Holland is a region and former province on the western coast of the Netherlands. The name Holland is frequently used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands; this usage is accepted in other countries, sometimes employed by the Dutch themselves. However, some in the Netherlands those from regions outside Holland, may find it undesirable or misrepresentative to use the term for the whole country. From the 10th to the 16th century, Holland proper was a unified political region within the Holy Roman Empire as a county ruled by the Counts of Holland. By the 17th century, the province of Holland had risen to become a maritime and economic power, dominating the other provinces of the newly independent Dutch Republic; the area of the former County of Holland coincides with the two current Dutch provinces of North Holland and South Holland in which it was divided, which together include the Netherlands' three largest cities: the de jure capital city of Amsterdam. The name Holland first appeared in sources for the region around Haarlem, by 1064 was being used as the name of the entire county.
By the early twelfth century, the inhabitants of Holland were called Hollandi in a Latin text. Holland is derived from the Old Dutch term holtlant; this spelling variation remained in use until around the 14th century, at which time the name stabilised as Holland. A popular but erroneous folk etymology holds that Holland is derived from hol land purportedly inspired by the low-lying geography of the land."Holland" is informally used in English and other languages, including sometimes the Dutch language itself, to mean the whole of the modern country of the Netherlands. This example of pars pro toto or synecdoche is similar to the tendency to refer to the United Kingdom as "England", developed due to Holland's becoming the dominant province and thus having the majority of political and economic interactions with other countries. On one occasion "Holland" became the legal name for the whole country, when in 1806 by suggestion of Napoleon this usage was made official and the puppet kingdom ruled by his brother Louis Bonaparte was given the name Kingdom of Holland.
This was dropped after the retreat of the French troops in 1813, Dutch dignitaries proclaiming the Sovereign Principality of the United Netherlands. The people of Holland are referred to as "Hollanders" in both Dutch and English, though in English this is now unusual and nearly-archaic. Today this refers to people from the current provinces of North Holland and South Holland. Speaking, the term "Hollanders" does not refer to people from the other provinces in the Netherlands, but colloquially "Hollanders" is sometimes used in this wider sense. In Flanders it is quite common to speak of "Hollanders" when speaking of people from the Netherlands. In Dutch, the Dutch word "Hollands" is the adjectival form for "Holland"; the Dutch word "Hollands" is colloquially and used by some Dutch people in the sense of "Nederlands", but with the intention of contrasting with other types of Dutch people or language, for example Limburgish, the Belgian varieties of the Dutch language, or any southern variety of Dutch within the Netherlands itself.
In English, "Dutch" refers to the Netherlands as a whole, but there is no used adjective for "Holland". The word "Hollandish" is no longer in common use. "Hollandic" is the name linguists give to the dialect spoken in Holland, is also used by historians and when referring to pre-Napoleonic Holland. Holland was a remote corner of the Holy Roman Empire, its regional importance increased until it began to have a decisive, dominant, influence on the History of the Netherlands. Until the start of the 12th century, the inhabitants of the area that became Holland were known as Frisians; the area was part of Frisia. At the end of the 9th century, West-Frisia became a separate county in the Holy Roman Empire; the first Count known about with certainty was Dirk I, who ruled from 896 to 931. He was succeeded by a long line of counts in the House of Holland; when John I, Count of Holland, died childless in 1299, the county was inherited by John II of Avesnes, count of Hainaut. By the time of William V the count of Holland was the count of Hainaut and Zealand.
After the St. Lucia's flood in 1287 the part of Frisia west of the Zuiderzee, West Friesland, was conquered; as a result, most provincial institutions, including the States of Holland and West Frisia, would for more than five centuries refer to "Holland and West Frisia" as a unit. The Hook and Cod wars started around this time and ended when the countess of Holland, Jacoba or Jacqueline was forced to cede Holland to the Burgundian Philip III, known as Philip the Good, in 1432. In 1432, Holland became part of the Burgundian Netherlands and since 1477 of the Habsburg Seventeen Provinces. In the 16th century the county became the most densely urbanised region in Europe, with the majority of the population living in cities. Within the Burgundian Netherlands, Holland was the dominant province in the north; the last count of Holland was Philip III, better known as king of Spain. He was deposed in 1581 by the Act of Abjuration, although the kings of Spain continued to carry the titular appellation of Count of Holland until the Peace of Münster signed in 1648.
In the Dutch Rebellion agains
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology
The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology is an encyclopedia/biographical dictionary. Edited by William Smith, the dictionary spans 3,700 pages, it is a classic work of 19th-century lexicography. The work is a companion to Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities and Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography; the work lists thirty-five authors in addition to the editor, an author for some definitions and articles. The authors were classical scholars from Oxford, Rugby School, the University of Bonn, but some were from other institutions. Many of the mythological entries were the work of the German expatriate Leonhard Schmitz, who helped to popularise German classical scholarship in Britain. With respect to biographies, Smith intended to be comprehensive. In the preface, he writes:The biographical articles in this work include the names of all persons of any importance which occur in the Greek and Roman writers, from the earliest times down to the extinction of the Western Empire in the year 476 of our era, to the extinction of the Eastern Empire by the capture of Constantinople by the turks in the year 1453.
Samuel Sharpe thought Edward Bunbury had plagiarised his work, as he wrote of in his diary entry on 3 September 1850: I felt mortified on reading the articles on the Ptolemies in Dr. Smith's "Dictionary of Classical Biography." They were all written by E. H. Bunbury with the help of my "History of Egypt," and with-out any acknowledgment, though he borrowed the volume from my brother Dan for the purpose. Many of the Dictionary's definitions and articles have been referred to in more recent works, Robert Graves has been accused of "lifting his impressive-looking source references straight, unchecked" from it when writing The Greek Myths; the work is now in the public domain, is available in several places on the Internet. While still accurate, much is missing more recent discoveries and epigraphic material. More the context in which ancient evidence is viewed has changed in the intervening century and a half. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.
Vol. I online at University of Michigan Library. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Vol. II online at University of Michigan Library. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Vol. III online at University of Michigan Library; the Internet Archive has a derivative work: Smith, William. A new classical dictionary of biography and geography based on the "Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology.". London: Murray. Anthon, Charles. A new classical dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and geography: based upon the Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology by William Smith. New York: Harper and Brothers
Germania was the Roman term for the geographical region in north-central Europe inhabited by Germanic peoples. It extended from the Danube and Main in the south to the Baltic Sea, from the Rhine in the west to the Vistula; the Roman portions formed two provinces of the Empire, Germania Inferior to the north, Germania Superior to the south. Germania was inhabited by Germanic tribes, but Celts, Scythians and on Early Slavs; the population mix changed over time by assimilation, by migration. The ancient Greeks were the first to mention the tribes in the area. Julius Caesar wrote about warlike Germanic tribesmen and their threat to Roman Gaul, there were military clashes between the Romans and the indigenous tribes. Tacitus wrote the most complete account of Germania; the origin of the term "Germania" is uncertain, but was known by Caesar's time, may be Gaulish in origin. The ethnonym Germani is most Gallic in origin. Jacob Grimm derived it from a Celtic term for "shouting. Johann Kaspar Zeuss derived the name from the Celtic word for "neighbour".
Germani enters into Latin use following Julius Caesar. Caesar in De Bello Gallico reports hearing from his Remi allies that the term Germani was for a group that had come from across the Rhine, named Germani Cisrhenani. By extension, Germani was understood to include similar tribes still living beyond the Rhine. Tacitus, writing in AD 98, reports that the Tungri of his time, who lived in the area, home to the Germani Cisrhenani, had changed their name, but had once been the original Germani: For the rest, they affirm Germania to be a recent word bestowed. For those who first passed the Rhine and expulsed the Gauls, are now named Tungrians, were called Germani, and thus by degrees the name of a tribe prevailed, not that of the nation. Names of Germany in English and some other languages are derived from "Germania", but German speakers call it "Deutschland", Dutch speakers call it "Duitsland", both from *þeudō "people or nation". Several modern languages use the name "Germania", including Hebrew, Albanian, Maltese, Romanian, Russian and Georgian.
Germania extended from the Rhine eastward to the Vistula river, from the Danube and Main river northward to the Baltic Sea. The areas west of the Rhine were Celtic and became part of the Roman Empire in the first century BC; the Roman parts of Germania, "Lesser Germania" formed two provinces of the empire, Germania Inferior, "Lower Germania" and Germania Superior. Important cities in Lesser Germania included Besançon, Strasbourg and Mainz; the geography of Magna Germania was comprehensively described in Ptolemy's Geography of around 150 AD via geographical coordinates of the main cities. By means of a geodetic deformation analysis carried out by the Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformation Science at the Technical University of Berlin as part of a project of the German Research Association under the direction of Dieter Lelgemann in 2007–2010, many historical place names have been localized and associated with place names of the present day. Germania was inhabited by different tribes, most of them Germanic but some Celtic, proto-Slavic and Scythian peoples.
The tribal and ethnic makeup changed over the centuries as a result of assimilation and, most migrations. The Germanic people spoke several different dialects. Classical records show little about the people who inhabited the north of Europe before the 2nd century BC. In the 5th century BC, the Greeks were aware of a group. Herodotus mentioned the Scythians but no other tribes. At around 320 BC, Pytheas of Massalia sailed around Britain and along the northern coast of Europe, what he found on his journeys was so strange that writers refused to believe him, he may have been the first Mediterranean to distinguish the Germanic people from the Celts. Contact between German tribes and the Roman Empire did was not always hostile. Recent excavations of the Waldgirmes Forum show signs that a civilian Roman town was established there, interpreted to mean that Romans and Germanic tribesmen were living in peace, at least for a while. Caesar described the cultural differences between the Germanic tribesmen, the Romans, the Gauls in his book Commentarii de Bello Gallico, where he recalls his defeat of the Suebi tribes at the Battle of Vosges.
He describes them at length at the beginning of Book IV and the middle of Book VI. He states that the Gauls, although warlike, had a functional society and could be civilized, but that the Germanic tribesmen were far more savage and were a threat to Roman Gaul and Rome itself. Caesar said the Germanic tribes were nomadic, with a primitive culture, he used this as one of his justifications for. Hi
Nero Claudius Drusus
Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, born Decimus Claudius Drusus called Drusus Claudius Nero, Drusus I, Nero Drusus, or Drusus the Elder was a Roman politician and military commander. He was a patrician Claudian on his legal father's side but his maternal grandmother was from a plebeian family, he was the legal stepson of her second husband, the Emperor Augustus. He was brother of the Emperor Tiberius, father to both the Emperor Claudius and general Germanicus, paternal grandfather of the Emperor Caligula, maternal great-grandfather of the Emperor Nero, he launched the first major Roman campaigns across the Rhine and began the conquest of Germania, becoming the first Roman general to reach the Weser and Elbe rivers. In 12 BC, Drusus led a successful campaign into Germania; that year he led a naval expedition against Germanic tribes along the North Sea coast, conquering the Batavi and the Frisii, defeating the Chauci near the mouth of the Weser. In 11 BC, he conquered the Marsi, extending Roman control to the Upper Weser.
In 10 BC, he launched a campaign against the resurgent Sicambri, subjugating both. The following year, while serving as consul, he conquered the Mattiaci and defeated the Marcomanni and the Cherusci, the latter near the Elbe. However, Drusus died that year, depriving Rome of one of its best generals. Drusus was the youngest son of Livia Drusilla from her marriage to Tiberius Claudius Nero, declared his father before the couple divorced. Drusus was born between mid-March and mid-April 38 BC, three months after Livia married Augustus on 17 January. Gerhard Radke has proposed the date of March 28 as his most birthday, while Lindsay Powell interprets Ovid's Fasti as indicating a date of 13 January. Rumors arose that Augustus was the child's real father, although this has never been authoritatively proven. Claudius, encouraged the rumor during his reign as emperor to create an impression of more direct lineage from Augustus. According to Suetonius, Drusus was given Decimus as his praenomen, the first of a Roman male's conventional three names in Roman naming practice at the time.
Nero was a traditional cognomen of the Claudii, whereas Drusus was given to a branch of the gens Livia. Using a cognomen such as Nero as a first name was unusual, as was the prominence given to his maternal lineage in adopting Drusus as his cognomen. Drusus was raised in Claudius Nero's house with his brother, the future emperor Tiberius, until his legal father's death; the two brothers developed a famously close relationship. Tiberius named his eldest son after his brother, Drusus did although eldest sons were named after their father or grandfather. Drusus married Antonia Minor, the daughter of Mark Antony and Augustus' sister, Octavia Minor, gained a reputation of being faithful to her, their children were Germanicus, Claudius, a daughter named Livilla, at least two others who did not survive infancy. After Drusus' death, Antonia never remarried. Three emperors were direct descendants of Drusus: his son Claudius, his grandson Caligula, his great-grandson Nero. Augustus bestowed many honors on his stepsons.
In 19 BC, Drusus was granted the ability to hold all public offices five years before the minimum age. When Tiberius left Italy during his term as praetor in 16 BC, Drusus legislated in his place, he became quaestor the following year. Drusus repelled them, gaining honors, but was unable to smash their forces, required reinforcement from Tiberius; the brothers defeated the local Alpine tribes. Drusus arrived in Gaul in late 15 BCE to serve as legatus Augusti pro praetore of the three Gaulish provinces, his contribution to the ongoing building and urban development in Gaul can be seen in the establishment of the pes Drusianus, or ‘Drusian foot’, of about 33.3 cm, in use in Samarobriva and among the Tungri. From 14 to 13 BCE, Augustus himself was active in Gaul, whether in Lugdunum or along the Rhine frontier; as governor of Gaul, Drusus made his headquarters at Lugdunum, where he decided to establish the concilium Galliarum or ‘council of the Gaulish provinces’ sometime between 14 and 12 BCE. This council would elect from its members a priest to celebrate games and venerate Rome and Augustus as deities every 1 August at the altar of the three Gauls that Drusus established at Condate in 10 BCE.
Drusus' son Tiberius—the future emperor Claudius—was born in Lugdunum on the same day that this altar was inaugurated. Starting in 14 BCE, Drusus built a string of military bases along the Rhine—fifty according to Florus—and established an alliance with the Batavi in preparation for military action in Germania Libera, he is to have had seven legions under his command. In spring of 12 BCE, he embarked an expeditionary force consisting of the Legiones I Germanica and V Alaudae, by ship from the vicinity of modern Nijmegen, making use of one or more canals he had built for the purpose. Drusus sailed to the mouth of the Ems and penetrated into the territory of the Chauci in present-day Lower Saxony; the Chauci concluded a treaty acknowledging Roman supremacy, would remain allies of Rome for years to come. As they continued to ascend the Ems, the Romans were attacked by the Bructeri in boats. Drusus' forces defeated the Bructeri, but, as it was now late in the campaign season, turned back for their winter quarters in Gaul, taking advantage of their new alliance
The Geography known by its Latin names as the Geographia and the Cosmographia, is a gazetteer, an atlas, a treatise on cartography, compiling the geographical knowledge of the 2nd-century Roman Empire. Written by Claudius Ptolemy in Greek at Alexandria around AD 150, the work was a revision of a now-lost atlas by Marinus of Tyre using additional Roman and Persian gazetteers and new principles, its translation into Arabic in the 9th century and Latin in 1406 was influential on the geographical knowledge and cartographic traditions of the medieval Caliphate and Renaissance Europe. Versions of Ptolemy's work in antiquity were proper atlases with attached maps, although some scholars believe that the references to maps in the text were additions. No Greek manuscript of the Geography survives from earlier than the 13th century. A letter written by the Byzantine monk Maximus Planudes records that he searched for one for Chora Monastery in the summer of 1295. In Europe, maps were sometimes redrawn using the coordinates provided by the text, as Planudes was forced to do.
Scribes and publishers could copy these new maps, as Athanasius did for the emperor Andronicus II Palaeologus. The three earliest surviving texts with maps are those from Constantinople based on Planudes's work; the first Latin translation of these texts was made in 1406 or 1407 by Jacobus Angelus in Florence, under the name Geographia Claudii Ptolemaei. It is not thought that his edition had maps, although Manuel Chrysoloras had given Palla Strozzi a Greek copy of Planudes's maps in Florence in 1397; the Geography consists of three sections, divided among 8 books. Book I is a treatise on cartography, describing the methods used to assemble and arrange Ptolemy's data. From Book II through the beginning of Book VII, a gazetteer provides longitude and latitude values for the world known to the ancient Romans; the rest of Book VII provides details on three projections to be used for the construction of a map of the world, varying in complexity and fidelity. Book VIII constitutes an atlas of regional maps.
The maps include a recapitulation of some of the values given earlier in the work, which were intended to be used as captions to clarify the map's contents and maintain their accuracy during copying. Maps based on scientific principles had been made in Europe since the time of Eratosthenes in the 3rd century BC. Ptolemy improved the treatment of map projections, he provided instructions on. The gazetteer section of Ptolemy's work provided latitude and longitude coordinates for all the places and geographical features in the work. Latitude was expressed in degrees of arc from the equator, the same system, used now, though Ptolemy used fractions of a degree rather than minutes of arc, his Prime Meridian ran through the Fortunate Isles, the westernmost land recorded, at around the position of El Hierro in the Canary Islands. The maps spanned 180 degrees of longitude from the Fortunate Isles in the Atlantic to China. Ptolemy was aware. Ptolemy's work included a single large and less detailed world map and separate and more detailed regional maps.
The first Greek manuscripts compiled after Maximus Planudes's rediscovery of the text had as many as 64 regional maps. The standard set in Western Europe came to be 26: 10 European maps, 4 African maps, 12 Asian maps; as early as the 1420s, these canonical maps were complemented by extra-Ptolemaic regional maps depicting, e.g. Scandinavia; the original treatise by Marinus of Tyre that formed the basis of Ptolemy's Geography has been lost. A world map based on Ptolemy was displayed in Augustodunum in late Roman times. Pappus, writing at Alexandria in the 4th century, produced a commentary on Ptolemy's Geography and used it as the basis of his Chorography of the Ecumene. Imperial writers and mathematicians, seem to have restricted themselves to commenting on Ptolemy's text, rather than improving upon it. Byzantine scholars continued these geographical traditions throughout the Medieval period. Whereas previous Greco-Roman geographers such as Strabo and Pliny the Elder demonstrated a reluctance to rely on the contemporary accounts of sailors and merchants who plied distant areas of the Indian Ocean and Ptolemy betray a much greater receptiveness to incorporating information received from them.
For instance, Grant Parker argues that it would be implausible for them to have constructed the Bay of Bengal as as they did without the accounts of sailors. When it comes to the account of the Golden Chersonese and the Magnus Sinus and Ptolemy relied on the testimony of a Greek sailor named Alexandros, who claimed to have visited a far eastern site called "Cattigara". Muslim cartographers were using Geography by the 9th century. At that time, in the court of the caliph al-Maʾmūm, al-Khwārazmī compiled his Book of the Depiction of the Earth which mimicked the Geography in providing the coordinates for 545 cities and regional maps of the Nile, the Island of the Jewel, the Sea of Darkness, the Sea of Azov. A 1037 copy of these are the
Velsen is a municipality in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. It is located on both sides of the North Sea Canal. On the north side of the North Sea Canal there is a major steel plant, Tata Steel IJmuiden known as Koninklijke Hoogovens; the headquarters of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Redding Maatschappij is located in IJmuiden. The Kennemerstrand beach on the south side of the canal is at the end of the Kennemerboulevard, which runs south of the Seaport Marina. To the south is the beach of Bloemendaal aan Zee. In between is a nude beach; the municipality of Velsen consists of the following cities, villages and/or districts: on the north of the North Sea Canal: Velsen-Noord on the south of the North Sea Canal: Velsen-Zuid, Driehuis, IJmuiden, Santpoort-Noord, Santpoort-Zuid and Velserbroek, the parts Oosterbroek and Buitenhuizen of the recreation area Spaarnwoude. Dutch topographic map of the municipality of Velsen, June 2015 In Velsen, there are the following connections across the North Sea Canal: A railway tunnel between the railway stations of Driehuis and Beverwijk.
Road tunnels, from north to south: Wijker Tunnel Velser Tunnel next to the railway tunnel. A ferry A road across the lock complex Railway stations: Driehuis, Santpoort Noord, Santpoort ZuidAlso there used to be the Fast Flying Ferry to Amsterdam. There used to be a railway link between IJmuiden and Amsterdam, the IJmondlijn until 1999, when it was closed; the municipal council of Velsen consists of 33 seats, which are divided now as follows: PvdA - 5 seats VVD - 5 seats VL - 5 seats D66V - 5 seats LGV - 4 seats CDA - 3 seats GL - 2 seats SP - 2 seats CU - 1 seat independent member - 1 seat The ruins of a Roman naval base at Velsen are believed to be ancient Flevum, listed as Phleoum, Romanized to Phleum, in Ptolemy. Velsen is twinned with the port city of Galle in southern Sri Lanka and city of Bergisch Gladbach in the west of Germany. Media related to Velsen at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Claudius Ptolemy was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer and astrologer. He lived in the city of Alexandria in the Roman province of Egypt, wrote in Koine Greek, held Roman citizenship; the 14th-century astronomer Theodore Meliteniotes gave his birthplace as the prominent Greek city Ptolemais Hermiou in the Thebaid. This attestation is quite late, and, according to Gerald Toomer, the translator of his Almagest into English, there is no reason to suppose he lived anywhere other than Alexandria, he died there around AD 168. Ptolemy wrote several scientific treatises, three of which were of importance to Byzantine and Western European science; the first is the astronomical treatise now known as the Almagest, although it was entitled the Mathematical Treatise and known as the Great Treatise. The second is the Geography, a thorough discussion of the geographic knowledge of the Greco-Roman world; the third is the astrological treatise in which he attempted to adapt horoscopic astrology to the Aristotelian natural philosophy of his day.
This is sometimes known as the Apotelesmatika but more known as the Tetrabiblos from the Greek meaning "Four Books" or by the Latin Quadripartitum. Ptolemaeus is a Greek name, it occurs once in Greek mythology, is of Homeric form. It was common among the Macedonian upper class at the time of Alexander the Great, there were several of this name among Alexander's army, one of whom made himself pharaoh in 323 BC: Ptolemy I Soter, the first king of the Ptolemaic Kingdom. All male kings of Hellenistic Egypt, until Egypt became a Roman province in 30 BC ending the Macedonian family's rule, were Ptolemies; the name Claudius is a Roman nomen. It would have suited custom if the first of Ptolemy's family to become a citizen took the nomen from a Roman called Claudius, responsible for granting citizenship. If, as was common, this was the emperor, citizenship would have been granted between AD 41 and 68; the astronomer would have had a praenomen, which remains unknown. The ninth-century Persian astronomer Abu Maʿshar presents Ptolemy as a member of Egypt's royal lineage, stating that the descendants of Alexander's general Ptolemy I, who ruled Egypt, were wise "and included Ptolemy the Wise, who composed the book of the Almagest".
Abu Maʿshar recorded a belief that a different member of this royal line "composed the book on astrology and attributed it to Ptolemy". We can evidence historical confusion on this point from Abu Maʿshar's subsequent remark "It is sometimes said that the learned man who wrote the book of astrology wrote the book of the Almagest; the correct answer is not known." There is little evidence on the subject of Ptolemy's ancestry, apart from what can be drawn from the details of his name. Ptolemy can be shown to have utilized Babylonian astronomical data, he was a Roman citizen, but was ethnically either a Greek or a Hellenized Egyptian. He was known in Arabic sources as "the Upper Egyptian", suggesting he may have had origins in southern Egypt. Arabic astronomers and physicists referred to him by his name in Arabic: بَطْلُمْيوس Baṭlumyus. Ptolemy's Almagest is the only surviving comprehensive ancient treatise on astronomy. Babylonian astronomers had developed arithmetical techniques for calculating astronomical phenomena.
Ptolemy, claimed to have derived his geometrical models from selected astronomical observations by his predecessors spanning more than 800 years, though astronomers have for centuries suspected that his models' parameters were adopted independently of observations. Ptolemy presented his astronomical models in convenient tables, which could be used to compute the future or past position of the planets; the Almagest contains a star catalogue, a version of a catalogue created by Hipparchus. Its list of forty-eight constellations is ancestral to the modern system of constellations, but unlike the modern system they did not cover the whole sky. Across Europe, the Middle East and North Africa in the Medieval period, it was the authoritative text on astronomy, with its author becoming an mythical figure, called Ptolemy, King of Alexandria; the Almagest was preserved, in Arabic manuscripts. Because of its reputation, it was sought and was translated twice into Latin in the 12th century, once in Sicily and again in Spain.
Ptolemy's model, like those of his predecessors, was geocentric and was universally accepted until the appearance of simpler heliocentric models during the scientific revolution. His Planetary Hypotheses went beyond the mathematical model of the Almagest to present a physical realization of the universe as a set of nested spheres, in which he used the epicycles of his planetary model to compute the dimensions of the universe, he estimated the Sun was at an average dis