History of writing in Vietnam
Until the beginning of the 20th century, Vietnamese literature, governmental and religious documents and temple signs were written in classical Chinese, using Chinese characters or chu han. This had been done since at least 111 BC. Since as early as the 8th century novels and poetry in Vietnamese were written in the chữ nôm script, which used Chinese characters for Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary and an adapted set of characters for the native vocabulary with Vietnamese approximations of Middle Chinese pronunciations; the two scripts coexisted until the era of French Indochina when the Latin alphabet quốc ngữ script became the written medium of both government and popular literature. In Vietnamese, Chinese characters go by a variety names: chữ Hán: "words from Han Chinese", Hán tự: "Han characters/words". Hán văn: "Han literature" denotes Chinese language literature; the Vietnamese word chữ is derived from a Middle Chinese pronunciation of 字, meaning'character'. Sino-Vietnamese refer to cognates or terms borrowed from Chinese into the Vietnamese language preserving the phonology of the original Chinese.
As for syntax and vocabulary this Sino-Vietnamese language was no more different from the Chinese of Beijing than medieval English Latin was different from the Latin of Rome. The term Chữ Nôm refers to the former transcription system for vernacular Vietnamese-language texts, written using a mixture of original Chinese characters and locally coined nôm characters not found in Chinese to phonetically represent Vietnamese sounds." However the character set for chữ nôm is extensive, containing up to 20,000 logograms, many are both arbitrary in composition and inconsistent in pronunciation. Hán Nôm may mean both Hán and Nôm taken together as in the research remit of Hanoi's Hán-Nôm Institute, or refer to texts which are written in a mixture of Hán and Nôm, or some Hán texts with parallel Nôm translations. There is a significant orthographic overlap between Hán and Nôm and many characters are used in both Hán and Nôm with the same reading, it may be simplest to think of Nom as the Vietnamese extension of Han characters.
The term chữ. During Chinese domination period from 111 BC to 938 AD, Vietnam was under Chinese rule and so Chinese characters or Chu Han were used for writing. In most cases, formal writings were done in the language of Classical Chinese. Chinese was used extensively used in government and administration for entry via the Confucian examination system in Vietnam, conducted in van ngon. Chinese was the language of medicine, religion and high literature such as poetry. According to Dao Duy Anh, Vietnam started to have Chinese studies when Shi Xie taught Vietnamese people to write. In this period of over a thousand years, most of the inscriptions written on steles are in Chinese characters. During this period, Vietnamese existed as an oral language, before the creation of the Chu Nom script to preserve and circulate less serious poetry and narrative literature; these writings were at first indistinguishable from contemporaneous classical Chinese works produced in China, Korea, or Japan. These include the first poems in chữ nho by the monk Khuông Việt, the Nam Quốc Sơn Hà, many Confucian and Buddhist scriptures.
It has been suggested that Chinese characters were present in Vietnam before 111 BC, based on the interpretation of the inscription considered as a word on a dagger. However, more research needs to be done. Moreover on the Dong Son bronze drums used between 700 BC-100 AD, supposed inscriptions have yet to be deciphered. Between 939-1919, Chu Han continued to be used as the major means of writing among scholars and in government. In Vietnam, classical Chinese texts were read with the vocalization of Chinese text as such, equivalent to the Chinese on-yomi in Japanese kambun or the assimilated vocalizations in Korean hanmun; this occurred alongside the diffusion of Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary into the vernacular Vietnamese language, created a Sinoxenic dialect. The Sinologist Edwin G. Pulleyblank was the one of the first linguists to employ "Sino-Vietnamese" to recover the earlier history of Chinese. From the 13th Century the dominance of Chu Han began to be challenged by Chu Nom, a system of modified and invented characters modeled loosely on Chinese characters.
Unlike the system of chữ nho, allowed for the expression of purely Vietnamese words, was created in Vietnam at least as early as the 13th century. However, the earliest known use of chu Nom is documented to be from the 8th century. While designed for native Vietnamese speakers, chữ nôm required the user to have a fair knowledge of chữ Hán, thus chữ nôm was used for literary writings by cultural elites, while all other official writings and documents continued to be written in classical Chinese until the 20th century. Though technically different from chu Han, it is simplest to think of it as a descendant of chu Han--with modifications thereof as well as new Vietnamese-coined logograms. Together, they are called Han Nom. Quoc Ngu is the currently-used script of
Lê Lợi, posthumously known by his temple name Lê Thái Tổ, was emperor of Vietnam and founder of the Later Lê dynasty. Lê Lợi is among one of its greatest heroes. Lê Lợi was the youngest of three sons, his father was an aristocratic nobleman in Lam Sơn. The town was in a newly colonized area of Vietnam which would be called Thanh Hóa Province. Lam Son had been established by Lê Lợi's great-grandfather Le Hoi sometime in the 1330s, his exact date of birth is not certain, but 1384 is agreed upon by historians. Lam Son was on the frontier of Vietnam, as a result it was further and hence more free from government control; this was a troubled time in Vietnam's history as the Hồ dynasty in 1400 displaced the Trần dynasty and set about reforming the empire. Hồ rule was short lived as members of the Trần dynasty petitioned for intervention from the Yongle Emperor of the Chinese Ming Empire to the north, he responded by sending a powerful army south into Vietnam and vanquished the Hồ. Upon failing to find a Trần heir, the Ming government chose to re-establish sovereignty over Vietnam, as was the case in the days of the Tang dynasty, some 500 years prior.
The Ming government enjoyed some support from the Vietnamese, at least in the capital of Thăng Long, but their efforts to assert control in the surrounding countryside were met with stiff resistance. The Vietnamese claim that the Ming military stole valuable artifacts from Vietnam such as gems, golden pieces of art as well as books. Lê Lợi himself said that he chose the path of revolt against China's brutal government when he witnessed the destruction of a Vietnamese village by Ming forces. Lê Lợi began his campaign against the Ming Empire on the day after Tết February 1418, he was supported by several prominent families from his native Thanh Hóa, most famously were the Trịnh and the Nguyễn families. Lê Lợi campaigned on the basis of restoring the Trần to power. A relative of the Trần emperor was chosen as the figurehead of the revolt but within a few years, the Trần pretender was removed and the unquestioned leader of the revolt was Lê Lợi himself, under the name "Pacifying King"; the revolt enjoyed patchy initial success.
While Lê Lợi was able to operate in Thanh Hóa, he was, for 2–3 years, unable to muster the military forces required to defeat the Ming army in open battle. As a result, he waged a type of guerrilla war against the well organized Ming army. One famous story from this time is about the heroism of one of Lê Lợi's commanders, Lê Lai. One time during the revolt, Lê Lợi's forces had been surrounded by Ming forces on the top of a mountain. Lê Lai devised a plan that would allow the main bulk of the force to escape, he pretended to be Lê Lợi to divert the Ming army's attention by dressing himself in Lê Lợi's attire and lead a kamikaze-like charge down to attack the enemy. During the battle, Lê Lợi was able to escape. Besides fighting Ming forces, Lê Lợi and his army had to fight against ethnic minorities' forces whom the Ming government bribed known collectively as Ai Lao. Although there were many difficulties, Lê Lợi's army was able to suppress Ai Lao multiple times. However, because his force was not strong enough at the time, he had to lurk in the forests or mountains of Thanh Hoa province.
Due to lack of food supplies, Lê Lợi had to order the killing of army horses and elephants for use as food. In one dangerous situation in 1422, Lê Lợi made peace with the Ming army, but in 1423 when his forces were built up better, Lê Lợi broke the peace agreement when the Ming army captured and killed his envoy. By 1427, the revolt had spread throughout Vietnam and the original Ming army of occupation had been ground down and destroyed; the new Ming ruler, the Xuande Emperor, wished to end the war with Vietnam, but his advisors urged one more effort to subdue the rebellious province. The result was a massive army being sent into Vietnam; the final campaign did not start well for the Ming forces. Lê Lợi's forces met the Ming army in battle but staged a mock retreat; the Ming general, Liu Sheng, urging his troops forward, was cut off from the main part of his army and executed by the Vietnamese. By sending false reports of dissent within the ranks of Lê Lợi's own generals, the Ming army was lured into Hanoi where it was surrounded and destroyed in a series of battles.
A Vietnamese historian, Trần Trọng Kim, told. By Nguyen Chich tactic, 1424 Lê Lợi decided to march his army to Nghe An plain. On the way, Lam Son army captured Da Cang fortress, beaten back Cam Banh forces, a commander who worked for the Ming. Lam Son forces attacked Tra Long garrison. Ming general Chen Zhi led reinforcement from Nghe An to Tra Long to rescue Cam Banh but was beaten back by Lam Son forces. Besieged by Lê Lợi, with Chen Zhi unable to rescue, Cam Banh surrendered. Lê Lợi sent Dinh Liet with a detachment to attack Nghe An, the same time he took the main part of the army. Zhen Zhi was defeated and had to retreat inside the Nghe An citadel. Li An, Fang Zheng from Dong Quan came to Nghe An to rescue Chen Zhi, while Chen moved out his forces from the castle to join force with them; however the Ming forces were defeated, Chen Zhi had to retreat to Dong Quan, An and Chinh withdraw in Nghe An citadel. In May 1425, Lê Lợi commanded Dinh Le to attack Dien Chau. Ming army retreated to Dong Do.
Lê Lợi sent Le Sat, Le Nhan Chu. Le Trien supported Dinh Le for attack Tay Do, Ming army must retreat inside the castle
Mạc Thái Tông
Mạc Thái Tông, known by his given name Mạc Đăng Doanh, was the second emperor of the Mac Dynasty of Vietnam from 1530 to 1540. His father Mạc Thái Tổ was still alive during the first year of his reign and reigning as “senior emperor”, his posthumous name is Văn hoàng đế and his era name is Đại Chính. Mạc Đăng Doanh was born Cao Đôi village, Bình Hà district, his father was Mac Dang Dung and his mother was Nguyễn Thị Ngọc Toàn. He was the oldest son of Mac Dang Dung. After Mac Dang Dung seized the throne from Emperor Lê Chiêu Tông and established the Mạc dynasty in 1527, he made his oldest son crown prince. Mac Dang Doanh died on 25 January 1540 after reigning for 10 years, his full posthumous name is Thái Tông Khâm triết Văn hoàng đế
Lê Hoàn, posthumous name Emperor Đại Hành, was the first emperor of the Early Lê dynasty, succeeding the Đinh dynasty as rulers of Đại Cồ Việt. He started his career as a commander in the army of the first Vietnamese emperor Đinh Bộ Lĩnh and rose to the position of commander-in-chief. Following the death of Đinh Bộ Lĩnh, Lê Hoàn became regent to Đinh Bộ Lĩnh's successor, the six-year-old Đinh Toan. Lê Hoàn deposed the boy, married his mother, the Empress Dowager Duong Van Nga, in 980 proclaimed himself emperor, he retained the imperial capital at Hoa Lư and succeeded in warding off several invasions by the Chinese Song Dynasty, but paid them regular tribute with the aim of securing peaceful relations. When he died in 1005, the Lê Dynasty went into decline. Lê Hoàn was born in 941 into a poor family in Bao Thai. At that time, the area belonged to the kingdom ruled by Ngô Quyền, the Vietnamese general who had liberated the country from Chinese occupation in 938. Lê Hoàn was orphaned while still young, but had the good fortune of being adopted by a local official who belonged to the Lê family.
As Lê Hoàn matured under the official's tutelage, he proved himself to be both talented and studious. Mundane assessments of his potential were confirmed by auspicious omens. According to legend, one night his adoptive father went to check up on him after Lê Hoàn had gone to bed. Following the death of Ngô Quyền in 944, the country dissolved into chaos for a time. After they died in 954 and 965 the country was fractured into the domains of 12 independent warlords. In these chaotic times, Lê Hoàn matured to manhood. Together with other young men, he practiced the martial arts and dreamt of saving the nation. After years of conflict, the task of reunifying the country under one rule was accomplished by Đinh Bộ Lĩnh, a warlord from Hoa Lư in Ninh Bình Province, who succeeded by means of an adept mixed strategy of warfare and diplomacy. In 968, Bộ Lĩnh declared himself Emperor of Dai Co Viet, establishing his capital at Hoa Lư. Lê Hoàn became a military general under Đinh Bộ Lĩnh's adult son Đinh Liễn, was promoted through the ranks until he became the commander-in-chief of Đinh Bộ Lĩnh's armed forces.
Đinh Bộ Lĩnh was successful in defeating his rivals. However, he was not successful in providing for an orderly succession; when he and his eldest son Dinh Lien were murdered in 979 by an official with delusions of seizing royal power for himself, Bộ Lĩnh was succeeded by his six-year-old son Dinh Toan. The boy's mother Duong Van Nga assumed the role of empress dowager, while military commander-in-chief Lê Hoàn was made regent, with the idea that he would manage the government until Toan reached the age of maturity; the transition did not go smoothly. Other great men of the realm suspected that Lê Hoàn would soon attempt to seize power from himself, went into open rebellion. In addition, the Song Dynasty of China took note of the weakened condition of Dai Co Viet and began to make plans for reconquering the country; the situation was most uncertain. Lê Hoàn, was able to suppress domestic opposition to his ascendency. Thereafter, in collaboration with the empress dowager, he deposed the child king, married his mother, in 980 declared himself Emperor at Hoa Lư.
It was the end of the Đinh Dynasty, the beginning of the Anterior Lê Dynasty, so called in order to distinguish it from the Later Lê Dynasty established in the 15th century by Lê Lợi. The beginning of Lê Hoàn's 25-year reign was marked by wars against the foreign powers of Song and Champa, both of which attempted to take advantage of the apparent weakness of the independent Đại Cồ Việt following the death of Dinh Bo Linh. Lê Hoàn's success in these wars, together with his ongoing diplomatic efforts in relation to Song ensured that, for the time being, the country's borders were secure, it was not longer after Lê Hoàn's usurpation of the throne that an ambassador of the Song came to Hoa Lư. The ambassador demanded Lê Hoàn's immediate submission to the emperor of Song, promising that if he complied with the demand, he would be shown clemency, threatening that if he did not comply, it would soon be too late for regrets. A diplomatic chessmatch ensued. Lê Hoàn sent an emissary to China in the name of the deposed Đinh Toàn.
Emperor Taizong, for his part, attempted to lull Lê Hoàn into neglecting his military preparations by sending news that he would be willing to accept the submission of Đinh Toàn. Lê Hoàn, was not fooled. Remembering the success of Ngô Quyền who, half a century earlier, had defeated the Chinese navy as it attempted to invade Đại Việt by way of the Bạch Đằng River, he copied Quyen's strategy of booby-trapping the river with long sharpened stakes that were out of sight beneath the surface of the water at high tide. Lê Hoàn strengthened his army by recruiting and training many new soldiers; the Song launched their invasion in 981. Their initial move was to launch a two pronged attack, consisting of an army and a naval force against the former capital of Dai La located in the area of modern Hanoi; the plan was for the two armies to unite and to strike southward against Lê Hoàn's capital of Hoa Lư. However, both armies were thwarted in their advance; the naval force attempted to make its way up the Bạch Đằng river and ran into the stakes that the Vietnamese had planted there in preparation
Trần Nhân Tông
Trần Nhân Tông, given name Trần Khâm, was the third emperor of the Trần dynasty, reigning over Đại Việt from 1278 to 1293. After ceding the throne to his son Trần Anh Tông, Nhân Tông held the title Retired Emperor from 1294 to his death in 1308. During the second and third Mongol invasions of Đại Việt, the Emperor Nhân Tông and his father the Retired Emperor Thánh Tông were credited as the supreme commanders who led the Trần dynasty to the final victories and since established a long period of peace and prosperity over the country. Trần Nhân Tông was born on November 11 of the lunar calendar 1258 as Trần Khâm, the first son of the Emperor Trần Thánh Tông, ceded the throne by Trần Thái Tông for only eight months, Empress Thiên Cảm Trần Thị Thiều, it was said that the newborn Trần Khâm was so fine that his grandfather Thái Tông and father Thánh Tông named him as Kim Tiên đồng tử. Prince Trần Khâm was entitled as Crown Prince of the Trần dynasty in December 1274, he had a younger brother, Prince Tá Thiên Trần Đức Việp and an elder sister, Princess Thiên Thụy, who would die on the same day as her brother Nhân Tông.
Always concerned with the education of his son, in 1274, Trần Thánh Tông appointed the prominent mandarin and general Lê Phụ Trần in the position of the crown prince's professor with two famous scholars Nguyễn Sĩ Cố and Nguyễn Thánh Huấn as assistants, the Emperor himself composed poems and a literary work named Di hậu lục to educate prince Trần Khâm. On the 22nd of the tenth lunar month 1278, Trần Thánh Tông decided to cede the throne to the Crown Prince Trần Khâm, now Trần Nhân Tông, held the title Retired Emperor. After the coronation, Nhân Tông changed the era name to Thiệu Bảo, during his reign, the emperor had one more era name, Trùng Hưng. Although passing the throne to his son, Thánh Tông continued to co-rule the country with Nhân Tông from 1279 to his death in 1290. In 1279, the Yuan dynasty had the decisive victory over the Song dynasty in Battle of Yamen which marked the end of the Song dynasty and the total control of Kublai Khan over China; as a result, Kublai Khan began to expose his attempt to take over the southern countries like Đại Việt or Champa.
Aware of the situation, Thánh Tông and Nhân Tông began to prepare the Trần dynasty for the obvious and inevitable war while tried to keep a flexible policy with the Yuan dynasty. First, Prince Chiêu Văn Trần Nhật Duật was appointed for the mission of pacifying the revolt led by Trịnh Giác Mật in Đà Giang by diplomatic means in order to keep the country in stability before the war. With his knowledge of minority people's language and culture, Trần Nhật Duật accomplished his task in 1278, the Trần dynasty had free hand to deal with the threat from the North. In October 1282, the Retired Emperor Trần Thánh Tông and the Emperor Trần Nhân Tông gathered all the members of the royal family, officials in royal court in Bình Than to discuss about the unadvoidable war. Two prominent generals of Đại Việt's army were noticed on this occasion, Trần Khánh Dư, former commander of the army but was deprived of all titles after his guilt, Trần Quốc Toản, only a 16-year-old marquis. In 1283, Prince Hưng Đạo Trần Quốc Tuấn was appointed as commander-in-chief of Đại Việt army, the Retired Emperor and the Emperor began to hold military exercises with their generals and troops.
In December 1284, the second Yuan's invasion of Đại Việt was opended under the command of Kublai Khan's prince Toghan. Đại Việt was attacked in two directions, Toghan himselft conducted the infantry invaded from the northern border while Yuan's navy under general Sogetu advanced from the southern border through Champa's territory. In the beginning of the war, Thánh Tông and Nhân Tông had to order the army retreat to avoid the pressure from Yuan's force when Prince Chiêu Minh Trần Quang Khải commanded troops try to stop Sogetu's fleet in the Nghệ An Province. During this time, there were several high-ranking officials and members of royal family of the Trần dynasty defected to Yuan's side including Thánh Tông's own brother, Prince Chiêu Quốc Trần Ích Tắc and Trần Kiện, son of Prince Tĩnh Quốc Trần Quốc Khang. For the safeness of Thánh Tông and Nhân Tông's retreat, Princess An Tư was offered as present and diversion for prince Toghan while Marquis Bảo Nghĩa Trần Bình Trọng was captured and killed in Battle of Đà Mạc in defending the two emperors.
In the southern border, Trần Quang Khải had to retreat under the pressure of Sogetu's navy and the defection of the governor of Nghe An. Despite the repeated problems, the royal family and royal court of the Trần dynasty still kept their harmony and determination owing to accurates decisions and actions from the leaders Thánh Tông, Nhân Tông, Trần Quốc Tuấn and Trần Quang Khải; the critical situation of the Trần dynasty began to change after their victory in Battle of Hàm Tử in April 1285 where the troops commanded by Trần Nhật Duật, Prince Chiêu Thành, Trần Quốc Toản and Nguyễn Khoái were able to defeat the fleet of Admiral Sogetu. On May 10 of lunar calendar 1285, Trần Quang Khải fought the decisive battle in Chương Dương where Sogetu's navy was destroyed and therefore the balance in battlefield titled in favour of the Trần dynasty. 10 days after Sogetu was killed and Trần's Emperor Nhân Tông and Retired Emperor Thánh Tông returned to capital Thăng Long on June 6 of lunar calendar, 1285.
In March 1287, the Yuan dynasty launched their third invasion of Đại Việt. Unlike the second attack, this time commander in chief Prince Hưng Đạo Trần Quốc Tuấn affirmed with the Emperor that Đại Việt's army could break the Yuan's military campaign. Indeed
The Lý dynasty, sometimes known as the Later Lý dynasty, was a Vietnamese dynasty that began in 1009 when emperor Lý Thái Tổ overthrew the Early Lê dynasty and ended in 1225, when the empress Lý Chiêu Hoàng was forced to abdicate the throne in favor of her husband, Trần Cảnh. During emperor Lý Thánh Tông's reign, the official name of Vietnam became Đại Việt. Domestically, while the Lý emperors were devout to Buddhism, the influence of Confucianism from China was on the rise, with the opening of the first University in Vietnam in 1070 for selection of civil servants who are not from noble families; the first imperial examination was run in 1075 and Lê Văn Thịnh became the first Trạng Nguyên of Vietnam. Politically, they created a system of administration based on the rule of law rather than on autocratic principles; the fact that they chose the Đại La Citadel as the capital showed that they held onto power due to economic strength and were liked by their subjects rather than by military means like prior dynasties.
Some of the noble scholar such as Lê Văn Thịnh, Bùi Quốc Khái, Doãn Tử Tư, Đoàn Văn Khâm, Lý Đạo Thành, Tô Hiến Thành made vast contributions culturally and politically, allowing the dynasty to flourish for 216 years. According to Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư, in the seventh year of Thiên Thành era,emperor Lý Thái Tông generated the order to everyone to call himself as "triều đình", similar to Your Majesty; until the rule of emperor Lý Thánh Tông, it converted to the title of "Vạn Thặng". Emperor Lý Cao Tông required all mandarin to call him as "phật"-Buddha. In 1009, the Early Lê dynasty passed from flourish and downfall in 29 years with 3 Emperors Lê Đại Hành, Lê Trung Tông and Lê Ngọa Triều; the last emperor Lê Ngọa Triều died in 1009 after evil and brutal ruling in Đại Cồ Việt which made him and his dynasty becoming unpopular to civilians. According to some history records of Vietnam like Khâm định Việt sử Thông giám cương mục, Việt sử lược, Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư all proved that in October 1009, Lê Long Đĩnh died because of consequence of his licentious life.
The crown prince of Lê Long Đĩnh was still young and he could not take the power from his dad. Then,the conference by the members of royal court was held to discuss about the fate of nation. Lý Công Uẩn,the high position mandarin and aristocrat was chosen by Đào Cam Mộc and Vạn Hạnh buddhist monk to become the new emperor of Đại Cồ Việt; the founder of the Lý, Lý Thái Tổ 李公蘊 has been said to have had origins from Fujian province somewhere in his paternal bloodline, while little is known about his maternal side except for the fact that his mother was a woman named Phạm Thị. Few direct details about his parents are known, the ethnic Chinese background of Lý Công Uẩn, at least on his paternal side, was accepted by Vietnamese historian Trần Quốc Vượng; the Lý dynasty was started by Lý Công Uẩn, a former temple orphan who had risen to commander of the palace guard, succeeded Lê Long Đĩnh of the Early Lê dynasty in 1009, thereby founding the Lý dynasty. He took the reign name Lý Thái Tổ; the early Lý emperors established a prosperous state with a stable monarchy at the head of a centralized administration.
The name of the country was changed to Đại Việt in 1054 by Emperor Lý Thánh Tông. after a year of enthronement,in 1010 Lý Thái Tổ started to move the capital from Hoa Lư to Đại La and renamed it to Thang Long.he wrote the Edict on the Transfer of the Capital to announce his plan to move to the new place. This decision had mark major circumstance in Vietnam which opened the flourish era of the dynasty and followed by the other dynasties such as Trần, Lê, Mạc that still used Thang Long as their capital in the long time as well as nowaday republic government. In 1028, Lý Thái Tổ died at the age 55 with Posthumous name Thần Vũ hoàng đế,buried at Thọ royal tomb. In his funeral, Most of his mandarins expected crown prince Lý Phật Mã to take a throne however 3 of his brothers are Duke of Đông Chinh,Duke of Dực Thánh and Duke of Vũ Đức rejected this decision ambushed royal palace by their own armies to steal the throne. Crown prince Lý Phật Mã discovered the danger ordered to close all the gates of palace and arranged guards for protection.
However his eunuch Lý Nhân Nghĩa advised him to fight with betrayer. Thus, Lý Phật Mã decide to let Lý Nhân Nghĩa to lead the royal army to fight against his brothers. Lý Nhân Nghĩa succeeded in his campaign and caught Vũ Đức Vương,the 2 others escaped. After that, Lý Phật Mã take the temple name Lý Thái Tông. To grant his mercy to all those who tried to opposed him,he pardoned his two brothers Đông Chinh vương and Dực Thánh vương. From the reign of Lý Thái Tổ with the other emperors, Lý dynasty began to focus on solving some major and minor situation: +Strengthen internal rule:the economy was promoted to high progress,especially agriculture; the government introduced "Hình thư" as the first system of law and legislation of Vietnam after gain independence from China and opened the education system based on imperial examination of China + Strengthen territory reigning: The royal court tried to expanded their influence to the remote areas by managing the marriage policy such as giving princesses to marry with the other local lords for closer relationships with royal family.
To conciliate those who were not loyal mto government,the emperor will order princes to eliminate the revolts. +Protecting country from foreigners: Resolve and reconcile some minor issues with Song dynasty,fighting against
Lê Thái Tông
Lê Thái Tông was an emperor of Vietnam from 1433 till his early death nine years later. Lê Thái Tông was the second son of Lê Lợi. Although his mother died when he was at a young age, he was considered as bright and capable as his father was; when Lê Lợi became sick in 1433, he summoned his closest advisors to name Lê Thái Tông as his heir to the throne. At the time Lê Thái Tông was only ten years old. Upon Lê Lợi's death, Lê Sát assumed the regency of Vietnam. Lê Sát ruled Vietnam more for himself than for the young emperor, he eliminated many of his rivals by various means and tried to further solidify his power base within the government. Lê Thái Tông became unhappy with his regent's actions and sought support from rival factions, he struck an alliance with Trịnh Khả, exiled to a distant locality due to not getting along well with Lê Sát. One of his first acts upon taking the throne in 1438 was to bring Trịnh Khả back and installed him as the head of the Palace Guards - against Lê Sát's strong objections.
A few months Lê Sát was accused of lacking in virtue and usurping the power which belonged to the emperor. The erstwhile Grand Chancellor was arrested and executed shortly after. In spring 1440, an ethnic chief named. Lê Thái Tông launched and led a campaign against Hà Tông Lai. After only one week of fighting, the young emperor emerged victorious as Hà Tông Lai was beheaded and his son Tông Mậu was arrested. Not long after that, in 1440 another ethnic chief named Nghiễm broke loyalty with the court and gathered troops in the Gia Hưng prefecture in the nation's northwest area. Lê Thái Tông again led troops to the northwest; the imperial armies defeated Nghiễm, who subsequently presented the emperor with a buffalo as a clue of submission. That satisfied the emperor enough and he ordered the army to retreat due to the fact that the weather was excessively hot causing difficulties to his troops. In the early part of 1441, Đại Việt's official history recorded that Nghiễm again took arms against the court.
Lê Thái Tông made a third campaign to the northwest with his troops. Under the direct command of the emperor, the imperial hosts defeated a Laotian army having come to assist Nghiễm, they captured two of Nghiễm's sons Sinh Tượng and Chàng Đồng. The campaign resulted in Nghiễm permanently submissing to the authority of the imperial court; those military successes caused Thái Tông to be assessed by Vũ Quỳnh, high-ranking minister and court annalist during the reign of Lê Tương Dực, as a "heroic emperor". Although Lê Thái Tông proved to be a capable emperor, his one flaw was his desire for women, the imperial court was soon filled with intrigue as he shifted his affections from one concubine to another, his first wife was the daughter of Lê Sát, his second wife was the daughter of Le Ngan, his third wife was Duong thi Bi, who gave birth to his first son Nghi Dân. He soon transferred his affections to Nguyễn Thị Anh; this last young woman gave birth to his third son Lê Nhân Tông. However, Ngo Thi Ngoc Dao would give birth to his most known son, Lê Thánh Tông.
On 4 August 1442, the Emperor paid a visit to the eastern part of the country and paid a visit to Lệ Chi Viên, or Lychee Garden belonging to the Confucian scholar Nguyễn Trãi, located in Đại Lai, Gia Bình, Bắc Ninh Province. A concubine of Trãi, Lady Nguyễn Thị Lộ, was chosen to tend to the Emperor during the royal stay; the young emperor became sick and died. Next morning Trãi was accused of killing the Emperor, together with members of his family was executed. In 1464, Emperor Lê Thánh Tông issued a royal proclamation to vindicate Trãi, saying that he was wholly innocent in the death of Lê Thái Tông and praised him by stating that “Trai’s spirit shines like a star"; the surviving son of Trãi, Nguyễn Anh Vũ was made an officer for Royal Court. Despit the vindication Trãi was considered guilty by some historians and scholars, because of his relationships with Lady Nguyễn Thị Lộ. Killing an Emperor is an unforgivable sin, Lê Quý Đôn in the 18th century stated that Nguyễn Trãi should not be considered as a meritorious official despite his great contributions for country and the royal court during reign of Emperor Lê Thái Tổ.
Some reports by Ngô Sĩ Liên, Phan Huy Chú and Quốc sử quán wrote that Trãi might be innocent in the death of the Emperor but not Lady Nguyễn Thị Lộ. Other scholars suggest that Lady Nguyễn Thị Lộ may have been an innocent victim of Nguyễn Thị Anh the emperor's wife. Other scholars suggest that the emperor died of natural causes. Father: Le Thai To Mother: Empress Cung Tu Pham Thi Ngoc Tran 范氏玉陳 Consorts and their Respective Issue:Empress Tuyen Tu Nguyễn Thị Anh Crown Prince Le Bang Co, so Emperor Lê Nhân Tông Empress Quang Thuc Ngo Thi Ngoc Dao Prince Le Tu Thanh, so Emperor Lê Thánh Tông Imperial Consort Le Ngoc Dao of Le clan Consort Le Nhat Le of Le clan Consort Duong Thi Bi Crown Prince Le Nghi Dan Lady Bui of Bui clan Prince Le Khac Xuong List of Vietnamese dynasties Đại Việt's Office of History, Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư, Hanoi: Social Science Publishing House Taylor, K. W. A History of the Vietnamese, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press