Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Barcelona is a city in Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within city limits, its urban area extends to numerous neighbouring municipalities within the Province of Barcelona and is home to around 4.8 million people, making it the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union after Paris, Madrid, the Ruhr area and Milan. It is one of the largest metropolises on the Mediterranean Sea, located on the coast between the mouths of the rivers Llobregat and Besòs, bounded to the west by the Serra de Collserola mountain range, the tallest peak of, 512 metres high. Founded as a Roman city, in the Middle Ages Barcelona became the capital of the County of Barcelona. After merging with the Kingdom of Aragon, Barcelona continued to be an important city in the Crown of Aragon as an economic and administrative centre of this Crown and the capital of the Principality of Catalonia.
Barcelona has a rich cultural heritage and is today an important cultural centre and a major tourist destination. Renowned are the architectural works of Antoni Gaudí and Lluís Domènech i Montaner, which have been designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites; the headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean are located in Barcelona. The city is known for hosting the 1992 Summer Olympics as well as world-class conferences and expositions and many international sport tournaments. Barcelona is one of the world's leading tourist, trade fair and cultural centres, its influence in commerce, entertainment, fashion and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities, it is a major cultural and economic centre in southwestern Europe, 24th in the world and a financial centre. In 2008 it was the fourth most economically powerful city by GDP in the European Union and 35th in the world with GDP amounting to €177 billion. In 2012 Barcelona had a GDP of $170 billion. In 2009 the city was ranked one of the world's most successful as a city brand.
In the same year the city was ranked Europe's fourth best city for business and fastest improving European city, with growth improved by 17% per year, the city has been experiencing strong and renewed growth for the past three years. Since 2011 Barcelona has been a leading smart city in Europe. Barcelona is a transport hub, with the Port of Barcelona being one of Europe's principal seaports and busiest European passenger port, an international airport, Barcelona–El Prat Airport, which handles over 50 million passengers per year, an extensive motorway network, a high-speed rail line with a link to France and the rest of Europe; the name Barcelona comes from the ancient Iberian Barkeno, attested in an ancient coin inscription found on the right side of the coin in Iberian script as, in ancient Greek sources as Βαρκινών, Barkinṓn. Some older sources suggest that the city may have been named after the Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca, supposed to have founded the city in the 3rd century BC, but there is no evidence that Barcelona was a Carthaginian settlement, or that its name in antiquity, had any connection with the Barcid family of Hamilcar.
During the Middle Ages, the city was variously known as Barchinona, Barçalona and Barchenona. Internationally, Barcelona's name is wrongly abbreviated to'Barça'. However, this name refers only to the football club; the common abbreviated form used by locals is Barna. Another common abbreviation is'BCN', the IATA airport code of the Barcelona-El Prat Airport; the city is referred to as the Ciutat Comtal in Catalan, Ciudad Condal in Spanish, owing to its past as the seat of the Count of Barcelona. The origin of the earliest settlement at the site of present-day Barcelona is unclear; the ruins of an early settlement have been found, including different tombs and dwellings dating to earlier than 5000 BC. The founding of Barcelona is the subject of two different legends; the first attributes the founding of the city to the mythological Hercules. The second legend attributes the foundation of the city directly to the historical Carthaginian general, Hamilcar Barca, father of Hannibal, who named the city Barcino after his family in the 3rd century BC, but there is no historical or linguistic evidence that this is true.
In about 15 BC, the Romans redrew the town as a castrum centred on the "Mons Taber", a little hill near the contemporary city hall. Under the Romans, it was a colony with the surname of Faventia, or, in full, Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta Pia Barcino or Colonia Julia Augusta Faventia Paterna Barcino. Pomponius Mela mentions it among the small towns of the district as it was eclipsed by its neighbour Tarraco, but it may be gathered from writers that it grew in wealth and consequence, favoured as it was with a beautiful situation and an excellent harbour, it enjoyed immunity from imperial burdens. The city minted its own coins. Important Roman vestiges are displayed in Plaça del Rei underground, as a part of the Barcelona City History Museum; some remaining fragments of the Roman walls have been incorporated into the cathedral. The cathedral known as the Basilica La Seu, is said to have been founded in 343; the city
Swimming at the 1992 Summer Olympics
At the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona, Spain, 31 swimming events were contested. There was a total of 641 participants from 92 countries competing. * Swimmers who participated in the heats only and received medals. * Swimmers who participated in the heats only and received medals. 641 swimmers from 92 nations competed. Official Olympic Report
Vietnam at the 2016 Summer Olympics
Vietnam competed at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, from 5 to 21 August 2016. This was the nation's ninth appearance at the Olympics, with the exception of the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, because of its partial support to the Soviet boycott; the Vietnam Olympic Committee fielded a squad of 23 athletes, 9 men and 14 women, to compete in 10 sports at the Games. It was the nation's largest delegation sent to the Olympics in a non-boycotting edition, the second-largest overall in history, beating the record of 18 athletes who attended the London Games in 2012; this was the youngest delegation in Vietnam's Olympic history, with about half under the age of 25. For the second time in history, the Vietnamese team featured more female athletes than males. Eight athletes on the Vietnamese roster competed in London, with the rest of the field making their Olympic debut in Rio de Janeiro. Among the nation's athletes were pistol shooter and London 2012 fourth-place finalist Hoàng Xuân Vinh, world-ranked swimmer and 2014 Youth Olympic champion Nguyễn Thị Ánh Viên, weightlifter Trần Lê Quốc Toàn, sabre fencer and two-time Southeast Asian Games titleholder Vũ Thành An, selected by the committee to carry the Vietnamese flag at the opening ceremony.
Vietnam left Rio de Janeiro with two medals, signifying its most successful Olympic showing at a single edition and achieving the medal target set by VOC. Hoàng Xuân Vinh claimed his nation's first gold medal in the men's 10 m air pistol on the opening day of the Games, followed it up with a silver in the 50 m pistol four days emerging himself as the most decorated Vietnamese athlete in history. Vietnamese achieved three qualifying standards in the athletics events: KeyNote–Ranks given for track events are within the athlete's heat only Q = Qualified for the next round q = Qualified for the next round as a fastest loser or, in field events, by position without achieving the qualifying target NR = National record N/A = Round not applicable for the event Bye = Athlete not required to compete in round Track & road events Vietnam qualified two badminton players for each of the following events into the Olympic tournament. Two-time Olympian Nguyễn Tiến Minh and Vũ Thị Trang were selected among the top 34 individual shuttlers each in the men's and women's singles based on the BWF World Rankings as of 5 May 2016.
Vietnam entered four fencers into the Olympic competition. Vũ Thành An, Nguyễn Thị Như Hoa, Nguyễn Thị Lệ Dung had claimed their Olympic spots with a top finish at the Asian Zonal Qualifier in Wuxi, China. Meanwhile, Đỗ Thị Anh received a spare berth freed up by New Zealand's Yuan Ping, ruled ineligible to compete because she played under the Chinese jersey. Anh, as the next highest-ranked fencer not yet qualified, was selected to replace her in the foil event. Vietnam entered two artistic gymnasts into the Olympic competition. London 2012 Olympian Phạm Phước Hưng and Phan Thị Hà Thanh had claimed their Olympic spots each in the men's and women's apparatus and all-around events at the Olympic Test Event in Rio de Janeiro. MenWomen Vietnam qualified one judoka for the women's extra-lightweight category at the Games. Văn Ngọc Tú earned a continental quota spot from the Asian region, as the highest-ranked Vietnamese judoka outside of direct qualifying position in the IJF World Ranking List of May 30, 2016.
Vietnam has qualified one boat each in the women's lightweight double sculls for the Olympics at the 2016 Asia & Oceania Continental Qualification Regatta in Chungju, South Korea. Qualification Legend: FA=Final A. Hoàng Xuân Vinh became the first Vietnamese athlete to win a gold medal at the Summer Olympics, beating Brazil's Felipe Almeida Wu in the final round of the men's 10 m air pistol with a score of 202.5, which set an Olympic record based on the new ISSF rule changed at the start of 2013. He added a silver to his Olympic treasury in the men's 50 m pistol, making him the first Vietnamese athlete to earn multiple Olympic medals. Qualification Legend: Q = Qualify for the next round. A single women's Olympic spot had been added to the Vietnamese roster by virtue of a top six national finish at the 2016 Asian Championships; the team must allocate these places to individual athletes by June 20, 2016. Vietnam qualified two wrestlers for each of the following weight classes into the Olympic competition, as a result of their semifinal triumphs at the 2016 Asian Qualification Tournament.
Key: VT – Victory by Fall. PP – Decision by Points – the loser with technical points. PO – Decision by Points – the loser without technical points. ST – Technical superiority – the loser without technical points and a margin of victory of at least 8 or 10 points. Women's freestyle Vietnam at the 2016 Summer Paralympics Vietnam at the 2016 Summer Olympics at SR/Olympics
1992 Summer Olympics
The 1992 Summer Olympic Games known as the Games of the XXV Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event celebrated in Barcelona, Spain from July 25 to August 9, 1992. Beginning in 1994, the International Olympic Committee decided to hold the games in alternating even-numbered years; the games were the first to be unaffected by boycotts since 1972 and the first summer games since the end of the Cold War. The Unified Team topped the medal table, winning 112 overall medals. Barcelona is the second-largest city in Spain, the hometown of then-IOC president Juan Antonio Samaranch; the city was a host for the 1982 FIFA World Cup. On October 17, 1986, Barcelona was selected to host the 1992 Summer Games over Amsterdam, The Netherlands. With 85 out of 89 members of the IOC voting by secret ballot, Barcelona won a majority of 47 votes. Samaranch abstained from voting. In the same IOC meeting, France, won the right to host the 1992 Winter Games. Barcelona had bid for the 1936 Summer Olympics, but they lost to Berlin.
At the Opening Ceremony Greek mezzo-soprano Agnes Baltsa sang "Romiossini" as the Olympic flag was paraded around the stadium. Alfredo Kraus sang the Olympic Hymn in both Catalan and Spanish as the flag was hoisted; the Olympic flame cauldron was lit by a flaming arrow, shot by Paralympic archer Antonio Rebollo. The arrow had been lit by the flame of the Olympic Torch. Rebollo shot above the cauldron; the arrow landed outside the stadium. This was the original design of the lighting scheme, to avoid any chance that the arrow would land in the stadium if Rebollo missed his target. South Africa was allowed to compete in the Olympic Games for the first time since the 1960 Summer Olympics, after a long suspension for its apartheid policy. After a close race in the Women's 10,000 metres event, white South African runner Elana Meyer and black Ethiopian runner Derartu Tulu ran a victory lap together, hand-in-hand. Following its reunification in 1990, Germany sent a single, unified Olympic team for the first time since the 1964 Summer Olympics.
As the Soviet Union was dissolved in 1991, the Baltic nations of Estonia and Lithuania, sent their own teams for the first time since 1936. Other former Soviet republics preferred to compete as the Unified Team; this team consisted of present-day Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The team finished first in the medal standings; the separation of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia led to the Olympic debuts of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Due to United Nations sanctions, athletes from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia were not allowed to participate with their own team. However, some individual athletes competed under the Olympic flag as Independent Olympic Participants. In basketball, the admittance of NBA players led to the formation of the "Dream Team" of the United States, featuring Michael Jordan, Magic Johnson, Larry Bird and other NBA stars. Prior to 1992, only European and South American professionals were allowed to compete, while the Americans used college players.
The Dream Team won the gold medal and was inducted as a unit into the Basketball Hall of Fame in 2010. Fermín Cacho won the 1,500 metres in his home country, earning Spain's first-ever Olympic gold medal in a running event. Chinese diver Fu Mingxia, age 13, became one of the youngest Olympic gold medalists of all time. In men's artistic gymnastics, Vitaly Scherbo from Belarus, won six gold medals, including four in a single day. Scherbo tied Eric Heiden's record for individual gold medals at a single Olympics, winning five medals in an individual event. In women's artistic gymnastics, Tatiana Gutsu took gold in the All-Around competition edging the United States' Shannon Miller. Russian swimmers dominated the men’s freestyle events, with Alexander Popov and Yevgeny Sadovyi each winning two events. Sadovyi won in the relays. Evelyn Ashford won her fourth Olympic gold medal in the 4×100-metre relay, making her one of only four female athletes to have achieved this in history; the young Krisztina Egerszegi of Hungary won three individual swimming gold medals.
In women's 200 metre breaststroke, Kyoko Iwasaki of Japan won a gold medal at age of 14 years and six days, making her the youngest-ever gold medalist in swimming competitions at the Olympics. Algerian athlete Hassiba Boulmerka, criticized by Muslim groups in Algeria who thought she showed too much of her body when racing, received death threats and was forced to move to Europe to train, won the 1,500 metres holding the African women's record in this distance. After being demonstrated in six previous Summer Olympic Games, baseball became an Olympic sport. Badminton and women's judo became part of the Olympic program, while slalom canoeing returned to the Games after a 20-year absence. Roller hockey, Basque pelota, taekwondo were all demonstrated at the 1992 Summer Olympics. Several of the U. S. men's volleyball gold medal team from the 1988 Olympics returned to vie for another medal. In the preliminary round, they lost a controversial match to Japan, sparking them to shave their heads in protest.
This notably included player Steve
2020 Summer Olympics
The 2020 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XXXII Olympiad and known as Tokyo 2020, is an upcoming international multi-sport event, scheduled to take place from 24 July to 9 August 2020 in Tokyo, Japan. Tokyo was selected as the host city during the 125th IOC Session in Buenos Aires on 7 September 2013; these Games will mark the return of the Summer Olympics to Tokyo for the first time since 1964, the first city in Asia to host the Olympics twice, the fourth Olympics overall to be held in Japan, following the 1972 Winter Olympics in Sapporo and the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano. They will be the second of three consecutive Olympic Games to be held in East Asia, following the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang, South Korea, preceding the 2022 Winter Olympics in Beijing, China; these Games will see the introduction of additional disciplines within several of the Summer Olympics sports, including 3x3 basketball, freestyle BMX and Madison cycling, as well as further mixed events. Under new IOC policies that allow sports to be added to the Games' programme to augment the permanent "core" Olympic events, these Games will see karate, sport climbing and skateboarding make their Olympic debuts, the return of baseball and softball.
Tokyo and Madrid were the three candidate cities. The applicant cities of Baku and Doha were not promoted to candidate status. A bid from Rome was withdrawn; the IOC voted to select the host city of the 2020 Summer Olympics on 7 September 2013 at the 125th IOC Session at the Buenos Aires Hilton in Buenos Aires, Argentina. An exhaustive ballot system was used. No city won over 50% of the votes in the first round, Madrid and Istanbul were tied for second place. A run-off vote between these two cities was held to determine. In the final vote, a head-to-head contest between Tokyo and Istanbul, Tokyo was selected by 60 votes to 36, as it got at least 49 votes needed for a majority; the Tokyo Metropolitan Government set aside a fund of 400 billion Japanese yen to cover the cost of hosting the Games. The Japanese government is considering increasing slot capacity at both Haneda Airport and Narita International Airport by easing airspace restrictions. A new railway line is planned to link both airports through an expansion of Tokyo Station, cutting travel time from Tokyo Station to Haneda from 30 minutes to 18 minutes, from Tokyo Station to Narita from 55 minutes to 36 minutes.
But East Japan Railway Company is planning a new route near Tamachi to Haneda Airport. Funding is planned to accelerate completion of the Central Circular Route, Tokyo Gaikan Expressway and Ken-Ō Expressway, to refurbish other major expressways in the area. There are plans to extend the Yurikamome automated transit line from its existing terminal at Toyosu Station to a new terminal at Kachidoki Station, passing the site of the Olympic Village, although the Yurikamome would still not have adequate capacity to serve major events in the Odaiba area on its own; the Organizing Committee is headed by former Prime Minister Yoshirō Mori. Olympic and Paralympic Minister Shun'ichi Suzuki is overseeing the preparations on behalf of the Japanese government, it was confirmed in February 2012 that the Olympic Stadium in Tokyo would be demolished and reconstructed, receive a £1 billion upgrade for the 2019 Rugby World Cup as well as the 2020 Olympics. As a result, a design competition for the new stadium was launched.
In November 2012, the Japan Sport Council announced that out of 46 finalists, Zaha Hadid Architects was awarded the design for the new stadium. Plans included dismantling the original stadium, expanding the capacity from 50,000 to a modern Olympic capacity of about 80,000. However, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe announced in July 2015 that plans to build the New National Stadium would be scrapped and rebid on amid public discontent over the stadium's building costs. In Autumn 2015 a new design by Kengo Kuma was approved as winning project of new stadium design competition which decreased the capacity to between 60,000–80,000 depending by eventTwenty-eight of the thirty-three competition venues in Tokyo are within 8 kilometres of the Olympic Village. Eleven new venues are to be constructed. In September 2016, a review panel stated that the cost of hosting the Olympics and Paralympics could quadruple from the original estimate, therefore proposed a major overhaul to the current plan to reduce costs, including moving venues outside Tokyo.
In October 2018, the Board of Audit issued a report stating that the total cost of the venues could exceed US$25 billion. Seven venues for nine sports will be located within the central business area of Tokyo, northwest of the Olympic Village. Several of these venues were used for the 1964 Summer Olympics. 13 venues for 15 sports will be located in the vicinity of Tokyo Bay, southeast of the Olympic Village, predominantly on Ariake and the surrounding artificial islands. Twelve venues for 16 sports will be situated farther than 8 kilometres from the Olympic Village. In December 2018, the Japanese government chose to ban drones from flying over venues being used for the Olympic and Paralympic Games. A ban was imposed for the 2019 Rugby World Cup. Applications for volunteering at the 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games were accepted from 26 September 2018. By 18 January 2019, a total of 204,680 applications had been received by the organising committee. Interviews to select the requisite number of volunteers began in February 2019 and trai