Vietnam at the 2016 Summer Olympics
Vietnam competed at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, from 5 to 21 August 2016. This was the nation's ninth appearance at the Olympics, with the exception of the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, because of its partial support to the Soviet boycott; the Vietnam Olympic Committee fielded a squad of 23 athletes, 9 men and 14 women, to compete in 10 sports at the Games. It was the nation's largest delegation sent to the Olympics in a non-boycotting edition, the second-largest overall in history, beating the record of 18 athletes who attended the London Games in 2012; this was the youngest delegation in Vietnam's Olympic history, with about half under the age of 25. For the second time in history, the Vietnamese team featured more female athletes than males. Eight athletes on the Vietnamese roster competed in London, with the rest of the field making their Olympic debut in Rio de Janeiro. Among the nation's athletes were pistol shooter and London 2012 fourth-place finalist Hoàng Xuân Vinh, world-ranked swimmer and 2014 Youth Olympic champion Nguyễn Thị Ánh Viên, weightlifter Trần Lê Quốc Toàn, sabre fencer and two-time Southeast Asian Games titleholder Vũ Thành An, selected by the committee to carry the Vietnamese flag at the opening ceremony.
Vietnam left Rio de Janeiro with two medals, signifying its most successful Olympic showing at a single edition and achieving the medal target set by VOC. Hoàng Xuân Vinh claimed his nation's first gold medal in the men's 10 m air pistol on the opening day of the Games, followed it up with a silver in the 50 m pistol four days emerging himself as the most decorated Vietnamese athlete in history. Vietnamese achieved three qualifying standards in the athletics events: KeyNote–Ranks given for track events are within the athlete's heat only Q = Qualified for the next round q = Qualified for the next round as a fastest loser or, in field events, by position without achieving the qualifying target NR = National record N/A = Round not applicable for the event Bye = Athlete not required to compete in round Track & road events Vietnam qualified two badminton players for each of the following events into the Olympic tournament. Two-time Olympian Nguyễn Tiến Minh and Vũ Thị Trang were selected among the top 34 individual shuttlers each in the men's and women's singles based on the BWF World Rankings as of 5 May 2016.
Vietnam entered four fencers into the Olympic competition. Vũ Thành An, Nguyễn Thị Như Hoa, Nguyễn Thị Lệ Dung had claimed their Olympic spots with a top finish at the Asian Zonal Qualifier in Wuxi, China. Meanwhile, Đỗ Thị Anh received a spare berth freed up by New Zealand's Yuan Ping, ruled ineligible to compete because she played under the Chinese jersey. Anh, as the next highest-ranked fencer not yet qualified, was selected to replace her in the foil event. Vietnam entered two artistic gymnasts into the Olympic competition. London 2012 Olympian Phạm Phước Hưng and Phan Thị Hà Thanh had claimed their Olympic spots each in the men's and women's apparatus and all-around events at the Olympic Test Event in Rio de Janeiro. MenWomen Vietnam qualified one judoka for the women's extra-lightweight category at the Games. Văn Ngọc Tú earned a continental quota spot from the Asian region, as the highest-ranked Vietnamese judoka outside of direct qualifying position in the IJF World Ranking List of May 30, 2016.
Vietnam has qualified one boat each in the women's lightweight double sculls for the Olympics at the 2016 Asia & Oceania Continental Qualification Regatta in Chungju, South Korea. Qualification Legend: FA=Final A. Hoàng Xuân Vinh became the first Vietnamese athlete to win a gold medal at the Summer Olympics, beating Brazil's Felipe Almeida Wu in the final round of the men's 10 m air pistol with a score of 202.5, which set an Olympic record based on the new ISSF rule changed at the start of 2013. He added a silver to his Olympic treasury in the men's 50 m pistol, making him the first Vietnamese athlete to earn multiple Olympic medals. Qualification Legend: Q = Qualify for the next round. A single women's Olympic spot had been added to the Vietnamese roster by virtue of a top six national finish at the 2016 Asian Championships; the team must allocate these places to individual athletes by June 20, 2016. Vietnam qualified two wrestlers for each of the following weight classes into the Olympic competition, as a result of their semifinal triumphs at the 2016 Asian Qualification Tournament.
Key: VT – Victory by Fall. PP – Decision by Points – the loser with technical points. PO – Decision by Points – the loser without technical points. ST – Technical superiority – the loser without technical points and a margin of victory of at least 8 or 10 points. Women's freestyle Vietnam at the 2016 Summer Paralympics Vietnam at the 2016 Summer Olympics at SR/Olympics
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
2020 Summer Olympics
The 2020 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XXXII Olympiad and known as Tokyo 2020, is an upcoming international multi-sport event, scheduled to take place from 24 July to 9 August 2020 in Tokyo, Japan. Tokyo was selected as the host city during the 125th IOC Session in Buenos Aires on 7 September 2013; these Games will mark the return of the Summer Olympics to Tokyo for the first time since 1964, the first city in Asia to host the Olympics twice, the fourth Olympics overall to be held in Japan, following the 1972 Winter Olympics in Sapporo and the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano. They will be the second of three consecutive Olympic Games to be held in East Asia, following the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang, South Korea, preceding the 2022 Winter Olympics in Beijing, China; these Games will see the introduction of additional disciplines within several of the Summer Olympics sports, including 3x3 basketball, freestyle BMX and Madison cycling, as well as further mixed events. Under new IOC policies that allow sports to be added to the Games' programme to augment the permanent "core" Olympic events, these Games will see karate, sport climbing and skateboarding make their Olympic debuts, the return of baseball and softball.
Tokyo and Madrid were the three candidate cities. The applicant cities of Baku and Doha were not promoted to candidate status. A bid from Rome was withdrawn; the IOC voted to select the host city of the 2020 Summer Olympics on 7 September 2013 at the 125th IOC Session at the Buenos Aires Hilton in Buenos Aires, Argentina. An exhaustive ballot system was used. No city won over 50% of the votes in the first round, Madrid and Istanbul were tied for second place. A run-off vote between these two cities was held to determine. In the final vote, a head-to-head contest between Tokyo and Istanbul, Tokyo was selected by 60 votes to 36, as it got at least 49 votes needed for a majority; the Tokyo Metropolitan Government set aside a fund of 400 billion Japanese yen to cover the cost of hosting the Games. The Japanese government is considering increasing slot capacity at both Haneda Airport and Narita International Airport by easing airspace restrictions. A new railway line is planned to link both airports through an expansion of Tokyo Station, cutting travel time from Tokyo Station to Haneda from 30 minutes to 18 minutes, from Tokyo Station to Narita from 55 minutes to 36 minutes.
But East Japan Railway Company is planning a new route near Tamachi to Haneda Airport. Funding is planned to accelerate completion of the Central Circular Route, Tokyo Gaikan Expressway and Ken-Ō Expressway, to refurbish other major expressways in the area. There are plans to extend the Yurikamome automated transit line from its existing terminal at Toyosu Station to a new terminal at Kachidoki Station, passing the site of the Olympic Village, although the Yurikamome would still not have adequate capacity to serve major events in the Odaiba area on its own; the Organizing Committee is headed by former Prime Minister Yoshirō Mori. Olympic and Paralympic Minister Shun'ichi Suzuki is overseeing the preparations on behalf of the Japanese government, it was confirmed in February 2012 that the Olympic Stadium in Tokyo would be demolished and reconstructed, receive a £1 billion upgrade for the 2019 Rugby World Cup as well as the 2020 Olympics. As a result, a design competition for the new stadium was launched.
In November 2012, the Japan Sport Council announced that out of 46 finalists, Zaha Hadid Architects was awarded the design for the new stadium. Plans included dismantling the original stadium, expanding the capacity from 50,000 to a modern Olympic capacity of about 80,000. However, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe announced in July 2015 that plans to build the New National Stadium would be scrapped and rebid on amid public discontent over the stadium's building costs. In Autumn 2015 a new design by Kengo Kuma was approved as winning project of new stadium design competition which decreased the capacity to between 60,000–80,000 depending by eventTwenty-eight of the thirty-three competition venues in Tokyo are within 8 kilometres of the Olympic Village. Eleven new venues are to be constructed. In September 2016, a review panel stated that the cost of hosting the Olympics and Paralympics could quadruple from the original estimate, therefore proposed a major overhaul to the current plan to reduce costs, including moving venues outside Tokyo.
In October 2018, the Board of Audit issued a report stating that the total cost of the venues could exceed US$25 billion. Seven venues for nine sports will be located within the central business area of Tokyo, northwest of the Olympic Village. Several of these venues were used for the 1964 Summer Olympics. 13 venues for 15 sports will be located in the vicinity of Tokyo Bay, southeast of the Olympic Village, predominantly on Ariake and the surrounding artificial islands. Twelve venues for 16 sports will be situated farther than 8 kilometres from the Olympic Village. In December 2018, the Japanese government chose to ban drones from flying over venues being used for the Olympic and Paralympic Games. A ban was imposed for the 2019 Rugby World Cup. Applications for volunteering at the 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games were accepted from 26 September 2018. By 18 January 2019, a total of 204,680 applications had been received by the organising committee. Interviews to select the requisite number of volunteers began in February 2019 and trai
Atlanta is the capital of, the most populous city in, the U. S. state of Georgia. With an estimated 2017 population of 486,290, it is the 38th most-populous city in the United States; the city serves as the cultural and economic center of the Atlanta metropolitan area, home to 5.8 million people and the ninth-largest metropolitan area in the nation. Atlanta is the seat of the most populous county in Georgia. A small portion of the city extends eastward into neighboring DeKalb County. Atlanta was founded as the terminating stop of a major state-sponsored railroad. With rapid expansion, however, it soon became the convergence point between multiple railroads, spurring its rapid growth; the city's name derives from that of the Western and Atlantic Railroad's local depot, signifying the town's growing reputation as a transportation hub. During the American Civil War, the city was entirely burned to the ground in General William T. Sherman's famous March to the Sea. However, the city rose from its ashes and became a national center of commerce and the unofficial capital of the "New South".
During the 1950s and 1960s, Atlanta became a major organizing center of the civil rights movement, with Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Ralph David Abernathy, many other locals playing major roles in the movement's leadership. During the modern era, Atlanta has attained international prominence as a major air transportation hub, with Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport being the world's busiest airport by passenger traffic since 1998. Atlanta is rated as a "beta" world city that exerts a moderate impact on global commerce, research, education, media and entertainment, it ranks in the top twenty among world cities and 10th in the nation with a gross domestic product of $385 billion. Atlanta's economy is considered diverse, with dominant sectors that include transportation, logistics and business services, media operations, medical services, information technology. Atlanta has topographic features that include rolling hills and dense tree coverage, earning it the nickname of "the city in a forest."
Revitalization of Atlanta's neighborhoods spurred by the 1996 Summer Olympics, has intensified in the 21st century, altering the city's demographics, politics and culture. Prior to the arrival of European settlers in north Georgia, Creek Indians inhabited the area. Standing Peachtree, a Creek village where Peachtree Creek flows into the Chattahoochee River, was the closest Indian settlement to what is now Atlanta; as part of the systematic removal of Native Americans from northern Georgia from 1802 to 1825, the Creek were forced to leave the area in 1821, white settlers arrived the following year. In 1836, the Georgia General Assembly voted to build the Western and Atlantic Railroad in order to provide a link between the port of Savannah and the Midwest; the initial route was to run southward from Chattanooga to a terminus east of the Chattahoochee River, which would be linked to Savannah. After engineers surveyed various possible locations for the terminus, the "zero milepost" was driven into the ground in what is now Five Points.
A year the area around the milepost had developed into a settlement, first known as "Terminus", as "Thrasherville" after a local merchant who built homes and a general store in the area. By 1842, the town had six buildings and 30 residents and was renamed "Marthasville" to honor the Governor's daughter. J. Edgar Thomson, Chief Engineer of the Georgia Railroad, suggested the town be renamed Atlanta; the residents approved, the town was incorporated as Atlanta on December 29, 1847. By 1860, Atlanta's population had grown to 9,554. During the American Civil War, the nexus of multiple railroads in Atlanta made the city a hub for the distribution of military supplies. In 1864, the Union Army moved southward following the capture of Chattanooga and began its invasion of north Georgia; the region surrounding Atlanta was the location of several major army battles, culminating with the Battle of Atlanta and a four-month-long siege of the city by the Union Army under the command of General William Tecumseh Sherman.
On September 1, 1864, Confederate General John Bell Hood made the decision to retreat from Atlanta, he ordered the destruction of all public buildings and possible assets that could be of use to the Union Army. On the next day, Mayor James Calhoun surrendered Atlanta to the Union Army, on September 7, Sherman ordered the city's civilian population to evacuate. On November 11, 1864, Sherman prepared for the Union Army's March to the Sea by ordering the destruction of Atlanta's remaining military assets. After the Civil War ended in 1865, Atlanta was rebuilt. Due to the city's superior rail transportation network, the state capital was moved from Milledgeville to Atlanta in 1868. In the 1880 Census, Atlanta surpassed Savannah as Georgia's largest city. Beginning in the 1880s, Henry W. Grady, the editor of the Atlanta Constitution newspaper, promoted Atlanta to potential investors as a city of the "New South" that would be based upon a modern economy and less reliant on agriculture. By 1885, the founding of the Georgia School of Technology and the Atlanta University Center had established Atlanta as a center for higher education.
In 1895, Atlanta hosted the Cotton States and International Exposition, which attracted nearly 800,000 attendees and promoted the New South's development to the world. During the first decades of the 20th century, Atlanta experienced a period of unprecedented growth. In three decades' time, Atlanta's population tripled as the city limits expanded to include nearby streetcar suburbs; the city's skyline emerged with the construction of the
1996 Summer Olympics
The 1996 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XXVI Olympiad known as Atlanta 1996, referred to as the Centennial Olympic Games, were an international multi-sport event, held from July 19 to August 4, 1996, in Atlanta, United States. These Games, which were the fourth Summer Olympics to be hosted by the United States, marked the century of the 1896 Summer Olympics in Athens—the inaugural edition of the modern Olympic Games, they were the first since 1924 to be held in a different year from a Winter Olympics, under a new IOC practice implemented in 1994 to hold the Summer and Winter Games in alternating, even-numbered years. More than 10,000 athletes from 197 National Olympic Committees competed in 26 sports, including the Olympic debuts of beach volleyball, mountain biking, softball, as well as the new disciplines of lightwight rowing and women's football. 24 countries made their Summer Olympic debut in Atlanta, including eleven former Soviet republics participating for the first time as independent nations.
The hosting United States led the medal count with a total of 101 medals, the most gold and silver medals out of all countries. The U. S. topped the medal count for the first time since 1984, for the first time since 1968 in a non-boycotted Summer Olympics. Notable performances during competition included those of Andre Agassi—who became the first men's singles tennis player to combine a career Grand Slam with an Olympic gold medal, Donovan Bailey—who set a new world record of 9.84 for the men's 100 meters, Lilia Podkopayeva—who became the second gymnast to win an individual event gold after winning the all-round title in the same Olympics. The festivities were marred by violence on July 27, when Eric Rudolph detonated pipe bombs at Centennial Olympic Park—a downtown park, built to serve as a public focal point for the Games' festivities, injuring 111. In 2003, Rudolph confessed to the bombing and a series of related attacks on abortion centers and a gay bar, was sentenced to life in prison.
He claimed that the bombing was meant to protest the U. S. government's sanctioning of "abortion on demand". The Games turned a profit, helped by record revenue from sponsorship deals and broadcast rights, reliance on private funding, among other factors; the Games faced criticism for being overly commercialized, as well as other issues noted by European officials, such as the availability of food and transport. The event had a lasting impact on the city. Atlanta was selected on September 18, 1990, in Tokyo, over Athens, Manchester and Toronto at the 96th IOC Session; the city entered the competition as a dark horse. The US media criticized it as a second-tier city and complained of Georgia's Confederate history. However, the IOC Evaluation Commission ranked Atlanta's infrastructure and facilities the highest, while IOC members said that it could guarantee large television revenues similar to the success of the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. Additionally, former US ambassador to the UN and Atlanta mayor Andrew Jackson Young touted Atlanta's civil rights history and reputation for racial harmony.
Young wanted to showcase a reformed American South. The strong economy of Atlanta and improved race relations in the South helped to impress the IOC officials; the Atlanta Committee for the Olympic Games proposed a substantial revenue-sharing with the IOC, USOC, other NOCs. Atlanta's main rivals were Toronto, whose front-running bid that began in 1986 had chances to succeed after Canada had held a successful 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary, Melbourne, who hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and after Brisbane, Australia's failed bid for the 1992 games and prior to Sydney, Australia's successful 2000 Summer Olympics bid; this would be Toronto's fourth failed attempt since 1960. Greece, the home of the ancient and first modern Olympics, was considered by many observers the "natural choice" for the Centennial Games. However, Athens bid chairman Spyros Metaxa demanded that it be named as the site of the Olympics because of its "historical right due to its history", which may have caused resentment among delegates.
Furthermore, the Athens bid was described as "arrogant and poorly prepared", being regarded as "not being up to the task of coping with the modern and risk-prone extravaganza" of the current Games. Athens faced numerous obstacles, including "political instability, potential security problems, air pollution, traffic congestion and the fact that it would have to spend about $3 billion to improve its infrastructure of airports, rail lines and other amenities"; the total cost of the 1996 Summer Olympics was estimated to be around $1.7 billion. The venues and the Games themselves were funded via private investment, the only public funding came from the U. S. government for security, around $500 million of public money used on physical public infrastructure including streetscaping, road improvements, Centennial Olympic Park, expansion of the airport, improvements in public transportation, redevelopment of public housing projects. $420 million worth of tickets wer