A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
Merle Ronald Haggard was an American country singer, songwriter and fiddler. Along with Buck Owens and his band the Strangers helped create the Bakersfield sound, characterized by the twang of the Fender Telecaster mixed with the sound of the steel guitar, vocal harmony styles in which the words are minimal, a rough edge not heard on the more polished Nashville sound recordings of the same era. Haggard was born in Oildale, during the Great Depression, his childhood was troubled after the death of his father, he was incarcerated several times in his youth. After being released from San Quentin State Prison in 1960, he managed to turn his life around and launch a successful country music career, gaining popularity with his songs about the working class that contained themes contrary to the prevailing anti-Vietnam War sentiment of much popular music of the time. Between the 1960s and the 1980s, he had 38 number-one hits on the US country charts, several of which made the Billboard all-genre singles chart.
Haggard continued to release successful albums into the 2000s. He received many honors and awards for his music, including a Kennedy Center Honor, a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award, a BMI Icon Award, induction into the Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame, Country Music Hall of Fame and Oklahoma Music Hall of Fame, he died on April 6, 2016 — his 79th birthday — at his ranch in Shasta County, having suffered from double pneumonia. Haggard's last recording, a song called "Kern River Blues," described his departure from Bakersfield in the late 1970s and his displeasure with politicians; the song was recorded February 9, 2016, features his son Ben on guitar. This record was released on May 12, 2016. Haggard's Flossie Mae and James Francis Haggard; the family moved to California from their home in Checotah, during the Great Depression, after their barn burned in 1934. They settled with their two elder children and Lillian, in an apartment in Bakersfield, while James started working for the Santa Fe Railroad.
A woman who owned a boxcar placed in Oildale, a nearby town, asked Haggard's father about the possibility of converting it into a house. He remodeled the boxcar, soon after moved in purchasing the lot, where Merle Ronald Haggard was born on April 6, 1937; the property was expanded by building a bathroom, a second bedroom, a kitchen, a breakfast nook in the adjacent lot. His father died of a brain hemorrhage in 1945, an event that affected Haggard during his childhood and the rest of his life. To support the family, his mother worked as a bookkeeper. At 12, his brother, gave him his used guitar. Haggard learned to play alone, with the records he had at home, influenced by Bob Wills, Lefty Frizzell, Hank Williams; as his mother was absent due to work, Haggard became progressively rebellious. His mother sent him for a weekend to a juvenile detention center to change his attitude, but it worsened. Haggard committed a number of minor offenses, such as writing bad checks, he was sent to a juvenile detention center for shoplifting in 1950.
When he was 14, Haggard ran away to Texas with his friend Bob Teague. He hitchhiked throughout the state; when he returned the same year, he and his friend were arrested for robbery. Haggard and Teague were released. Haggard was sent to the juvenile detention center, from which he and his friend escaped again to Modesto, California, he worked a series of laborer jobs, including driving a potato truck, being a short order cook, a hay pitcher, an oil well shooter. His debut performance was with Teague in a Modesto bar named "Fun Center", for which he was paid US$5 and given free beer, he returned to Bakersfield in 1951, was again arrested for truancy and petty larceny and sent to a juvenile detention center. After another escape, he was sent to the Preston School of a high-security installation, he was released 15 months but was sent back after beating a local boy during a burglary attempt. After Haggard's release, he and Teague saw Lefty Frizzell in concert. After hearing Haggard sing along to his songs backstage, Frizzell refused to sing unless Haggard was allowed to sing first.
He sang songs. Because of this positive reception, Haggard decided to pursue a career in music. While working as a farmhand or in oil fields, he played in nightclubs. Married and plagued by financial issues, he was arrested in 1957 shortly after he tried to rob a Bakersfield roadhouse, he was sent to Bakersfield Jail, after an escape attempt, was transferred to San Quentin Prison on February 21, 1958. While in prison, Haggard learned that his wife was expecting another man's child, which pressed him psychologically, he was fired from a series of prison jobs, planned to escape along with another inmate nicknamed "Rabbit," but was convinced not to escape by fellow inmates. While at San Quentin, Haggard started a brewing racket with his cellmate. After he was caught drunk, he was sent for a week to solitary confinement where he encountered Caryl Chessman, an author and death-row inmate. Meanwhile, "Rabbit" had escaped, only to shoot a police officer and be returned to San Quentin for execution. Chessman's predicament, along with the execution of "Rabbit," inspired Haggard to change his life.
He soon earned a high school equivalency diploma and kept a steady job in the prison's textile plant. He played for the prison's country music band, attributing a performance by Johnny Cash at the prison on New Year's Day 1959 as his main inspiration to join it, he was released from Sa
In the Dark (Grateful Dead album)
In the Dark is the twelfth studio album by the Grateful Dead. It was recorded in one week in January 1987, released on July 6, 1987. In the Dark was the band's first album in six years, its first studio album since 1980's Go to Heaven, it became unexpectedly popular, achieving double platinum certification in the U. S, it reached No. 6 on the Grateful Dead's only top ten album. The peppy "Touch of Grey" peaked at No. 9 on the Billboard Hot 100, the band's only top forty single. "Hell in a Bucket" and "Throwing Stones" achieved significant album-oriented rock radio airplay. Most of the songs had been played by the Dead since 1982 or 1983, which gave them a five-year edge on perfecting them for the album. After the critically panned Go to Heaven, which contained songs that were under a year old, the maturity of In the Dark was more appreciated. Since the band had been playing the songs for some time, they decided to record the baseline tracks for the album in a darkened theater, empty, on a stage with the same lighting as they would use on tour.
The idea was to capture the "feel" they had for the songs as if they were playing them to a live audience. This was done at Marin Veterans Memorial Auditorium in California. Drummer Bill Kreutzmann reminisced, "We ran all the electric instruments through amplifiers in the basement, in isolation rooms, kept the drums bright and loud on stage. Everything was fed to a recording truck parked outside the venue. Everybody played their parts in real time, together; when we took breaks, we'd go into the wings by the stage door and sit there and talk about what we'd just done. Talking about the music going right out to play the music talking about it some more was something that we should've done more — the analysis served the songs and the camaraderie served the band, it put us in a good spot."They brought these recorded tracks to the studio and, if needed, "cleaned" them up, overdubbing them or redoing a guitar, keyboard, or drum track in the studio using the same riffs they used on the stage recording.
Garcia spoke about the recording in an interview. There's something about the formal atmosphere in there; when we set up at Front Street to work, a lot of times we just sort of dissolve into hanging out. Going in Marin Vets without an audience and playing just to ourselves was in the nature of an experiment..."In the Dark was released on CD in 1987 by Arista Records before being re-released in 2000 by BMG International. It was remastered and released with new cover art as part of the Beyond Description 12-CD box set in October 2004; the remastered version was released separately on CD, on April 11, 2006, by Rhino Records. The cover art for the album was designed by Randy Tuten; the lettering forms the shape of an eye. Inside the lettering are photos of the band members' eyes. On the original LP, the photos were right side up, but when the album was released on CD in 1987, the photos were upside down. Though the band joked that the extra eye belonged to the Ayatollah Khomeini, it belonged to their long-time promoter, Bill Graham.
Note: "My Brother Esau" was omitted from the LP and CD releases of In the Dark, but was included on the cassette and on international releases, as well as the 2004 reissue. Album - Billboard Singles - Billboard
Johnny Cash was an American singer-songwriter, guitarist and author. He is one of the best-selling music artists of all time, having sold more than 90 million records worldwide. Although remembered as a country music icon, his genre-spanning songs and sound embraced rock and roll, blues and gospel; this crossover appeal won Cash the rare honor of being inducted into the Country Music and Roll, Gospel Music Halls of Fame. Cash was known for his deep, calm bass-baritone voice, the distinctive sound of his Tennessee Three backing band characterized by train-sound guitar rhythms, a rebelliousness coupled with an somber and humble demeanor, free prison concerts, a trademark, all-black stage wardrobe, which earned him the nickname "The Man in Black." He traditionally began his concerts by introducing himself, "Hello, I'm Johnny Cash," followed by his signature song "Folsom Prison Blues". Much of Cash's music contained themes of sorrow, moral tribulation, redemption in the stages of his career, his other signature songs include "I Walk the Line", "Ring of Fire", "Get Rhythm", "Man in Black".
He recorded humorous numbers like "One Piece at a Time" and "A Boy Named Sue". During the last stage of his career, Cash covered songs by several late 20th-century rock artists, notably "Hurt" by Nine Inch Nails and "Rusty Cage" by Soundgarden. Johnny Cash was born on February 1932, in Kingsland, Arkansas, to Ray Cash and Carrie Cloveree, he was the fourth of seven children, who were in birth order: Roy, Margaret Louise, Jack, J. R. Reba and Tommy, he was of English and Scottish descent. As an adult he traced his surname to 11th-century Fife, after meeting with the then-laird of Falkland, Major Michael Crichton-Stuart. Cash Loch and other locations in Fife bear the name of his family. At birth, Cash was named J. R. Cash; when Cash enlisted in the United States Air Force, he was not permitted to use initials as a first name, so he changed his name to John R. Cash. In 1955, when signing with Sun Records, he started going by Johnny Cash. In March 1935, when Cash was three years old, the family settled in Dyess, Arkansas, a New Deal colony established to give poor families a chance to work land that they had a chance to own as a result.
J. R. started singing along with his family while working. The Cash farm flooded during the family's time in Dyess which led Cash to write the song "Five Feet High and Rising", his family's economic and personal struggles during the Great Depression inspired many of his songs those about other people facing similar difficulties. He had sympathy for the poor and working class. Cash was close to his older brother, Jack. On Saturday May 12, 1944, Jack was pulled into an unguarded table saw at his high school while cutting oak into fence posts as his job and was cut in two, he lingered until the following Saturday. Cash spoke of the horrible guilt he felt over this incident. According to Cash: The Autobiography, his father was away that morning, but Johnny and his mother, Jack himself, all had premonitions or a sense of foreboding about that day, his mother urged Jack to go fishing with his brother. Jack insisted on working. On his deathbed, Jack said he had visions of angels. Decades Cash spoke of looking forward to meeting his brother in Heaven.
Cash's early memories were dominated by gospel radio. Taught guitar by his mother and a childhood friend, Cash began playing and writing songs at the age of 12; when young, Cash had a high-tenor voice, before becoming a bass-baritone after his voice changed. In high school, he sang on a local radio station. Decades he released an album of traditional gospel songs, called My Mother's Hymn Book, he was significantly influenced by traditional Irish music, which he heard performed weekly by Dennis Day on the Jack Benny radio program. Cash enlisted in the United States Air Force on July 7, 1950. After basic training at Lackland Air Force Base and technical training at Brooks Air Force Base, both in San Antonio, Cash was assigned to the 12th Radio Squadron Mobile of the U. S. Air Force Security Service at Landsberg, Germany, as a Morse code operator intercepting Soviet Army transmissions, it was there he created his first band, named "The Landsberg Barbarians". He was honorably discharged as a staff sergeant on July 3, 1954, returned to Texas.
During his military service, he acquired a distinctive scar on the right side of his jaw as a result of surgery to remove a cyst. On July 18, 1951, while in Air Force training, Cash met 17-year-old Italian-American Vivian Liberto at a roller skating rink in her native San Antonio, they dated for three weeks. During that time, the couple exchanged hundreds of pages of love letters. On August 7, 1954, one month after his discharge, they were married at St. Ann's Roman Catholic Church in San Antonio; the ceremony was performed by Vincent Liberto. They had four daughters: Rosanne, Kathy and Tara. In 1961, Johnny moved his family to a hilltop home overlooking Casitas Springs, California, a small town south of Ojai on Highway 33, he had moved his parents to the area to run a small trailer park called the Johnny Cash Trailer Park. Johnny's drinking led to several run-ins with local law enforcement
Beyond Description (1973–1989)
Beyond Description is the second twelve-CD box set retrospective of the Grateful Dead's studio and live albums. A companion to The Golden Road box set, it covers their time on the Grateful Dead Records and Arista Records labels, from 1973 to 1989; the set contains expanded and remastered versions of all the albums during the brief period with their own label, during their time on Arista. Included are numerous unreleased studio outtakes and live tracks; the ten albums in the set are Wake of the Flood, From the Mars Hotel, Blues for Allah, Terrapin Station, Shakedown Street, Go to Heaven, In the Dark, Built to Last, the two live albums Reckoning and Dead Set. Pre-ordered copies included a bonus disc with a studio rehearsal; the albums, with the bonus tracks, were given individual release in 2006. Previous box set Dead Zone, released in 1987, contains six of the same albums. See individual album pages for more information Wake of the Flood From the Mars Hotel Blues for Allah Terrapin Station Shakedown Street Go to Heaven Reckoning Disc 1All tracks live at Warfield Theatre, San Francisco, CA & Radio City Music Hall, New York City, NY Reckoning Disc 2 Dead Set Disc 1All tracks live at Warfield Theatre, San Francisco, CA & Radio City Music Hall, New York City, NY Dead Set Disc 2 In the Dark Built to Last Notes Jerry Garcia – guitar, vocals Bob Weir – guitar, vocals Phil Lesh – electric bass, vocals Donna Godchaux – vocals on discs 1-5 Keith Godchaux – keyboards, vocals on discs 1-5 Brent Mydland – keyboards, Hammond organ, vocals on discs 6-12 Mickey Hart – drums, percussion Bill Kreutzmann – drums, percussion for a comprehensive listing, see individual album pages James Austin, David Lemieux – producers Cameron Sears – executive producer Jimmy Edwards – associate producer Robin Hurley – associate producer Hale Milgrim – associate producer Scott Pascucci – associate producer Eileen Law – archival research Joe Gastwirt – mastering Tom Flye – additional mixing Robert Gatley – mixing assistant Reggie Collines – discography annotation Hugh Brown – reissue art direction Steve Vance – design, reissue art direction
William Kreutzmann Jr. is an American drummer. He played with the Grateful Dead for its entire thirty-year career alongside fellow drummer Mickey Hart, has continued to perform with former members of the Grateful Dead in various lineups, with his own bands BK3, 7 Walkers and Billy & the Kids. Kreutzmann was born in Palo Alto, the son of Janice Beryl and William Kreutzmann Sr, his father was of German descent. His maternal grandfather was innovator Clark Shaughnessy. Kreutzmann started playing drums at the age of 13. At first he practiced on a Slingerland drum kit lent to him; as a teenager, practicing drums alone in a large building at his high school, Aldous Huxley and another man walked in. Huxley told Bill he'd never heard anything like it, encouraged him in his drumming – despite the fact Bill had been told by his sixth grade music teacher that he could not keep a beat. Kreutzmann continued to practice a great deal, his earliest enthusiasm was for the music of other R&B musicians. He has explained that he learned some advanced technique or tricks from Mickey Hart.
Kreutzmann listened to jazz groups in clubs when he found an opportunity for an under-age guy to get in. After joining the Warlocks, bassist Phil Lesh introduced him the work of one of the top jazz drummers of the time, Elvin Jones. Kreutzmann became an enthusiast for the funk music of The Meters. At the end of 1964 Kreutzmann co-founded the band the Warlocks, along with Phil Lesh, Jerry Garcia, Bob Weir, Ron "Pigpen" McKernan, their first gig was May 1965, two days before Kreutzmann's nineteenth birthday. During the band's early days, Kreutzmann sometimes used a fake draft card with the name "Bill Sommers" to be admitted to bars where the band was playing, since he was underage. In November 1965, the Warlocks became the Grateful Dead. Meeting fellow percussionist Mickey Hart in the fall of 1967 had a big impact on Kreutzmann's career. Hart soon joined the Dead; the combination of their playing was an important part of the band's sound and earned them the nickname "the Rhythm Devils". Their lengthy drum duets were a feature of nearly every show from 1978 to 1995, are documented in a number of recordings by the band.
During the 80s Kreutzmann formed and performed with three side-bands: The Billy Kreutzmann All-stars, Go Ahead playing San Francisco Bay Area clubs, although Go Ahead toured somewhat in 1986-87. The All-Stars were Kreutzmann, David Nelson, Larry Murphy, Sr. on fiddle and Larry Murphy, Jr. on bass. Kokomo and Go Ahead featured Dead keyboardist Brent Mydland, David Margen played bass for Kokomo as well as Go Ahead. Kevin Russell was guitarist for Kokomo. Kreutzmann remained with the Grateful Dead until its dissolution after the death of Jerry Garcia in 1995, making him one of four members to play at every one of the band's 2,300 shows, along with Garcia and Lesh. In 1994, Kreutzmann and the other members of the Grateful Dead were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. In 2007, they won a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. Kreutzmann's first post-Grateful Dead musical project was Backbone, a trio with guitarist Rick Barnett and bassist Edd Cook, they released one album, Backbone, in 1998. In 1998, former Grateful Dead members Bob Weir, Phil Lesh, Mickey Hart formed a band called the Other Ones, which played a number of shows as part of the Furthur Festival.
The band did not play live in 1999. In 2000, Kreutzmann joined The Other Ones; the band, with Kreutzmann, toured in 2000 and 2002. In 2003, they changed their name to The Dead; the Dead played a number of live concerts in 2003, 2004 and 2009. Kreutzmann collaborated with Journey guitarist Neal Schon, Sy Klopps, Ira Walker, Ralph Woodson to form the Trichromes in 2002, they released an EP, Dice with the Universe, an album, Trichromes. On December 17, 2005, he participated in the 17th Annual Warren Haynes Christmas Jam as the drummer for SerialPod, a group which included Phish members Trey Anastasio and Mike Gordon. During 2006, Kreutzmann teamed up with fellow Grateful Dead drummer Mickey Hart, Phish bassist Mike Gordon, former The Other Ones guitarist Steve Kimock to form the Rhythm Devils; the band features songs from their respective former bands as well as new songs written by Jerry Garcia's songwriting companion Robert Hunter. The Rhythm Devils played their first tour in 2006, which ended at the popular Vegoose festival in Las Vegas, Nevada over the Halloween weekend.
In 2008 they released. In 2008, Bill Kreutzmann toured the eastern United States with bassist Oteil Burbridge of the Allman Brothers Band and guitarist Scott Murawski of Max Creek as BK3. In 2009, Oteil Burbridge was replaced by former Neville Brothers and longtime Bonnie Raitt bassist James "Hutch" Hutchinson. Hutchinson had performed with Kreutzmann, Papa Mali and keyboardist Matt Hubbard earlier in the year at a New Year's Eve concert in Haiku on the island of Maui; some 2009 shows featured Donna the Buffalo singer/instrumentalist Tara Nevins. In February 2010 the trio played several concerts with Burbridge again assuming the bassist role. On August 2, 2009, Kreutzmann played with Phish during most of the 2nd set at Red Rocks Amphitheatre. In 2010, Kreutzmann formed a new band, called 7 Walkers, with guitarist Papa Mali, multi-instrumentalist Matt Hubbard, bassist Reed Mathis, they toured the southern U. S. in the spring of 2010, with George Porter, Jr. playing bass while Mathis toured with Tea Leaf Green.7 Walkers has recorded a studio album, released on Novembe
Psychedelic rock is a diverse style of rock music inspired, influenced, or representative of psychedelic culture, centred around perception-altering hallucinogenic drugs. The music is intended to replicate and enhance the mind-altering experiences of psychedelic drugs, most notably LSD. Many psychedelic groups differ in style, the label is applied spuriously. Originating in the mid-1960s among British and American musicians, the sounds of psychedelic rock invokes three core effects of LSD: depersonalization and dynamization. Musically, the effects may be represented via novelty studio tricks, electronic or non-Western instrumentation, disjunctive song structures, extended instrumental segments; some of the earlier 1960s psychedelic rock musicians were based in folk and the blues, while others showcased an explicit Indian classical influence called "raga rock". In the 1960s, there existed two main variants of the genre: the whimsical British pop-psychedelia and the harder American West Coast acid rock.
While "acid rock" is sometimes deployed interchangeably with the term "psychedelic rock", it refers more to the heavier and more extreme ends of the genre. The peak years of psychedelic rock were between 1966 and 1969, with milestone events including the 1967 Summer of Love and the 1969 Woodstock Rock Festival, becoming an international musical movement associated with a widespread counterculture before beginning a decline as changing attitudes, the loss of some key individuals and a back-to-basics movement, led surviving performers to move into new musical areas; the genre bridged the transition from early blues and folk-based rock to progressive rock and hard rock, as a result contributed to the development of sub-genres such as heavy metal. Since the late 1970s it has been revived in various forms of neo-psychedelia; as a musical style, psychedelic rock attempted to replicate the effects of and enhance the mind-altering experiences of hallucinogenic drugs, incorporating new electronic sound effects and recording effects, extended solos, improvisation.
Common features include: electric guitars used with feedback, wah wah and fuzzbox effects units. The term "psychedelic" was coined in 1956 by psychiatrist Humphry Osmond first as an alternative descriptor for hallucinogenic drugs in the context of psychedelic psychotherapy; as the countercultural scene developed in San Francisco, the terms acid rock and psychedelic rock were used in 1966 to describe the new drug-influenced music and were being used by 1967. The terms psychedelic rock and acid rock are used interchangeably, but acid rock may be distinguished as a more extreme variation, heavier, relied on long jams, focused more directly on LSD, made greater use of distortion. In the popular music of the early 1960s, it was common for producers and engineers to experiment with musical form, unnatural reverb, other sound effects; some of the best known examples are Phil Spector's Wall of Sound production formula and Joe Meek's use of homemade electronics for acts like the Tornados. XTC's Andy Partridge interprets the music of psychedelic groups as a "grown-up" version of children's novelty records, believing that many acts were trying to emulate those records that they grew up with.
There was no transition to be made. You go from things like'Flying Purple People Eater' to'I Am the Walrus', they go hand-in-hand." Music critic Richie Unterberger says that attempts to "pin down" the first psychedelic record are therefore "nearly as elusive as trying to name the first rock & roll record". Some of the "far-fetched claims" include the instrumental "Telstar" and the Dave Clark Five's "massively reverb-laden" "Any Way You Want It"; the first mention of LSD on a rock record was the Gamblers' 1960 surf instrumental "LSD 25". A 1962 single by The Ventures, "The 2000 Pound Bee", issued forth the buzz of a distorted, "fuzztone" guitar, the quest into "the possibilities of heavy, transistorised distortion" and other effects, like improved reverb and echo began in earnest on London's fertile rock'n' roll scene. By 1964 fuzztone could be heard on singles by P. J. Proby, the Beatles had employed feedback in "I Feel Fine", their 6th consecutive No. 1 hit in the UK. American folk singer Bob Dylan was a massive influence on mid 1960s rock music.
He led directly to the creation of folk rock and the psychedelic rock musicians that followed, his lyrics were a touchstone for the psychedelic songwriters of the late 1960s. Virtuoso sitarist Ravi Shankar had begun in 1956 a mission to bring Indian classical music to the West, inspiring jazz and folk musicians.