Vieux is a commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region in northwestern France. The town contains numerous Roman era ruins, as Vieux was a Settlement called Araegenve, appears on the Roman map, Tabula Peutingeriana. During the Battle of Normandy in 1944, Vieux was designated as Hill 112 position, a strategic point for the Battle of Caen, the area of rue d'Esquay and the Bas de Vieux were badly affected by the allied bombardment of July 6, 1944; the portion of these streets, destroyed at this time are now dated for its name. The archaeological museum of Vieux-la-Romaine. Roman villa of Bas de Vieux Communes of the Calvados department INSEE Site of the archaeological museum of Vieux-la-Romaine
The Bituriges were a tribe of Celtic Gaul with its capital at Bourges, whose territory corresponds to the former province of Berry. Their name meant "kings of the world" or "kings/masters of hitting/forging/smithing". Early in the 1st century BCE, they had been one of the main Gallic tribes in terms of druids and their political influence, but they soon declined in power as the druids were an important target for Julius Caesar in his conquest of Gaul. What is more, the fact that Avaricum was the only Celtic city that Vercingetorix did not burn, contrary to his scorched earth strategy, upon the approach of Caesar's legions is another proof of the political importance of the Bituriges; the town was to be buried by the Roman legions. Besides Avaricum or Mediolanum on the road from Paris and Orléans to Arvernum, Argentomagus, Déols or Levroux on the road from Toulouse to Paris were other oppidums of the Bituriges; this is one of several tribes which seem to have split, with the Bituriges Cubi lived near Bourges/Berry and the Bituriges Vivisci near Burdigala.
They joined Bellovesus' migrations towards Italy, together with the Aedui, Arverni, Aulerci and Senones. A passage from Livy, "summa imperii penes Biturges", meaning "all the power in the hands of the Bituriges", has become the motto of the city of Bourges. List of peoples of Gaul Saint-Benoît-du-Sault
The Curiosolites or Curiosolitae were a people in the region now called Brittany, in Celtica, who are mentioned by Julius Caesar several times. The name only occurs in the accusative form, they are mentioned by Caesar with the Veneti, Unelli and others that Caesar calls maritimae civitates, "maritime cities", border on the Atlantic Ocean. In another place he describes the position of the Curiosolitae on the ocean in the same terms, includes them among the Armoric states, a name equivalent to maritimae; the name occurs in Pliny in the form "Cariosvelites". The Curiosolitae are not mentioned by Ptolemy. No city of these people is mentioned, the Itineraries give no roads in this part of Brittany. Accordingly, we can only conjecture their position, determined with some probability to be the diocese of St. Malo, the only place that remains for them after fixing the position of the other Armoric nations; the name seems to be preserved in Corseul, a village between Dinan and Lamballe, where there are the remains of an old Roman town.
We may conclude that, after the fashion of Gallic names, Corseul represents the capital of the Curiosolitae. Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville supposes that on the coast they extended west to the neighborhood of St. Brieuc, where a place called Finiac denotes the boundary of an ancient territory, as the name Fines or Fins denotes in other parts of Gallia; the neighbors of the Curiosolitae on the east were the Rhedones, on the south the Veneti. On the west were the Osismi or Osismii, who occupied the extremity of the peninsula of Brittany, but Charles Athanase Walckenaer places, between the Osismi and the Curiosolitae, the Biducasii of Ptolemy, in the diocese of St. Bidué or St. Brieuc; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray
The Diablintes or Diablintres or Diablindi or Aulerci Diaulitae were an ancient people of Gaul, a division of the Aulerci. Julius Caesar mentions the Diablintes among the allies of the Veneti and other Armoric states whom Caesar attacked; the Diablintes are mentioned between the Menapii. The territory of the Diablintes seems to have been small, it may have been included in that of the Cenomanni, or the former diocese of Mans; the true form of the name in Caesar is doubtful. Schneider, in his edition of the Gallic War, has adopted the form Diablintres, there is good manuscriptual authority for this; the Diablintes are the Diablindi. Their position can be calculated from Pliny's enumeration, Diablindi, Rhedones; the capital of the Diablintes, according to Ptolemy, was Noeodunum the Nudium of the Table. The Notitia of the Gallic provinces, which belongs to the commencement of the fifth century, mentions Civitas Diablintum among the cities of Lugdunensis Tertia. A document of the seventh century speaks of condita Diablintica as situated in Pago Cenomannico, thus one location of the Diablintes is clear.
This document helps explain why Ptolemy used the name Aulerci for both the Diablintes and Cenomanni. Another document of the seventh century speaks of oppidum Diablintes juxta ripam Araenae fiuvioli; the small town of Jublains, where Roman remains have been found, not far from the town of Mayenne to the southeast, is the site of the Civitas Diablintum and Noeodunum. A wooden tablet found in London records the sale of one Fortunata, a Diablintian slave girl; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray
Diana is a Roman goddess of the hunt, the Moon, nature, associated with wild animals and woodland. She is equated with the Greek goddess Artemis, absorbed much of Artemis' mythology early in Roman history, including a birth on the island of Delos to parents Jupiter and Latona, a twin brother, though she had an independent origin in Italy. Diana was known as the virgin goddess of childbirth and women, she was one of the three maiden goddesses, along with Vesta, who swore never to marry. Oak groves and deer were sacred to her. Diana made up a triad with two other Roman deities. Diana is revered in modern Neopagan religions including Roman Neopaganism and Wicca. From the medieval to the modern period, as folklore attached to her developed and was adapted into neopagan religions, the mythology surrounding Diana grew to include a consort and daughter, figures sometimes recognized by modern traditions. In the ancient and modern periods, Diana has been considered a triple deity, merged with a goddess of the moon and the underworld.
Dīāna is an adjectival form developed from an ancient *divios, corresponding to dīvus, dius, as in Dius Fidius, Dea Dia, in the neuter form dium'sky'. It is derived from Proto-Indo-European *dyew-' sky'. On the tablets of Pylos a theonym di-wi-ja is supposed as referring to a deity precursor of Artemis. Modern scholars accept the identification; the ancient Latin writers Varro and Cicero considered the etymology of Dīāna as allied to that of dies and connected to the shine of the Moon.... People regard Diana and the moon as one and the same.... The moon is so called from the verb to shine. Lucina is identified with it, why in our country they invoke Juno Lucina in childbirth, just as the Greeks call on Diana the Light-bearer. Diana has the name Omnivaga, not because of her hunting but because she is numbered as one of the seven planets, she is invoked at childbirth because children are born after seven, or after nine, lunar revolutions... --Quintus Lucilius Balbus as recorded by Marcus Tullius Cicero and translated by P.
G. Walsh. De Natura Deorum, Book II, Part ii, Section c The persona of Diana is complex, contains a number of archaic features. Diana was considered to be a goddess of the wilderness and of the hunt, a central sport in both Roman and Greek culture. Early Roman inscriptions to Diana celebrated her as a huntress and patron of hunters. In the Hellenistic period, Diana came to be or more revered as a goddess not of the wild woodland but of the "tame" countryside, or villa rustica, the idealization of, common in Greek thought and poetry; this dual role as goddess of both civilization and the wild, therefore the civilized countryside, first applied to the Greek goddess Artemis. By the 3rd century CE, after Greek influence had a profound impact on Roman religion, Diana had been fully combined with Artemis and took on many of her attributes, both in her spiritual domains and in the description of her appearance; the Roman poet Nemesianus wrote a typical description of Diana: She carried a bow and a quiver full of golden arrows, wore a golden cloak, purple half-boots, a belt with a jeweled buckle to hold her tunic together, wore her hair gathered in a ribbon.
Diana was considered an aspect of a triple goddess, known as Diana triformis: Diana and Hecate. According to historian C. M. Green, "these were an amalgamation of different goddesses, they were Diana... Diana as huntress, Diana as the moon, Diana of the underworld." At her sacred grove on the shores of Lake Nemi, Diana was venerated as a triple goddess beginning in the late 6th century BCE. Andreas Alföldi interpreted an image on a late Republican coin as the Latin Diana "conceived as a threefold unity of the divine huntress, the Moon goddess and the goddess of the nether world, Hekate"; this coin, minted by P. Accoleius Lariscolus in 43 BCE, has been acknowledged as representing an archaic statue of Diana Nemorensis, it represents Artemis with the bow at one extremity, Luna-Selene with flowers at the other and a central deity not identifiable, all united by a horizontal bar. The iconographical analysis allows the dating of this image to the 6th century at which time there are Etruscan models; the coin shows that the triple goddess cult image still stood in the lucus of Nemi in 43 BCE.
Lake Nemi was called Triviae lacus by Virgil, while Horace called Diana montium custos nemoremque virgo and diva triformis. Two heads found in the sanctuary and the Roman theatre at Nemi, which have a hollow on their back, lend support to this interpretation of an archaic triple Diana; the earliest epithet of Diana was Trivia, she was addressed with that title by Virgil and many others. "Trivia" comes from the Latin trivium, "triple way", refers to Diana's guardianship over roadways Y-junctions or three-way crossroads. This role carried a somewhat dark and dangerous connotation, as it metaphorically pointed the way to the underworld. In the 1st-century CE play Medea, Seneca's titular sorceress calls on Trivia to cast a mag
The Toxandri were a people living at the time of the Roman empire. Their territory was called Toxandria, Toxiandria or Taxandria, a name which survived into the Middle Ages, it was equivalent to the modern Campine geographical region of northeastern Flanders and southern Netherlands. In modern terms this covered all or most of North Brabant, the east of Antwerp Province, the north of Belgian Limburg, their name is preserved in modern placenames such as Tessenderlo, in the modern Belgian province of Limburg where it borders upon the provinces of Antwerp and Flemish Brabant. Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis Historia reported that they were divided into "various peoples with many names", he placed them at the extreme edge of Gallia Belgica, the River Scaldis which some translations interpret as being "beyond" that river, with the Menapii on the more Roman side. This means that the Texuandri were either within, or close to, the part of the river delta frontier area of Belgic Gaul, that became part of Roman "Lower Germany".
The coastal Menapii and Morini were west of the Scheldt, so the Texuandri were on the eastern bank north of modern Antwerp, in or near the area known as Toxandria in the Middle Ages. From military records around the empire it appears that the Texuandri may have formed at least one administrative district or "pagus" which contributed troops to Roman armies, but it appears to be associated with more than one higher level district. One is the Civitas Tungrorum, the civitas of the Tungri, but there seems to be an association with the civitas of the Nervii, to the west; the modern town of Tongerloo, named after the Tungri, is close to Tessenderlo, but further from the city of the Tungri, modern Tongeren. The relationship between the Tungri and Toxandri is unclear. Prior to Pliny, the Toxandrians were not mentioned by Julius Caesar or Strabo in their reports of the region, it has been speculated in modern times that their name may have been a calque of the name of the Eburones who lived in the same area and were mentioned by both authors, but whom Caesar claimed to have destroyed in revenge for their rebellion against him.
The name of the Eburones is based on the Celtic word for a yew tree, which in Latin is called "taxus". Alternatively, the Toxandri and Tungri, whose name only appears for the first time in Roman times, may have been made up of Germanic immigrants from the east of the Rhine, settling Roman territory, as happened closer to the Rhine - for example the Ubii to the east near Cologne, the Cugerni to the northeast near Xanten, the Batavians and Canenefates directly to the north of the Toxandri, in the Rhine-Meuse delta. Tacitus does not mention the Toxandri, but mentions that the Tungri, unlike the Ubii and Canenefates, had changed tribal name, having been known as the Germani, a grouping which had included the Eburones. Before the takeover of Rome in this region, in Julius Caesar's commentary tribal boundaries in the area where the Toxandri are found are left unclear, it is described as thorny low forest and marshy lowlands, northwards of main populations of the cisrhenane Germani and Nervii. Caesar mentions both these politically important tribes retreating into estuarine areas, but more connects those regions to the Menapii, who in Caesar's time, as opposed to Strabo's, stretched through the delta all the way to the Rhine.
At one point Caesar says that the cisrhenane Germani bordering the Menapii were the Eburones, who he describes as the biggest and most important tribe of the Germani. In one isolated passage, Caesar did describe a tribe in the area of the Toxandri, the Ambivariti, he describes their position incidentally only, mentioning that a raiding group from Germany had crossed the Rhine at a point where Menapii lived on both sides of the river, crossed the Meuse in order to raid the Ambivariti. But this tribe is never mentioned by any other known classical source, Caesar does not describe the associations of these people with any others. In the middle of the 4th century, the area of Toxandria became de-populated, was exposed to constant raiding from tribes across the Rhine, outside the empire. Having been amongst the worst raiders, the Salian Franks were settled as foederati in Toxandria. Julian the Apostate had at first fought against Saxons and Franks, including the Salians, but allowed this one group "descended from the Franks" to settle in Toxandria in 358.
According to Zosimus, in the years previous to this agreement, the Salians had settled in the island of the Batavians, a border island of the Roman empire, forced there by Saxons from northern Germany. But they had come under attack from Saxons." " commanded his army to attack them briskly. The Salians became Roman allies and provided troops for the imperial army, in the period that Roman influence in the area was weakening. Toxandria therefore became the name of a Frankish county in early medieval Lower Lotharingia. Texandria is mentioned as a large county in the 870 Treaty of Meersen, remained th