Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments with a medium of drying oil as the binder. Commonly used drying oils include linseed oil, poppy seed oil, walnut oil, the choice of oil imparts a range of properties to the oil paint, such as the amount of yellowing or drying time. Certain differences, depending on the oil, are visible in the sheen of the paints. An artist might use different oils in the same painting depending on specific pigments and effects desired. The paints themselves develop a particular consistency depending on the medium, the oil may be boiled with a resin, such as pine resin or frankincense, to create a varnish prized for its body and gloss. Its practice may have migrated westward during the Middle Ages, Oil paint eventually became the principal medium used for creating artworks as its advantages became widely known. In recent years, water miscible oil paint has come to prominence and, to some extent, water-soluble paints contain an emulsifier that allows them to be thinned with water rather than paint thinner, and allows very fast drying times when compared with traditional oils.
Traditional oil painting techniques often begin with the artist sketching the subject onto the canvas with charcoal or thinned paint, Oil paint is usually mixed with linseed oil, artist grade mineral spirits, or other solvents to make the paint thinner, faster or slower-drying. A basic rule of oil paint application is fat over lean and this means that each additional layer of paint should contain more oil than the layer below to allow proper drying. If each additional layer contains less oil, the painting will crack. This rule does not ensure permanence, it is the quality and type of oil leads to a strong. There are many media that can be used with the oil, including cold wax, resins. These aspects of the paint are closely related to the capacity of oil paint. Traditionally, paint was transferred to the surface using paintbrushes. Oil paint remains wet longer than other types of artists materials, enabling the artist to change the color. At times, the painter might even remove a layer of paint.
This can be done with a rag and some turpentine for a time while the paint is wet, Oil paint dries by oxidation, not evaporation, and is usually dry to the touch within a span of two weeks. It is generally dry enough to be varnished in six months to a year, art conservators do not consider an oil painting completely dry until it is 60 to 80 years old
Diana and Her Companions
Diana and Her Companions is a painting by Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer completed in the early to mid-1650s, now at the Mauritshuis museum in The Hague. Although the exact year is unknown, the work may be the earliest painting of the artist still extant, with art historians placing it before Christ in the House of Martha and Mary. Rather than directly illustrating one of the moments in well-known episodes from myths about Diana. The theme of a woman in a private, reflective moment would grow stronger in Vermeers paintings as his career progressed, the painting depicts the Greek and Roman goddess Diana with four of her companions. She wears a loose fitting, yellow dress with a sash and, on her head. As she sits on a rock, a nymph washes her left foot, behind Diana, sits with her partially bare back to the viewer, a third nymph, sitting at Dianas left, holds her own left foot with her right hand. A fourth stands in the rear, somewhat apart from the rest of the group and facing them and the viewer at an angle, her eyes cast down, her fists in front of her.
A dog sits in the lower left-hand corner near Diana, its back to the viewer as it faces the goddess, her attendants and, immediately in front of it, a thistle. Except for the woman whose face is turned away from the viewer, all of the other faces in the painting are to one degree or another in shadow. None of the look at each other, each seemingly absorbed in their own thoughts. In 1999-2000, when the painting underwent restoration work and was cleaned, numerous reproductions up to that time had included the blue sky. Restorers covered over the patch with foliage to approximate the original image, the canvas had been trimmed, particularly on the right, where about 15 cm was removed. The painting is signed on the left, on the rock between the thistle and the dog. The canvas is a plain weave linen with a count of 14.3 by 10 per square centimeter. Vermeer first outlined the composition with dark brown brushwork (some of which shows through as pentimenti in the skirt of the woman washing Dianas foot, hairs on the dogs ear were scratched in with the handle of the artists brush.
Paint has been lost in vertical lines left of the paintings center, according to Arthur K. Wheelock Jr. the painting has no visual precedent. Nor does the artist show Dianas hot temper or her reactions to those episodes. The goddesss ability as a huntress is not signalled by dead game or bows and arrows, even the dog is depicted as a gentle animal, not like the fast hounds normally seen in paintings of Diana
Delft is a city and a municipality in the Netherlands. It is located in the province of South Holland, to the north of Rotterdam, the city of Delft came into being aside a canal, the Delf, which comes from the word delven, meaning delving or digging, and led to the name Delft. It presumably started around the 11th century as a landlord court, from a rural village in the early Middle Ages, Delft developed to a city, that in the 13th century received its charter. The towns association with the House of Orange started when William of Orange, nicknamed William the Silent, at the time he was the leader of growing national Dutch resistance against Spanish occupation, known as the Eighty Years War. By Delft was one of the cities of Holland. An attack by Spanish forces in October of that year was repelled, after the Act of Abjuration was proclaimed in 1581, Delft became the de facto capital of the newly independent Netherlands, as the seat of the Prince of Orange. When William was shot dead in 1584, by Balthazar Gerards in the hall of the Prinsenhof, therefore, he was buried in the Delft Nieuwe Kerk, starting a tradition for the House of Orange that has continued to the present day.
The Delft Explosion, known in history as the Delft Thunderclap, occurred on 12 October 1654 when a gunpowder store exploded, over a hundred people were killed and thousands were wounded. About 30 tonnes of gunpowder were stored in barrels in a magazine in a former Clarissen convent in the Doelenkwartier district, cornelis Soetens, the keeper of the magazine, opened the store to check a sample of the powder and a huge explosion followed. Luckily, many citizens were away, visiting a market in Schiedam or a fair in The Hague, Delft artist Egbert van der Poel painted several pictures of Delft showing the devastation. Historical buildings and other sights of interest include, Oude Kerk, buried here, Piet Hein, Johannes Vermeer, Anthony van Leeuwenhoek. Nieuwe Kerk, constructed between 1381 and 1496 and it contains the Dutch royal familys burial vault, which between funerals is sealed with a 5,000 kg cover stone. A statue of Hugo Grotius made by Franciscus Leonardus Stracké in 1886 and this is the only remaining gate of the old city walls.
The Gemeenlandshuis Delfland, or Huyterhuis, built in 1505, which has housed the Delfland regional water authority since 1645, the Vermeer Centre in the rebuilt Guild house of St. Luke. Windmill De Roos, a mill built c.1760. Restored to working order in 2013, another windmill that formerly stood in Delft, Het Fortuyn, was dismantled in 1917 and re-erected at the Netherlands Open Air Museum, Gelderland in 1920. Delft is well known for the Delft pottery ceramic products which were styled on the imported Chinese porcelain of the 17th century, the city had an early start in this area since it was a home port of the Dutch East India Company. It can still be seen at the pottery factories De Koninklijke Porceleyne Fles, the painter Johannes Vermeer was born in Delft
Royal Dutch Mint
The Royal Dutch Mint based in Utrecht, the Netherlands, is a company owned entirely by the Dutch State, and since 1807 the only Dutch entity allowed to strike and issue coins. On 17 September 1806, when The Netherlands were under the rule of King Louis Napoleon, he decided that the striking and distribution of coins should be by a single, national body. Originally it was the intention to found the mint in the city of Amsterdam but, since there was insufficient finance available. After Napoleon was defeated in 1813, and the Kingdom of the Netherlands was founded with William I as King, what is now known as Belgium was a part of the new kingdom, and a second Mint was located in Brussels. When Belgium achieved independence in 1839, the Rijks Munt became the mint in the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The provincial coins had been minted before the unification of the Mint were still in circulation, due to their relatively high intrinsic value, the new coins would only gain popularity with the passage of time.
In 1849 the provincial coins were taken out of circulation. In 1901 the company was placed under the supervision of the Ministry of Finance, at the end of the German occupation during the Second World War, in 1944, coins were produced in the United States. This was necessary to ensure there would be enough currency available after the liberation. In 1994 s Rijks Munt was renamed as De Nederlandse Munt NV and it became a company, 100% of whose shares are owned by the Dutch State. The Queen awarded the company the prefix Koninklijk five years later, on 22 November 2016 the Royal Dutch Mint was sold to the Belgian Groep Heylen. Since 2002 the Royal Dutch Mint has been allowed to strike coins for foreign banks in the euro zone. Furthermore, the Dutch Royal Mint produces commemorative coins and coins intended for collectors, the Royal Dutch Mint was delegated the task of destroying the old guilders after their replacement by the euro in 2002. Elaborating about the Royal Dutch Mint
Girl Interrupted at Her Music
Girl Interrupted at Her Music is a painting by the Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer. It was painted in the style, probably between the years 1658 and 1659, using oil on canvas. In this painting, Vermeer depicts a woman at her music with an older gentleman. This painting shows the typical courtship during the 17th century in Europe and it focuses on the importance of music when it comes to love. The room that they are shown in is one of higher class, the painting is very reminiscent of Vermeer’s other works. The wine glass, discreetly shown on the table behind the songbook, is tied with both joyfulness and seduction, in the 17th century it was popular to paint scenes that depicted feasts that included drinking and playing music. Later on, these large gatherings became smaller and more exclusive with two or three people shown, drinking wine was associated with love during this time period. You can see that the glass is full and untouched, which symbolizes the slow moving relationship between the man and the woman, on the left side of the painting is a multi-paned window, from which the light source is provided for the scene.
Vermeer used the same design in eight of his other works. Some experts questioned whether this painting was by Vermeer, the precision of the lighting from the window was thought to prove that it was in fact an original Vermeer. The chairs depicted in the painting are thought to have been from Spain and they are some of the few objects in the painting that were not damaged by heavy restoration. You can see the minute details including the lion head carving, the studs. The hazy painting in the background of the scene is of Cupid, the painting within a painting was discovered after its restoration in 1907, it had been covered up by a wall and a hanging violin. The reason for Vermeer including the miniature Cupid painting may never be revealed due to the damaged condition. On the table sits a vase made of porcelain and silver, one of the main centers for porcelain in the Netherlands was and still is Delft, although they had limited success in recreating Chinese porcelain. The man in the painting is likely upper class, due to his fashionable attire and music often went hand in hand in the 17th century, especially with the presence of a musical duet between a man and a woman.
Playing music with one another was one of the few activities where young people of the opposite sex could socialize. The two in the painting were likely part of the bourgeoisie, which meant that they were worldly and educated when it came to music
He is considered by critics and writers to be one of the most influential authors of the 20th century. Proust was born in Auteuil at the home of his great-uncle on 10 July 1871 and he was born during the violence that surrounded the suppression of the Paris Commune, and his childhood corresponded with the consolidation of the French Third Republic. Prousts father, Adrien Proust, was a prominent pathologist and epidemiologist, studying cholera in Europe and he wrote numerous articles and books on medicine and hygiene. Prousts mother, Jeanne Clémence Weil, was the daughter of a wealthy Jewish family from Alsace and well-read, she demonstrated a well-developed sense of humour in her letters, and her command of English was sufficient to help with her sons translations of John Ruskin. Proust was raised in his fathers Catholic faith and he was baptized and confirmed as a Catholic, but he never formally practiced that faith. He became an atheist and was somewhat of a mystic, by the age of nine, Proust had had his first serious asthma attack, and thereafter he was considered a sickly child.
Proust spent long holidays in the village of Illiers, in 1882, at the age of eleven, Proust became a pupil at the Lycée Condorcet, but his education was disrupted by his illness. Despite this he excelled in literature, receiving an award in his final year, thanks to his classmates, he was able to gain access to some of the salons of the upper bourgeoisie, providing him with copious material for In Search of Lost Time. As a young man, Proust was a dilettante and a social climber whose aspirations as a writer were hampered by his lack of self-discipline. His reputation from this period, as a snob and an amateur, contributed to his troubles with getting Swanns Way. It is through Mme Arman de Caillavet that he made the acquaintance of Anatole France, Proust had a close relationship with his mother. To appease his father, who insisted that he pursue a career, after exerting considerable effort, he obtained a sick leave that extended for several years until he was considered to have resigned. He never worked at his job, and he did not move from his parents apartment until after both were dead and his life and family circle changed markedly between 1900 and 1905.
In February 1903, Prousts brother, Robert Proust and his father died in November of the same year. Finally, and most crushingly, Prousts beloved mother died in September 1905 and she left him a considerable inheritance. His health throughout this period continued to deteriorate, Proust spent the last three years of his life mostly confined to his bedroom, sleeping during the day and working at night to complete his novel. He died of pneumonia and an abscess in 1922. He was buried in the Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris, Proust was involved in writing and publishing from an early age
Girl with a Flute
Girl with a Flute is a small painting attributed to the Dutch Golden Age painter Johannes Vermeer, executed 1665–1670. The work is in possession of the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D. C. just as Woman Holding a Balance, A Lady Writing a Letter and it is contested whether the painting can be attributed to Johannes Vermeer. Possibly another painter finished the painting after a start by Vermeer. The composition is comparable to Girl with a Red Hat, the other work Vermeer painted on panel. Just like Girl with a Red Hat and Girl with a Pearl Earring the model wears a glass, Girl with a Flute is a so-called tronie, a study of a remarkable facial expression or a stock character in costume. This was a genre in Dutch Golden Age painting. Tronies were produced for the market, not for specific patrons. Unlike with portraits the models were always anonymous, Girl with a Flute was in possession of the family of Pieter van Ruijven and was sold at the 1696 Dissius auction in Amsterdam. The work was one of the three tronies with catalogue numbers 38,39 and 40.
In the 19th century the painting was owned by the Van Son family in Brabant, in 1923 the American art collector Joseph E. Widener bought the painting. Widener donated his extensive and valuable art collection in 1939 to the National Gallery of Art, een biografie van Johannes Vermeer Amsterdam, Uitgeverij Bert Bakker Wheelock, Arthur K. Vermeer, The Complete Works. New York, Harry N. Abrams National Gallery of Art Essential Vermeer
The Mauritshuis is an art museum in The Hague in the Netherlands. The museum houses the Royal Cabinet of Paintings which consists of 841 objects, the collections contains works by Johannes Vermeer, Rembrandt van Rijn, Jan Steen, Paulus Potter, Frans Hals, Jacob van Ruisdael, Hans Holbein the Younger, and others. Originally, the 17th century building was the residence of count John Maurice of Nassau and it is now the property of the government of the Netherlands and is listed in the top 100 Dutch heritage sites. On the plot, the Mauritshuis was built between 1636 and 1641, during John Maurices governorship of Dutch Brazil, the Dutch Classicist building was designed by the Dutch architects Jacob van Campen and Pieter Post. The two-storey building is symmetrical and contained four apartments and a great hall. Each apartment was designed with an antechamber, a chamber, a cabinet, the building had a cupola, which was destroyed in a fire in 1704. After the death of Prince John Maurice in 1679, the house was owned by the Maes family, in 1704, most of the interior of the Mauritshuis was destroyed by fire.
The building was restored between 1708 and 1718, in 1820, the Mauritshuis was bought by the Dutch state for the purpose of housing the Royal Cabinet of Paintings. In 1822, the Mauritshuis was opened to the public and housed the Royal Cabinet of Paintings, in 1875, the entire museum became available for paintings. The Mauritshuis was privatised in 1995, the foundation set up at that time took charge of both the building and the collection, which it was given on long-term loan. This building, which is the property of the state, is rented by the museum, in 2007, the museum announced its desire to expand. In 2010, the design was presented. The museum would occupy a part of the nearby Sociëteit de Witte building, the two buildings would be connected via an underground tunnel, running underneath the Korte Vijverberg. The renovation started in 2012 and finished in 2014, during the renovation, about 100 of the museums paintings were displayed in the Gemeentemuseum in the Highlights Mauritshuis exhibition.
About 50 other paintings, including the Girl With the Pearl Earring, were on loan to exhibitions in the United States, the museum was reopened on 27 June 2014 by King Willem-Alexander. The collection of paintings of stadtholder William V, Prince of Orange was presented to the Dutch state by his son and this collection formed the basis of the Royal Cabinet of Paintings of around 200 paintings. The collection is called the Royal Picture Gallery. There are works of Hans Holbein in the collection in the Mauritshuis, the Mauritshuis was state museum until 1995, when it became independent
The Hague is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands, and the capital city of the province of South Holland. With a population of 520,704 inhabitants and more than one million including the suburbs, it is the third-largest city of the Netherlands. The Rotterdam The Hague Metropolitan Area, with a population of approximately 2.7 million, is the 12th-largest in the European Union and the most populous in the country. Located in the west of the Netherlands, The Hague is in the centre of the Haaglanden conurbation and lies at the southwest corner of the larger Randstad conurbation. The Hague is the seat of the Dutch government, the Supreme Court, and the Council of State, but the city is not the capital of the Netherlands, which constitutionally is Amsterdam. King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands plans to live at Huis ten Bosch and works at Noordeinde Palace in The Hague, the Hague is home to the world headquarters of Royal Dutch Shell and numerous other major Dutch companies. The Hague originated around 1230, when Count Floris IV of Holland purchased land alongside a pond, in 1248, his son and successor William II, King of the Romans, decided to extend the residence to a palace, which would be called the Binnenhof.
He died in 1256 before this palace was completed but parts of it were finished by his son Floris V, of which the Ridderzaal and it is still used for political events, such as the annual speech from the throne by the Dutch monarch. From the 13th century onwards, the counts of Holland used The Hague as their administrative centre, the village that originated around the Binnenhof was first mentioned as Haga in a charter dating from 1242. In the 15th century, the smarter des Graven hage came into use, literally The Counts Wood, with connotations like The Counts Hedge, s-Gravenhage was officially used for the city from the 17th century onwards. Today, this name is used in some official documents like birth. The city itself uses Den Haag in all its communication and their seat was located in The Hague. At the beginning of the Eighty Years War, the absence of city walls proved disastrous, in 1575, the States of Holland even considered demolishing the city but this proposal was abandoned, after mediation by William of Orange.
From 1588, The Hague became the seat of the government of the Dutch Republic, in order for the administration to maintain control over city matters, The Hague never received official city status, although it did have many of the privileges normally granted only to cities. In modern administrative law, city rights have no place anymore, only in 1806, when the Kingdom of Holland was a puppet state of the First French Empire, was the settlement granted city rights by Louis Bonaparte. After the Napoleonic Wars, modern-day Belgium and the Netherlands were combined in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands to form a buffer against France, as a compromise and Amsterdam alternated as capital every two years, with the government remaining in The Hague. After the separation of Belgium in 1830, Amsterdam remained the capital of the Netherlands, when the government started to play a more prominent role in Dutch society after 1850, The Hague quickly expanded. The growing city annexed the rural municipality of Loosduinen partly in 1903, the city sustained heavy damage during World War II
The surroundings of the projected image have to be relatively dark for the image to be clear, so many historical camera obscura experiments were performed in dark rooms. The term camera obscura refers to constructions or devices that use of the principle within a box. Camerae obscurae with a lens in the opening have been used since the second half of the 16th century, before the term camera obscura was first used in 1604, many other expressions were used including cubiculum obscurum, cubiculum tenebricosum, conclave obscurum and locus obscurus. Rays of light travel in straight lines and change when they are reflected and partly absorbed by an object, retaining information about the color, lit objects reflect rays of light in all directions. The human eye itself works much like a camera obscura with an opening, a biconvex lens, a camera obscura device consists of a box, tent or room with a small hole in one side. Light from a scene passes through the hole and strikes a surface inside, where the scene is reproduced and reversed.
The image can be projected onto paper, and can be traced to produce an accurate representation. In order to produce a reasonably clear projected image, the aperture has to be about 1/100th the distance to the screen, many camerae obscurae use a lens rather than a pinhole because it allows a larger aperture, giving a usable brightness while maintaining focus. As the pinhole is made smaller, the image gets sharper, with too small a pinhole, the sharpness worsens, due to diffraction. Using mirrors, as in an 18th-century overhead version, it is possible to project a right-side-up image, another more portable type is a box with an angled mirror projecting onto tracing paper placed on the glass top, the image being upright as viewed from the back. There are theories that occurrences of camera obscura effects inspired paleolithic cave paintings and it is suggested that camera obscura projections could have played a role in Neolithic structures. Perforated gnomons projecting an image of the sun were described in the Chinese Zhoubi Suanjing writings.
The location of the circle can be measured to tell the time of day. In Arab and European cultures its invention was attributed to Egyptian astronomer. Some ancient sightings of gods and spirits, especially in worship, are thought to possibly have been conjured up by means of camera obscura projections. In these writings it is explained how the image in a collecting-point or treasure house is inverted by an intersecting point that collected the light. Light coming from the foot of a person would partly be hidden below. Rays from the head would partly be hidden above and partly form the part of the image
Johannes, Jan or Johan Vermeer was a Dutch painter who specialized in domestic interior scenes of middle-class life. Vermeer was a successful provincial genre painter in his lifetime. He evidently was not wealthy, leaving his wife and children in debt at his death, Vermeer worked slowly and with great care, and frequently used very expensive pigments. He is particularly renowned for his treatment and use of light in his work. Vermeer painted mostly domestic interior scenes and he was recognized during his lifetime in Delft and The Hague, but his modest celebrity gave way to obscurity after his death. He was barely mentioned in Arnold Houbrakens major source book on 17th-century Dutch painting, since that time, Vermeers reputation has grown, and he is now acknowledged as one of the greatest painters of the Dutch Golden Age. Relatively little was known about Vermeers life until recently and he seems to have been devoted exclusively to his art, living out his life in the city of Delft. Until the 19th century, the sources of information were some registers, a few official documents.
John Michael Montias added details on the family from the city archives of Delft in his Artists and Artisans in Delft, Johannes Vermeer was baptized in the Reformed Church on 31 October 1632. His father Reijnier Janszoon was a worker of silk or caffa. As an apprentice in Amsterdam, Reijnier lived on fashionable Sint Antoniesbreestraat, in 1615, he married Digna Baltus. The couple moved to Delft and had a daughter named Geertruy who was baptized in 1620, in 1625, Reijnier was involved in a fight with a soldier named Willem van Bylandt who died from his wounds five months later. Around this time, Reijnier began dealing in paintings, in 1631, he leased an inn, which he called The Flying Fox. In 1635, he lived on Voldersgracht 25 or 26, in 1641, he bought a larger inn on the market square, named after the Flemish town Mechelen. The acquisition of the inn constituted a financial burden. When Vermeers father died in October 1652, Vermeer took over the operation of the art business. In April 1653, Johannes Reijniersz Vermeer married a Catholic girl, the blessing took place in the quiet nearby village of Schipluiden.
Vermeers new mother-in-law Maria Thins was significantly wealthier than he, according to art historian Walter Liedtke, Vermeers conversion seems to have been made with conviction