Ferdinand I of Austria
He married Maria Anna of Savoy, the sixth child of Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia. He abdicated on 2 December 1848 and he was succeeded by his nephew, Franz Joseph. Following his abdication, he lived in Hradčany Palace, Ferdinand was the eldest son of Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor and Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily. Possibly as a result of his parents genetic closeness, Ferdinand suffered from epilepsy, neurological problems, and he was educated by Baron Josef Kalasanz von Erberg, and his wife Josephine, née Gräfin von Attems. Though he was not declared incapacitated, a Regents Council steered the government, when Ferdinand married Princess Maria Anna of Savoy, the court physician considered it unlikely that he would be able to consummate the marriage. When he tried to consummate the marriage, he had five seizures and he is best remembered for his command to his cook, when told he could not have apricot dumplings because apricots were out of season, he said I am the Emperor, and I want dumplings.
As the revolutionaries of 1848 were marching on the palace, he is supposed to have asked Metternich for an explanation, when Metternich answered that they were making a revolution, Ferdinand is supposed to have said But are they allowed to do that. He was convinced by Felix zu Schwarzenberg to abdicate in favour of his nephew, I embraced him and kissed our new master, and we went to our room. Afterwards I and my dear wife heard Holy Mass, after that I and my dear wife packed our bags. Ferdinand was the last King of Bohemia to be crowned as such, due to his sympathy with Bohemia he was given the Czech nickname Ferdinand V, the Good. In Austria, Ferdinand was similarly nicknamed Ferdinand der Gütige, and he is interred in tomb number 62 in the Imperial Crypt in Vienna. Lord of Trieste and over the Windic March, charles II of Spain List of heirs to the Austrian throne Rulers of Germany family tree. He was related to every other ruler of Germany, ferdinands parents were double first cousins as they shared all four grandparents.
Therefore, Ferdinand only had four great-grandparents, being descended from each of them twice, further back in his ancestry there is more pedigree collapse due to the close intermarriage between the Houses of Austria and Spain and other Catholic monarchies. 25–26 Ferdinand I In, Brockhaus Kleines Konversations-Lexikon,1, Leipzig,1911, p
Battle of Schwechat
This was the last battle of 1848 in the Transdanubian campaign. The Hungarian Army was under the command of János Móga and the Austrian Army was under the command of Alfred I, some days after the Battle of Pákozd János Móga and his Hungarian army pursued Croatian Ban Josip Jelačić. Neither could they retreat in the direction of the fortress of Komárom, because it switched allegiance to the Constitution of Hungary, on 4 October Jelačić arrived at Moson. He planned to wait for reinforcements and attack the Hungarian Army, during Jelačić’s retreat there was major political upheaval. The Emperor had not heard of the Hungarian victory at the Battle of Pákozd, the Emperor thought it was time to attack the Constitution of Hungary in public. The Emperor refused to recognise the Batthyány Government and ordered the Hungarian Parliament be dissolved, furthermore, he appointed Jelačić as the civic and military regent of Hungary. Jelačićs main supporter, the Austrian Secretary of War Theodor Franz, Count Baillet von Latour, sent troops to him, however.
This was a mistake, and he paid for the error with his life and those in Vienna sympathetic to the Hungarian cause started a rebellion on 6 October. The Emperor and his subjects escaped to Olmütz but Latour was lynched by rebels, after Jelačić heard of the rebellion, he left Hungary towards Vienna. On 10 October the Hungarian Army reached the Austrian border and stopped pursuing Jelačić, the delayed attack by the Hungarian army is controversial among those studying Hungarian military history. When the rebellion started in Vienna, everyone took for granted that the Hungarians would come to the rebels aid, had they done so, it could have changed the course of the revolution. More so, had they done so and won, the Habsburg Empire might have collapsed, the Hungarian army had good reason not cross the Austrian border. After the Battle of Pákozd, Jelačić’s army was stronger than ever, Jelačić sent the inexperienced Croatians back to Croatia under the command of Kuzman Todorović because he knew that troops were en route from Vienna.
As a result, the Hungarian army had to fight the more experienced and this decision led to some infighting among the leaders of the Hungarian army. János Móga decided to follow the orders of the Hungarian National Defence Commission not to attack, but the members of the Commission varied in their views about crossing the Austrian border. The Left wanted to help the rebels in Vienna, but the Right objected to this idea, from the start Lajos Kossuth said that the Hungarians were not rebels, but were only protecting their own country. Later, he changed his mind, and on 18 October he visited the Hungarian army to tell them his views, the start of the battle was promising for the Hungarian army. The right flank, under the command of Richard Debaufre Guyon, but the battle was less easily won in the centre, the left flank arrived too late, so Guyons success changed the formation of the Hungarian line, it became one arm of a pincer movement
Carl Constantin Heinrich Steffeck was a German painter and graphic artist. He was especially known for his paintings of horses and dogs. He was the son of a gentleman of independent means who was interested in art, while he was still in the Gymnasium he sat in on classes at the Prussian Academy of Arts. In 1837, he entered the class of horse painter Franz Krüger and worked in the studios of Carl Joseph Begas. He went to Paris in 1839, where he spent two months studying with Paul Delaroche and was influenced by the work of Horace Vernet, from 1840 to 1842, he lived in Italy. When he returned, he devoted himself primarily to paintings of hunters and his student, Max Liebermann recalled how Steffeck would produce small horse-and-rider portraits, which he sold for six Friedrichsdor each and were taken home by customers while they were still wet. From the early 1850s, he was devoted to teaching. In 1859, he became a Professor at the Prussian Academy and, among his best-known non-animal works are The Execution of Robert Blum in Brigittenau and a cycle of scenes from Prussian history for the Wilhelms-Gymnasium in Königsberg.
He died suddenly, of a stroke, and is buried at the Französischer Friedhof in Berlin, Carl Steffeck, seine Kunst, sein Leben, seine Werke zur Ausstellung aus dem Nachlasse Carl Steffecks Oktober 1913, by Max Liebermann, et al. Cassirer, Berlin Literature by and about Carl Steffeck in the German National Library catalogue ArtNet, Paintings by Steffeck
Friedrich Engels was a German philosopher, social scientist and businessman. He founded Marxist theory together with Karl Marx, in 1845, he published The Condition of the Working Class in England, based on personal observations and research in Manchester. In 1848, he co-authored The Communist Manifesto with Marx, though he authored and co-authored many other works, after Marxs death, Engels edited the second and third volumes. Additionally, Engels organised Marxs notes on the Theories of Surplus Value and he made contributions to family economics. Friedrich Engels was born on 28 November 1820 in Barmen, Province of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, Barmen was an expanding industrial metropolis, and Friedrich was the eldest son of a wealthy German cotton textile manufacturer. His father, Friedrich, Sr. was a Pietistic Protestant, as he grew up, however, he developed atheistic beliefs and his relationship with his parents became strained. His mother wrote to him of her concerns, She said that he had gone too far.
She continued, You have paid more heed to other people, to strangers, God alone knows what I have felt and suffered of late. I was trembling when I picked up the newspaper and saw therein that a warrant was out for my sons arrest, when his mother wrote, Engels was in hiding in Brussels, soon to make his way to Switzerland. In 1849, he returned to the Kingdom of Bavaria for the Baden, at 17, Friedrich had dropped out of high school due to family circumstances. He spent a year in Barmen, in 1838, his father sent the young man to work as a nonsalaried office clerk at a commercial house in Bremen. His parents expected that he would follow his father into a career in business and it would be some years before he joined the family firm. Whilst at Bremen, Engels began reading the philosophy of Hegel, in September 1838, he published his first work, a poem entitled The Bedouin, in the Bremisches Conversationsblatt No.40. He engaged in literary and journalistic work. Also while at Bremen, Engels began writing newspaper articles critiquing the societal ills of industrialisation and he wrote under a pseudonym, Friedrich Oswald, to avoid connecting his life in a Pietist industrialist family with his provocative writings.
In 1841, Engels joined the Prussian Army as a member of the Household Artillery and he was assigned to Berlin, where he attended university lectures at the University of Berlin and began to associate with groups of Young Hegelians. He anonymously published articles in the Rheinische Zeitung, exposing the poor employment, the editor of the Rheinische Zeitung was Karl Marx. Engels did not meet Marx until late November 1842, Engels acknowledged the influence of German philosophy on his intellectual development throughout his life
Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, or Composition of 1867, established the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary. The Compromise partially re-established the sovereignty of the Kingdom of Hungary, separate from, and no longer subject to, under the Compromise, the lands of the House of Habsburg were reorganized as a real union between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary. The Cisleithanian and Transleithanian regions were governed by separate parliaments and prime ministers, the armed forces were combined with the Emperor-King as commander-in-chief. The names conventionally used for the two realms were derived from the river Leitha, or Lajta, a tributary of the Danube and the traditional border between Austrian and Magyar lands. The Leitha did not, form the border, nor was its whole course part of the border. Hungarian political leaders had two main goals, according to Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria, only three people contributed to the compromise, There were three of us who made the agreement, Deák, Andrássy and myself.
In the Middle Ages Austria was a quasi-independent state within the Holy Roman Empire, ruled by the House of Habsburg, in 1526 at the Battle of Mohács, Hungary was defeated and partially conquered by the Ottoman Empire. The young king Louis II of Hungary, who had no legitimate heir, the crown of Hungary was inherited by the Habsburgs. The Ottomans were subsequently out of Hungary in 1699. From 1526 to 1804, Austria and Hungary were in a union under the Habsburgs. In 1804, Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, who was ruler of the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy, founded the Empire of Austria. In doing so he created a formal overarching structure for the Habsburg Monarchy, until the 1848 revolution, the workings of the overarching structure and the status of its component lands stayed much the same as they had been under the composite monarchy that existed before 1804. Hungarys affairs continued to be administered by its own institutions as they had been previously, thus under the new arrangements no Imperial institutions were involved in its internal government.
The Holy Roman Empire was abolished in 1806, after the Hungarian revolution of 1848-49, the independent customs system of Hungary was abolished, and Hungary became part of the unified imperial customs system on 1 October 1851. In the failed Hungarian Revolution of 1848, the Magyars came close to regaining independence, after the restoration of Habsburg power, Hungary was placed under martial law. Prime Minister Félix von Schwarzenberg and his government, operating from November 1848, the centralist March Constitution of Austria introduced the so-called neo-absolutism in Habsburg ruled territories, and it provided absolute power for the monarch. A military dictatorship was created in Hungary, every aspect of Hungarian life was put under close scrutiny and governmental control. German became the language of public administration
Franz Joseph von Schlik of Bassano and Weisskirchen was an Count and general in the Austrian Empire. He was one of the most successful Austrian generals during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, in 1808, he enrolled in the imperial army and fought in the Napoleonic Wars. He lost sight in his eye in the Battle of Leipzig on 19 October 1813. In 1848, as a Lieutenant general, he became regent of Kraków in Poland, on 11 December Schlik defeated Sándor Pulszky in the Battle of Budamér and occupied Eperjes and Kassa. Schlik waited two weeks before resuming the attack, by this time, György Klapka had reorganized the Upper Tisza legion and because of this, the Hungarians won the Battle of Tarcal on January 22 and the Battle of Bodrogkeresztúr the next day. On January 31st in the Battle of Tokaj Schlik and Windish-Grätz attacked Klapkas positions, richard Guyons victory in the Battle of Branyiszkó created the possibility that Schlik would be surrounded, but Henryk Dembiński would not change his plans.
Schliks forces escaped and joined Windish-Grätz, the combined force won the Battle of Kápolna on 26 –27 February. Schlik took part in the Spring Campaign as the leader of the 3rd legion and he lost the battle against András Gáspár, the leader of the 7th Hungarian legion in the Battle of Hatvan on 2 April. He took part in the Battle of Isaszeg on 6 April and on 26 April in the First Battle of Komárom and retreated in the direction of the River Rába. In the Summer Campaign he took part as a leader of the 1st legion and so was in command at the Battle of Győr on 28 June, julius Jacob von Haynau moved the Austrian legions in three parallel lines against the Hungarians at Szeged. Schlik was the leader of the line that was advancing towards Makó, in September 1849 Schlik was promoted to cavalry general and he received the Order of the Iron Crown and the Military Order of Maria Theresa for his victories. From 1854 he was Galicia and Bukovina commanding general, on 24 June 1859 he was made the commander of the 2nd Austrian army, which he led in the Battle of Solferino.
After the Treaty of Villafranca he resigned his commission
Vienna is the capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austrias primary city, with a population of about 1.8 million, and its cultural, economic and it is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin, Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC. The city is located in the part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic, Slovakia. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region, along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site, apart from being regarded as the City of Music because of its musical legacy, Vienna is said to be The City of Dreams because it was home to the worlds first psycho-analyst – Sigmund Freud. The citys roots lie in early Celtic and Roman settlements that transformed into a Medieval and Baroque city and it is well known for having played an essential role as a leading European music centre, from the great age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century.
The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, Vienna is known for its high quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first for the worlds most liveable cities, between 2011 and 2015, Vienna was ranked second, behind Melbourne, Australia. Monocles 2015 Quality of Life Survey ranked Vienna second on a list of the top 25 cities in the world to make a base within, the UN-Habitat has classified Vienna as being the most prosperous city in the world in 2012/2013. Vienna regularly hosts urban planning conferences and is used as a case study by urban planners. Between 2005 and 2010, Vienna was the worlds number-one destination for international congresses and it attracts over 3.7 million tourists a year. The English name Vienna is borrowed from the homonymous Italian version of the name or the French Vienne. The etymology of the name is still subject to scholarly dispute. Some claim that the name comes from Vedunia, meaning forest stream, which produced the Old High German Uuenia.
A variant of this Celtic name could be preserved in the Czech and Slovak names of the city, the name of the city in Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian and Ottoman Turkish has a different, probably Slavonic origin, and originally referred to an Avar fort in the area. Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube River, evidence has been found of continuous habitation since 500 BC, when the site of Vienna on the Danube River was settled by the Celts. In 15 BC, the Romans fortified the city they called Vindobona to guard the empire against Germanic tribes to the north
Battle of Isaszeg (1849)
The Austrian forces were led by Field Marshal Alfred I, Prince of Windisch-Grätz, whilst the Hungarians were led by General Artúr Görgei. It decided the fate of Alfred I, Prince of Windisch-Grätz and he wrote on 3 March in his report sent to the imperial court in Olmütz, that, I smashed the rebel hordes, and I will be in a few days in Debrecen. At a meeting in Tiszafüred, they forced the Government Commissioner Bertalan Szemere to depose the Polish general and this so infuriated Lajos Kossuth, the President of the National Defense Committee, that he wanted to execute Görgei for rebellion. But Vetter became ill on 28 March, so two days Kossuth was forced to accept Görgei as temporary high commander of the Hungarian main forces. Those days and weeks of unrest and changes could have provided an excellent opportunity for Windisch-Grätz to cross the Tisza river and defeat the Hungarian army once and for all. They took half of Almásys soldiers prisoners, and Almásy reported to Windisch-Grätz that he had been attacked by a 6, 000-strong army.
The Hungarian forces numbered some 47,500 soldiers and 198 cannons, organized in four army corps led by Generals György Klapka, Lajos Aulich, János Damjanich and András Gáspár. According to the plan, VII corps had to stay at Hatvan until 5 April, key to the plan was for the Austrians not to discover the Hungarian troop movements until they had completed their encirclement. On 2 April, the fighting began when the Hungarian VII corps under András Gáspár clashed with the III Austrian corps led by Franz Schlik at the Battle of Hatvan. Windisch-Grätz assumed that Schlik had come up against the main Hungarian army, although György Klapkas attack at Tápióbicske had revealed where the Hungarian troops really were Görgei decided to continue with the original plan. They, rather than fleeing, were closing in around Windisch-Grätzs headquarters at Gödöllő as he was planning an attack on the Hungarian forces the following morning. Two brigades of the II corps led by Lieutenant General Ladislas Wrbna were sent to Vác, thus Windisch-Grätz had scattered his forces across a distance of 54 kilometers, making it impossible for them to effectively help each other in the event of a battle.
Gáspár was ordered to move from the north and occupy Bag and Damjanicss III corps had to forward from Tápiószecső. Klapkas I corps had to move towards Isaszeg, while one of his brigades had to take Pécel, Görgeis plan was for Gáspár to hold back the troops of the left wing of the Imperial army while the other three corps attacked them at Isaszeg. This would push them northwards from Pest, enabling the liberation of the Hungarian capital on the Eastern bank of the Danube. It had only one unfinished bridge, to allow his troops to cross the Danube to Buda on the side should he need to retreat. Windisch-Grätz chose the lesser of two evils, on the morning of 6 April at 6 oclock, the Austrian troops retreated towards Gödöllő. Jelačić arrived to Isaszeg at 11 oclock and set his camp on the heights near the village, the Field Marshal ordered him to find out the enemy strength, and if he had enough forces, to enter into battle with them