The Grateful Dead was an American rock band formed in 1965 in Palo Alto, California. Ranging from quintet to septet, the band is known for its eclectic style, which fused elements of rock, country, blues, modal jazz, experimental music and space rock, for live performances of lengthy instrumental jams, for their devoted fan base, known as "Deadheads". "Their music", writes Lenny Kaye, "touches on ground that most other groups don't know exists". These various influences were distilled into a diverse and psychedelic whole that made the Grateful Dead "the pioneering Godfathers of the jam band world"; the band was ranked 57th by Rolling Stone magazine in its The Greatest Artists of All Time issue. The band was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1994 and a recording of their May 8, 1977, performance at Cornell University's Barton Hall was added to the National Recording Registry of the Library of Congress in 2012; the Grateful Dead have sold more than 35 million albums worldwide. The Grateful Dead was founded in the San Francisco Bay Area amid the rise of the counterculture of the 1960s.
The founding members were Jerry Garcia, Bob Weir, Ron "Pigpen" McKernan, Phil Lesh, Bill Kreutzmann. Members of the Grateful Dead had played together in various San Francisco bands, including Mother McCree's Uptown Jug Champions and the Warlocks. Lesh was the last member to join the Warlocks. Drummer Mickey Hart and non-performing lyricist Robert Hunter joined in 1967. With the exception of McKernan, who died in 1973, Hart, who took time off from 1971 to 1974, the core of the band stayed together for its entire 30-year history; the other official members of the band are Tom Constanten, John Perry Barlow, Keith Godchaux, Donna Godchaux, Brent Mydland, Vince Welnick. Bruce Hornsby was a touring member from 1990 to 1992, as well as a guest with the band on occasion before and after the tours. After the death of Garcia in 1995, former members of the band, along with other musicians, toured as the Other Ones in 1998, 2000, 2002, the Dead in 2003, 2004, 2009. In 2015, the four surviving core members marked the band's 50th anniversary in a series of concerts that were billed as their last performances together.
There have been several spin-offs featuring one or more core members, such as Dead & Company, the Rhythm Devils, Phil Lesh and Friends, RatDog, Billy & the Kids. The Grateful Dead began their career as the Warlocks, a group formed in early 1965 from the remnants of a Palo Alto, California jug band called Mother McCree's Uptown Jug Champions; the band's first show was at Magoo's Pizza located at 639 Santa Cruz Avenue in suburban Menlo Park, on May 5, 1965. They continued playing bar shows as the Warlocks, but changed its name after finding out that the Velvet Underground had put out a record under the same name; the first show under the name Grateful Dead was in San Jose on December 4, 1965, at one of Ken Kesey's Acid Tests. Earlier demo tapes have survived, but the first of over 2,000 concerts known to have been recorded by the band's fans was a show at the Fillmore Auditorium in San Francisco on January 8, 1966; that month, the Grateful Dead played at the Trips Festival, an early psychedelic rock concert.
The name "Grateful Dead" was chosen from a dictionary. According to Phil Lesh, in his autobiography, "... picked up an old Britannica World Language Dictionary...... In that silvery elf-voice he said to me,'Hey, how about the Grateful Dead?'" The definition there was "the soul of a dead person, or his angel, showing gratitude to someone who, as an act of charity, arranged their burial". According to Alan Trist, director of the Grateful Dead's music publisher company Ice Nine, Garcia found the name in the Funk & Wagnalls Folklore Dictionary, when his finger landed on that phrase while playing a game of Fictionary. In the Garcia biography, Captain Trips, author Sandy Troy states that the band was smoking the psychedelic DMT at the time; the term "grateful dead" appears in folktales of a variety of cultures. Other supporting personnel who signed on early included Rock Scully, who heard of the band from Kesey and signed on as manager after meeting them at the Big Beat Acid Test. "We were living off of Owsley's good graces at that time....
Trip was he wanted to design equipment for us, we were going to have to be in sort of a lab situation for him to do it", said Garcia. One of the group's earliest major performances in 1967 was the Mantra-Rock Dance—a musical event held on January 29, 1967, at the Avalon Ballroom by the San Francisco Hare Krishna temple; the Grateful Dead performed at the event along with the Hare Krishna founder Bhaktivedanta Swami, poet Allen Ginsberg, bands Moby Grape and Big Brother and the Holding Company with Janis Joplin, donating proceeds to the Krishna temple. The band's first LP, The Grateful Dead, was released on Warner Brothers in 1967. Classically trained trumpeter Phil Lesh performed on bass guitar. Bob Weir, the youngest original member of the group, played r
An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i
VHS is a standard for consumer-level analog video recording on tape cassettes. Developed by Victor Company of Japan in the early 1970s, it was released in Japan on September 9, 1976 and in the United States on August 23, 1977. From the 1950s, magnetic tape video recording became a major contributor to the television industry, via the first commercialized video tape recorders. At that time, the devices were used only in expensive professional environments such as television studios and medical imaging. In the 1970s, videotape entered home use, creating the home video industry and changing the economics of the television and movie businesses; the television industry viewed videocassette recorders as having the power to disrupt their business, while television users viewed the VCR as the means to take control of their hobby. In the 1970s and early 1980s, there was a format war in the home video industry. Two of the standards, VHS and Betamax, received the most media exposure. VHS won the war, dominating 60 percent of the North American market by 1980 and emerging as the dominant home video format throughout the tape media period.
Optical disc formats began to offer better quality than analog consumer video tape such as VHS and S-VHS. The earliest of these formats, LaserDisc, was not adopted. However, after the introduction of the DVD format in 1997, VHS's market share began to decline. By 2008, DVD had replaced VHS as the preferred low-end method of distribution; the last known company in the world to manufacture VHS equipment, Funai of Japan, ceased production in July 2016. After several attempts by other companies, the first commercially successful VTR, the Ampex VRX-1000, was introduced in 1956 by Ampex Corporation. At a price of US$50,000 in 1956, US$300 for a 90-minute reel of tape, it was intended only for the professional market. Kenjiro Takayanagi, a television broadcasting pioneer working for JVC as its vice president, saw the need for his company to produce VTRs for the Japan market, at a more affordable price. In 1959, JVC developed a two-head video tape recorder, by 1960 a color version for professional broadcasting.
In 1964, JVC released the DV220. In 1969, JVC collaborated with Sony Corporation and Matsushita Electric in building a video recording standard for the Japanese consumer; the effort produced the U-matic format in 1971, the first format to become a unified standard. U-matic was successful in business and some broadcast applications, but due to cost and limited recording time few of the machines were sold for home use. Soon after and Matsushita broke away from the collaboration effort, in order to work on video recording formats of their own. Sony started working on Betamax, while Matsushita started working on VX. JVC released the CR-6060 in 1975, based on the U-matic format. Sony and Matsushita produced U-matic systems of their own. In 1971, JVC engineers Yuma Shiraishi and Shizuo Takano put together a team to develop a consumer-based VTR. By the end of 1971 they created an internal diagram titled "VHS Development Matrix", which established twelve objectives for JVC's new VTR; these included: The system must be compatible with any ordinary television set.
Picture quality must be similar to a normal air broadcast. The tape must have at least a two-hour recording capacity. Tapes must be interchangeable between machines; the overall system should be versatile, meaning it can be scaled and expanded, such as connecting a video camera, or dub between two recorders. Recorders should be affordable, easy to have low maintenance costs. Recorders must be capable of being produced in high volume, their parts must be interchangeable, they must be easy to service. In early 1972, the commercial video recording industry in Japan took a financial hit. JVC restructured its video division, shelving the VHS project. However, despite the lack of funding and Shiraishi continued to work on the project in secret. By 1973 the two engineers had produced a functional prototype. In 1974, the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry, desiring to avoid consumer confusion, attempted to force the Japanese video industry to standardize on just one home video recording format.
Sony had a functional prototype of the Betamax format, was close to releasing a finished product. With this prototype, Sony persuaded the MITI to adopt Betamax as the standard, allow it to license the technology to other companies. JVC believed that an open standard, with the format shared among competitors without licensing the technology, was better for the consumer. To prevent the MITI from adopting Betamax, JVC worked to convince other companies, in particular Matsushita, to accept VHS, thereby work against Sony and the MITI. Matsushita agreed out of concern that Sony might become the leader in the field if its proprietary Betamax format was the only one allowed to be manufactured. Matsushita regarded Betamax's one-hour recording time limit as a disadvantage. Matsushita's backing of JVC persuaded Hitachi and Sharp to back the VHS standard as well. Sony's release of its Betamax unit to the Japanese market in 1975 placed further pressure on the MITI to side with the company. However, the collaboration of
Birth of the Dead
Birth of the Dead is a two-CD compilation album chronicling the early years of the San Francisco psychedelic band the Grateful Dead. The set was part of the twelve-CD box set The Golden Road, released on October 16, 2001 was released as a stand-alone album on March 25, 2003; the album consists of a number of covers. Birth of the Dead, Volume One, containing the music from the first CD, was released as a vinyl LP on the Friday Music label on December 17, 2013; the two CDs are labeled "The Studio Sides" for "The Live Sides" for the second. The Studio Sides comprise three separate recording sessions: "The Autumn Sessions", "The Scorpio Session", "The Hendricks Session"; the Autumn Sessions was recorded at Golden State Recorders in San Francisco in November 1965. The band used the space under the assumed name of The Emergency Crew; the Scorpio Sessions comprise tracks seven through sixteen of disc one, two of which were released in limited supply by Scorpio Records, in July 1966, as the band's first single.
The Hendrick Session, consisting of only the song "Fire in the City", was recorded for use in the documentary film Sons and Daughters. It was released as a single by Verve Records. Disc one The Studio Sides"Early Morning Rain" – 3:22 "I Know You Rider" – 2:41 "Mindbender" – 2:41 "The Only Time Is Now" – 2:24 "Caution" – 3:17 "Can't Come Down" – 3:04 "Stealin'" – 2:40 "Stealin'" – 2:36 "Don't Ease Me In" – 2:01 "Don't Ease Me In" – 2:02 "You Don't Have to Ask" – 3:35 "Tastebud" – 7:04 "Tastebud" – 4:35 "I Know You Rider" – 2:36 "Cold Rain and Snow" – 3:15 "Cold Rain and Snow" – 3:17 "Fire in the City" – 3:19Disc two The Live Sides"Viola Lee Blues" – 9:39 "Don't Ease Me In" – 2:43 "Pain in My Heart" – 4:24 "Sitting on Top of the World" – 3:51 "It's All over Now, Baby Blue" – 5:12 "I'm a King Bee" – 8:52 "Big Boss Man" – 5:11 "Standing on the Corner" – 3:46 "In the Pines" – 4:55 "Nobody's Fault But Mine" – 4:15 "Next Time You See Me" – 2:47 "One Kind Favor" – 3:44 "He Was a Friend of Mine" – 4:45 "Keep Rolling By" – 7:57 Grateful Dead Jerry Garcia - guitar, vocals Bob Weir - guitar, vocals Phil Lesh - bass, vocals Bill Kreutzmann - drums Ron McKernan - organs, vocalsAdditional performers Jon Hendricks - lead vocals on Fire in the CityProduction Autumn Records sessions Recorded on November 3, 1965 at Golden Gate Recorders in San Francisco Producers - Tom Donahue, Bobby Mitchell Engineer - Leo De Gar Kulka Disc One, tracks 5 and 6, were first released 9 November 1999 on So Many Roads all other selections from Autumn Records sessions are unissued note: tape box lists artist as: The Emergency Crew.
This is the "dry mix" - the single was mastered with added reverb All other selections from Scorpio Records sessions are unissued"Fire in the City" Recorded during March 1967 at Columbus Recorders in San Francisco Producer, arranger - Jon Hendricks Originally issued April 1967, as the A-side of a single by Jon Hendricks. The Grateful Dead were the backing band Live performances Recorded in 1966 at the Fillmore Auditorium in San Francisco: Tracks 1-5 & 7-10 on July 16. More from the July 16 performance was released on So Many Roads Engineers - Owsley Stanley, Rock Scully
Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, a variety of vocal techniques. A person who sings is called a vocalist. Singers perform music that can be sung without accompaniment by musical instruments. Singing is done in an ensemble of musicians, such as a choir of singers or a band of instrumentalists. Singers may perform as soloists or accompanied by anything from a single instrument up to a symphony orchestra or big band. Different singing styles include art music such as opera and Chinese opera, Indian music and religious music styles such as gospel, traditional music styles, world music, blues and popular music styles such as pop, electronic dance music and filmi. Singing arranged or improvised, it may be done as a form of religious devotion, as a hobby, as a source of pleasure, comfort or ritual, as part of music education or as a profession. Excellence in singing requires time, dedication and regular practice.
If practice is done on a regular basis the sounds can become more clear and strong. Professional singers build their careers around one specific musical genre, such as classical or rock, although there are singers with crossover success, they take voice training provided by voice teachers or vocal coaches throughout their careers. In its physical aspect, singing has a well-defined technique that depends on the use of the lungs, which act as an air supply or bellows. Though these four mechanisms function independently, they are coordinated in the establishment of a vocal technique and are made to interact upon one another. During passive breathing, air is inhaled with the diaphragm while exhalation occurs without any effort. Exhalation may be aided by lower pelvis/pelvic muscles. Inhalation is aided by use of external intercostals and sternocleidomastoid muscles; the pitch is altered with the vocal cords. With the lips closed, this is called humming; the sound of each individual's singing voice is unique not only because of the actual shape and size of an individual's vocal cords but due to the size and shape of the rest of that person's body.
Humans have vocal folds which can loosen, tighten, or change their thickness, over which breath can be transferred at varying pressures. The shape of the chest and neck, the position of the tongue, the tightness of otherwise unrelated muscles can be altered. Any one of these actions results in a change in pitch, timbre, or tone of the sound produced. Sound resonates within different parts of the body and an individual's size and bone structure can affect the sound produced by an individual. Singers can learn to project sound in certain ways so that it resonates better within their vocal tract; this is known as vocal resonation. Another major influence on vocal sound and production is the function of the larynx which people can manipulate in different ways to produce different sounds; these different kinds of laryngeal function are described as different kinds of vocal registers. The primary method for singers to accomplish this is through the use of the Singer's Formant, it has been shown that a more powerful voice may be achieved with a fatter and fluid-like vocal fold mucosa.
The more pliable the mucosa, the more efficient the transfer of energy from the airflow to the vocal folds. Vocal registration refers to the system of vocal registers within the voice. A register in the voice is a particular series of tones, produced in the same vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, possessing the same quality. Registers originate in laryngeal function, they occur. Each of these vibratory patterns appears within a particular range of pitches and produces certain characteristic sounds; the occurrence of registers has been attributed to effects of the acoustic interaction between the vocal fold oscillation and the vocal tract. The term "register" can be somewhat confusing; the term register can be used to refer to any of the following: A particular part of the vocal range such as the upper, middle, or lower registers. A resonance area such as chest voice or head voice. A phonatory process A certain vocal timbre or vocal "color" A region of the voice, defined or delimited by vocal breaks.
In linguistics, a register language is a language which combines tone and vowel phonation into a single phonological system. Within speech pathology, the term vocal register has three constituent elements: a certain vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, a certain series of pitches, a certain type of sound. Speech pathologists identify four vocal registers based on the physiology of laryngeal function: the vocal fry register, the modal register, the falsetto register, the whistle register; this view is adopted by many vocal pedagogues. Vocal resonation is the process by which the basic product of phonation is en
The Closing of Winterland
The Closing of Winterland is a four-CD live album by the Grateful Dead. It contains the complete concert performed on December 31, 1978; the concert was released as a two-disc DVD. The title derives from the fact that it was the last concert in San Francisco's Winterland Arena, shut down shortly thereafter; the Dead celebrated the closing as an five-hour-long party and invited some guests including guitarist John Cipollina of Quicksilver Messenger Service and Ken Kesey as well as actor Dan Aykroyd who provided the midnight countdown. It was certified Double Platinum by the RIAA on December 15, 2003 under the category of longform video, selling 200,000 units; the New Riders of the Purple Sage and Blues Brothers opened the show. Pre-ordered DVD sets included the bonus CD "New Year's Eves at Winterland", it contains an additional nine tracks recorded on New Year's Eve in 1970, 1971, 1972 and 1977. First set:"Sugar Magnolia" > – 7:21 "Scarlet Begonias" > – 11:55 "Fire on the Mountain" – 15:05 "Me and My Uncle" – 3:11 "Big River" – 7:05 "Friend of the Devil" – 10:48 "It's All Over Now" – 8:23 "Stagger Lee" – 8:03 "From the Heart of Me" > – 3:49 "Sunshine Daydream" – 3:15 Second set:"Samson and Delilah" – 9:17 "Ramble On Rose" – 9:35 "I Need a Miracle" > – 11:19 "Terrapin Station" > – 12:23 "Playing in the Band" > – 13:06 Second set, continued:"Rhythm Devils" > – 19:23 "Not Fade Away" > – 19:34 "Around and Around" – 9:19 Third set:"Dark Star" > – 11:53 "The Other One" > – 4:55 "Dark Star" > – 1:09 "Wharf Rat" > – 11:08 "St. Stephen" > – 7:52 "Good Lovin"" – 13:57First encore: "Casey Jones" > – 5:17 "Johnny B. Goode" – 7:14Second encore: "And We Bid You Goodnight" – 4:13 Recordings from other New Year's Eve concerts at Winterland:"Easy Wind" – 9:35 "Jam" > – 2:07 "Black Peter" – 8:42 "Playing in the Band" – 18:26 "Lazy Lightning" > – 3:36 "Supplication" – 5:35 "Sugar Magnolia" – 11:59 "Scarlet Begonias" > – 8:48 "Fire on the Mountain" – 10:06 The DVD version of The Closing of Winterland contains the video of the New Year's Eve show, with stereo and 5.1 surround sound audio options.
It includes some related bonus material. According to the bonus DVD, the concert was recorded on 2-inch quad video, considered the best quality at the time, on 24-track audio tape. Concert – first set Concert – second set Concert – third set "Winterland: A Million Memories" documentary film The Blues Brothers – "Soul Man" and "B Movie" New Riders of the Purple Sage – "Glendale Train" "Making of the DVD" featurette with David Lemieux and Jeffrey Norman "2 AM" interview with Bob Weir, Mickey Hart, Ken Kesey Bill Graham interview by Scoop Nisker "Grateful Dead at Winterland" chronological history Grateful Dead Jerry Garcia – guitar, vocals Bob Weir – guitar, vocals Phil Lesh – electric bass, vocals Donna Godchaux – vocals Keith Godchaux – piano Mickey Hart – drums, percussion Bill Kreutzmann – drums, percussionAdditional musicians Bill Graham – master of ceremonies Dan Aykroyd – midnight countdown John Cipollina – guitar Ken Kesey – thunder machine Matthew Kelly – harmonica Lee Oskar – harmonica Greg Errico – drumsProduction David Lemieux – producer Jeffrey Norman – producer, mixing Eileen Law – archival research Stanley Mouse – cover art Alton Kelley – cover art Ed Perlstein – photography Michael Zagaris – additional photography Steve Schneider – additional photography Robert Minkin – package design and production Gary Lambert – liner notes Glenn Lambert – liner notes
Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum
The Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum referred to as the Oakland Coliseum, is a multi-purpose stadium in Oakland, United States, home to both the Oakland Athletics of Major League Baseball and the Oakland Raiders of the National Football League. It opened in 1966 and is the only remaining stadium in the United States, shared by professional football and baseball teams; the Coliseum was home to some games of the San Jose Earthquakes of Major League Soccer in 2008–2009 and hosted games at the 2009 CONCACAF Gold Cup. The Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum complex consists of the stadium and the neighboring Oracle Arena; the Coliseum has 6,300 club seats, 2,700 of which are available for Athletics games, 143 luxury suites, 125 of which are available for Athletics games, a variable seating capacity of 46,867 for baseball, 56,057 for American football, 63,132 for association football. In seating capacity, Oakland Coliseum is the second smallest NFL stadium, larger only than Dignity Health Sports Park, the temporary home of the Los Angeles Chargers, but the eighth largest MLB stadium.
On April 3, 2017, Opening Day, the Athletics dedicated the Coliseum's playing surface as Rickey Henderson Field in honor of MLB Hall of Famer and former Athletic Rickey Henderson. The Coliseum features an underground design where the playing surface is below ground level. Fans entering the stadium find themselves walking on to the main concourse of the stadium at the top of the first level of seats. This, combined with the hill, built around the stadium to create the upper concourse, means that only the third deck is visible from outside the park; this gives the Coliseum the illusion of being a short stadium from the outside. Business and political leaders in Oakland had long been in competition with neighbor San Francisco, as well as other cities in the West, worked for Oakland and its suburbs to be recognized nationally as a viable metropolitan area with its own identity and reputation and separate from that of San Francisco. Professional sports was seen as a primary way for the East Bay to gain such recognition.
As a result, the desire for a major-league caliber stadium in the city of Oakland intensified during the 1950s and 1960s. By 1960, a non-profit corporation was formed to oversee the financing and development of the facility. Local real estate developer Robert T. Nahas headed this group, which became the governing board of the Coliseum upon completion, it was Nahas' idea that the Coliseum be financed with ownership transferring to the city and county upon retirement of the construction financing. Robert T. Nahas served 20 years as President of the Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum Board. On the death of Nahas, the San Francisco Chronicle's Rick DelVecchio quoted Jack Maltester, a former San Leandro mayor and Coliseum board member, "If not for Bob Nahas, there would be no Coliseum, it's that simple." Nahas had to be a diplomat dealing with the egos of Raiders owner Al Davis, Athletics owner Charles O. Finley, Warriors owner Franklin Mieuli. Preliminary architectural plans were unveiled in November 1960, the following month a site was chosen west of the Elmhurst district of East Oakland alongside the then-recently completed Nimitz Freeway.
A downtown site adjacent to Lake Merritt and the Oakland Auditorium was originally considered. The Port of Oakland played a key role in the East Oakland site selection; the Oakland Raiders of the American Football League moved to Frank Youell Field, a makeshift stadium near downtown Oakland, in 1962, the Coliseum was being heralded in the local media as the Raiders' future permanent home. Baseball was a major factor in the planning of the Coliseum; as early as 1961, the American League publicly indicated that it wished to include Oakland in its West Coast expansion plans. In 1963, American League president Joe Cronin suggested that Coliseum officials model some aspects of the new ballpark after then-new Dodger Stadium, which impressed him, though these expansion plans seemed to fade by the middle of the decade. After approval from the city of Oakland as well as Alameda County by 1962, $25 million in financing was arranged. Plans were drawn for a stadium, an indoor arena, an exhibition hall in between them.
The architect of record was the San Francisco office of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill and the general contractor was Guy F. Atkinson Company. Preliminary site preparation began in the summer of 1961. Construction began in the spring of 1962; the construction schedule was delayed for two years due to cost overruns. In 1965, it was rumored that the Cleveland Indians might leave Cleveland for a West Coast city, but the Indians ended up remaining in Cleveland. Charlie Finley, owner of the Kansas City Athletics, unhappy in Kansas City, impressed by Oakland's new stadium and convinced to consider Oakland by Nahas, eventu