, journalist: Richard Boston was incapable of being serious about anything for long, his love of literary practical jokes and puns concealed both an acute and erudite mind and a personality given to prolonged periods of melancholy. Anne Boston: He was a free thinker, a true independent who tenaciously tracked his train of thought into unexpected territory, sometimes surprising himself as much as others. Works by Richard Boston: 1970; the Press We Deserve, edited by Richard Boston. London: Routledge & K. Paul. ISBN 0-7100-6821-2. 1974. An Anatomy of Laughter. London: Collins. ISBN 0-00-216004-8. 1975. Ed. and introduction to: The Admirable Urquhart: Selected Writings. London: Gordon Fraser Gallery. ISBN 0-900406-40-2. 1976. Beer and Skittles. London: Collins. ISBN 0-00-216066-8. 1977. Baldness Be My Friend. London: Elm Tree Books. ISBN 0-241-89732-7. 1977. Foreword to Little Boxes: A Selection of Bryan McAllister Cartoons from "The Guardian".

London: Guardian Newspapers. ISBN 0-85265-024-8. 1979. The Little Green Book, edited by Richard Boston, Richard Holme and Richard North. London: Wildwood House. ISBN 0-7045-0381-6. 1982. The C. O. Jones Compendium of Practical Jokes. London: Enigma Books. ISBN 0-7278-3003-1. C. 1983. Foreword to The Belchers: A Strip Cartoon from Vole magazine 1977–81, by Bryan Reading. Poole: Blandford. ISBN 0-7137-1387-9. C. 1985. Ed; the Busman’s Prayer. Reading: Foss & Hodge. 1986. Introduction to: With an Eye to the Future by Osbert Lancaster. London: Century. (Originally pub London: Murray. ISBN 0-7126-9467-6. 1987. Contribution to: A Decade of Anarchy, ed Colin Ward. London: Freedom Press. ISBN 0-900384-37-9. 1989. Osbert: A Portrait of Osbert Lancaster. London: Collins. ISBN 0-00-216324-1. 1994. Boudu Saved From Drowning. London: BFI Publishing. ISBN 0-85170-467-0. 1995. Essay in The Raven, No 30: New Life to the Land?. London: Freedom Press. 1997. Starkness at Noon. Nottingham: Five Leaves Publications. ISBN 0-907123-32-5. 2003. Essay in A Country Diary Clifford Harper, by Clifford Harper.

Agraphia Press. ISBN 1-904596-00-2