Vietnam at the 2016 Summer Olympics
Vietnam competed at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, from 5 to 21 August 2016. This was the nation's ninth appearance at the Olympics, with the exception of the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, because of its partial support to the Soviet boycott; the Vietnam Olympic Committee fielded a squad of 23 athletes, 9 men and 14 women, to compete in 10 sports at the Games. It was the nation's largest delegation sent to the Olympics in a non-boycotting edition, the second-largest overall in history, beating the record of 18 athletes who attended the London Games in 2012; this was the youngest delegation in Vietnam's Olympic history, with about half under the age of 25. For the second time in history, the Vietnamese team featured more female athletes than males. Eight athletes on the Vietnamese roster competed in London, with the rest of the field making their Olympic debut in Rio de Janeiro. Among the nation's athletes were pistol shooter and London 2012 fourth-place finalist Hoàng Xuân Vinh, world-ranked swimmer and 2014 Youth Olympic champion Nguyễn Thị Ánh Viên, weightlifter Trần Lê Quốc Toàn, sabre fencer and two-time Southeast Asian Games titleholder Vũ Thành An, selected by the committee to carry the Vietnamese flag at the opening ceremony.
Vietnam left Rio de Janeiro with two medals, signifying its most successful Olympic showing at a single edition and achieving the medal target set by VOC. Hoàng Xuân Vinh claimed his nation's first gold medal in the men's 10 m air pistol on the opening day of the Games, followed it up with a silver in the 50 m pistol four days emerging himself as the most decorated Vietnamese athlete in history. Vietnamese achieved three qualifying standards in the athletics events: KeyNote–Ranks given for track events are within the athlete's heat only Q = Qualified for the next round q = Qualified for the next round as a fastest loser or, in field events, by position without achieving the qualifying target NR = National record N/A = Round not applicable for the event Bye = Athlete not required to compete in round Track & road events Vietnam qualified two badminton players for each of the following events into the Olympic tournament. Two-time Olympian Nguyễn Tiến Minh and Vũ Thị Trang were selected among the top 34 individual shuttlers each in the men's and women's singles based on the BWF World Rankings as of 5 May 2016.
Vietnam entered four fencers into the Olympic competition. Vũ Thành An, Nguyễn Thị Như Hoa, Nguyễn Thị Lệ Dung had claimed their Olympic spots with a top finish at the Asian Zonal Qualifier in Wuxi, China. Meanwhile, Đỗ Thị Anh received a spare berth freed up by New Zealand's Yuan Ping, ruled ineligible to compete because she played under the Chinese jersey. Anh, as the next highest-ranked fencer not yet qualified, was selected to replace her in the foil event. Vietnam entered two artistic gymnasts into the Olympic competition. London 2012 Olympian Phạm Phước Hưng and Phan Thị Hà Thanh had claimed their Olympic spots each in the men's and women's apparatus and all-around events at the Olympic Test Event in Rio de Janeiro. MenWomen Vietnam qualified one judoka for the women's extra-lightweight category at the Games. Văn Ngọc Tú earned a continental quota spot from the Asian region, as the highest-ranked Vietnamese judoka outside of direct qualifying position in the IJF World Ranking List of May 30, 2016.
Vietnam has qualified one boat each in the women's lightweight double sculls for the Olympics at the 2016 Asia & Oceania Continental Qualification Regatta in Chungju, South Korea. Qualification Legend: FA=Final A. Hoàng Xuân Vinh became the first Vietnamese athlete to win a gold medal at the Summer Olympics, beating Brazil's Felipe Almeida Wu in the final round of the men's 10 m air pistol with a score of 202.5, which set an Olympic record based on the new ISSF rule changed at the start of 2013. He added a silver to his Olympic treasury in the men's 50 m pistol, making him the first Vietnamese athlete to earn multiple Olympic medals. Qualification Legend: Q = Qualify for the next round. A single women's Olympic spot had been added to the Vietnamese roster by virtue of a top six national finish at the 2016 Asian Championships; the team must allocate these places to individual athletes by June 20, 2016. Vietnam qualified two wrestlers for each of the following weight classes into the Olympic competition, as a result of their semifinal triumphs at the 2016 Asian Qualification Tournament.
Key: VT – Victory by Fall. PP – Decision by Points – the loser with technical points. PO – Decision by Points – the loser without technical points. ST – Technical superiority – the loser without technical points and a margin of victory of at least 8 or 10 points. Women's freestyle Vietnam at the 2016 Summer Paralympics Vietnam at the 2016 Summer Olympics at SR/Olympics
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
Wrestling at the 1980 Summer Olympics
Wrestling at the 1980 Summer Olympics was represented by twenty events. They were split into two disciplines: Greco-Roman. All events were held in the Wrestling hall of the Sports Complex of the Central Sports Club of the Army between 20 and 31 July. A total of 266 wrestlers from 35 nations competed at the Moscow Games: List of World and Olympic Champions in men's freestyle wrestling List of World and Olympic Champions in Greco-Roman wrestling "Wrestling". Olympic Review. Lausanne: International Olympic Committee: 436–438. August 1980. Retrieved 20 February 2008
Swimming at the 1980 Summer Olympics
Swimming as usual was one of the three aquatics disciplines at the 1980 Summer Olympics—the other two being Water Polo and Diving. It was held in the Swimming Pool of the Olimpiysky Sports Complex between July 20 and July 27. There was a total of 333 participants from 41 countries competing. * Host nation * Swimmers who participated in the heats only and received medals. * Swimmers who participated in the heats only and received medals. 333 swimmers from 41 nations competed
1980 Summer Olympics
The 1980 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XXII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Moscow, Soviet Union, in present-day Russia. The 1980 Games were the first Olympic Games to be staged in Eastern Europe, remain the only Summer Olympics held there, as well as the first Olympic Games to be held in a Slavic language-speaking country, they were the first Olympic Games to be held in a socialist country, the only Summer Games to be held in such a country until 2008 in Beijing, China. These were the final Olympic Games under the IOC Presidency of 3rd Baron Killanin. Eighty nations were represented at the Moscow Games – the smallest number since 1956. Led by the United States, 66 countries boycotted the games because of the Soviet–Afghan War; some athletes from some of the boycotting countries participated in the games under the Olympic Flag. The Soviet Union would boycott the 1984 Summer Olympics; the only two cities to bid for the 1980 Summer Olympics were Los Angeles. The choice between them was made on 23 October 1974 in the 75th IOC Session in Austria.
Los Angeles would host the 1984 Summer Olympics. Eighty nations were represented at the Moscow Games – the smallest number since 1956. Of the eighty participating nations, eight nations made their first appearance at this Games – Angola, Cyprus, Mozambique and Seychelles. None of these nations won a medal. Although half of the 24 countries that boycotted the 1976 Summer Olympics participated in the Moscow Games, the 1980 Summer Olympics were disrupted by another larger, boycott led by the United States in protest at the 1979 Soviet–Afghan War; the Soviet invasion spurred Jimmy Carter to issue an ultimatum on 20 January 1980, that the US would boycott the Moscow Olympics if Soviet troops did not withdraw from Afghanistan within one month. 65 countries and regions invited did not take part in the 1980 Olympics. Many of these followed the United States' boycott initiative, while others cited economic reasons for not coming. Iran, under Ayatollah Khomeini hostile to both superpowers, boycotted when the Islamic Conference condemned the invasion.
Many of the boycotting nations participated instead in the Liberty Bell Classic known as the "Olympic Boycott Games", in Philadelphia. However, the nations that did compete had won 71 percent of all medals, 71 percent of the gold medals, at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal; this was in part because of state-run doping programs, developed in the Eastern Bloc countries. As a form of protest against the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan, fifteen countries marched in the Opening Ceremony with the Olympic Flag instead of their national flags, the Olympic Flag and Olympic Hymn were used at medal ceremonies when athletes from these countries won medals. Competitors from three countries – New Zealand and Spain – competed under the flags of their respective National Olympic Committees; some of these teams that marched under flags other than their national flags were depleted by boycotts by individual athletes, while some athletes did not participate in the march. The impact of the boycott was mixed.
Some events, such as swimming and field, basketball, field hockey and equestrian sports, were hard hit. Whilst competitors from 36 countries became Olympic medalists, the great majority of the medals were taken by the host country and East Germany in what was the most skewed medal tally since 1904. There were 203 events – more than at any previous Olympics. 36 World records, 39 European records and 74 Olympic records were set at the games. In total, this was more records. New Olympic records were set 241 times over the course of the competitions and world records were beaten 97 times. A 1989 report by a committee of the Australian Senate claimed that "there is hardly a medal winner at the Moscow Games not a gold medal winner...who is not on one sort of drug or another: several kinds. The Moscow Games might well have been called the Chemists' Games". A member of the IOC Medical Commission, Manfred Donike ran additional tests with a new technique for identifying abnormal levels of testosterone by measuring its ratio to epitestosterone in urine.
Twenty percent of the specimens he tested, including those from sixteen gold medalists would have resulted in disciplinary proceedings had the tests been official. The results of Donike's unofficial tests convinced the IOC to add his new technique to their testing protocols; the first documented case of "blood doping" occurred at the 1980 Summer Olympics as a runner was transfused with two pints of blood before winning medals in the 5000 m and 10,000 m. Major broadcasters of the Games were USSR State TV and Radio and Intervision. TV Asahi with 68 cards provided coverage for Japan, while OTI representing Latin America received 59 cards and the Seven Network provided coverage for Australia. NBC, which had intended to be another major broadcaster, canceled its coverage in response to the U. S. boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics, became a minor broadcaster with 56 accreditation cards, although the network did air highlights and recaps of the games on a regular basis. (ABC aired scenes of the opening ceremony during its Nightline program, promised highlights each night, but the next night, the show announced that they could not air any
Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities. Moscow is the major political, economic and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city on the European continent. By broader definitions, Moscow is among the world's largest cities, being the 14th largest metro area, the 18th largest agglomeration, the 14th largest urban area, the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide. According to Forbes 2013, Moscow has been ranked as the ninth most expensive city in the world by Mercer and has one of the world's largest urban economies, being ranked as an alpha global city according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, is one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the world according to the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index. Moscow is the coldest megacity on Earth.
It is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe. By its territorial expansion on July 1, 2012 southwest into the Moscow Oblast, the area of the capital more than doubled, going from 1,091 to 2,511 square kilometers, resulting in Moscow becoming the largest city on the European continent by area. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, making it Europe's most populated inland city; the city is well known for its architecture its historic buildings such as Saint Basil's Cathedral with its colorful architectural style. With over 40 percent of its territory covered by greenery, it is one of the greenest capitals and major cities in Europe and the world, having the largest forest in an urban area within its borders—more than any other major city—even before its expansion in 2012; the city has served as the capital of a progression of states, from the medieval Grand Duchy of Moscow and the subsequent Tsardom of Russia to the Russian Empire to the Soviet Union and the contemporary Russian Federation.
Moscow is a seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, a medieval city-fortress, today the residence for work of the President of Russia. The Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are one of several World Heritage Sites in the city. Both chambers of the Russian parliament sit in the city. Moscow is considered the center of Russian culture, having served as the home of Russian artists and sports figures and because of the presence of museums and political institutions and theatres; the city is served by a transit network, which includes four international airports, nine railway terminals, numerous trams, a monorail system and one of the deepest underground rapid transit systems in the world, the Moscow Metro, the fourth-largest in the world and largest outside Asia in terms of passenger numbers, the busiest in Europe. It is recognized as one of the city's landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. Moscow has acquired a number of epithets, most referring to its size and preeminent status within the nation: The Third Rome, the Whitestone One, the First Throne, the Forty Soroks.
Moscow is one of the twelve Hero Cities. The demonym for a Moscow resident is "москвич" for male or "москвичка" for female, rendered in English as Muscovite; the name "Moscow" is abbreviated "MSK". The name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river. Finno-Ugric Merya and Muroma people, who were among the several Early Eastern Slavic tribes which inhabited the area, called the river Mustajoki, it has been suggested. The most linguistically well grounded and accepted is from the Proto-Balto-Slavic root *mŭzg-/muzg- from the Proto-Indo-European *meu- "wet", so the name Moskva might signify a river at a wetland or a marsh, its cognates include Russian: музга, muzga "pool, puddle", Lithuanian: mazgoti and Latvian: mazgāt "to wash", Sanskrit: májjati "to drown", Latin: mergō "to dip, immerse". In many Slavic countries Moskov is a surname, most common in Bulgaria, Russia and North Macedonia. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa.
The original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. As with other nouns of that declension, it had been undergoing a morphological transformation at the early stage of the development of the language, as a result the first written mentions in the 12th century were Московь, Moskovĭ, Москви, Moskvi, Москвe/Москвѣ, Moskve/Moskvě. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, a result of morphological generalisation with the numerous Slavic ā-stem nouns. However, the form Moskovĭ has left some traces in many other languages, such as English: Moscow, German: Moskau, French: Moscou, Georgian: მოსკოვი, Latvian: Maskava, Ottoman Turkish: Moskov, Tatar: Мәскәү, Mäskäw, Kazakh: Мәскеу, Mäskew, Chuvash: Мускав, etc. In a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed it became a collo