Public transport timetable
A public transport timetable is a document setting out information on service times, to assist passengers with planning a trip. Typically, the timetable will list the times when a service is scheduled to arrive at and it may show all movements at a particular location or all movements on a particular route or for a particular stop. Traditionally this information was provided in printed form, for example as a leaflet or poster and it is now often available in a variety of electronic formats. A timetable may refer to the information in abstract form, not specifically published. A new timetable has been introduced, the first compilation of railway timetables in the United Kingdom was produced in 1839 by George Bradshaw. e. Greenwich Mean Time, which replaced solar time, the European Rail Timetable, a compendium of the schedules of major European railway services, has been in publication since 1873. Originally, and for most of its history, it was published by Thomas Cook & Son, although Thomas Cook Group plc ceased publication in 2013, the Thomas Cook European Rail Timetable was revived by a new company in early 2014 as simply the European Rail Timetable.
From 1981 to 2010, Cook produced a similar bi-monthly Overseas volume covering the rest of the world, many timetables comprise tables with services shown in columns, and stations or stops on the rows of the table. There will often be separate tables for each direction of travel, generally the times shown against each station or stop will be the departure time, except for the last stop of the service which will be the arrival time. The left hand column will list the stations in order. If the service is scheduled to wait, both arrival and departure times might be shown on consecutive rows, if a slow service is overtaken by a fast service, the slow service will often occupy more than one column, to keep the times in order. There may be additional rows showing connecting services, times are usually shown using the 24-hour clock, but often in the United States and occasionally in the United Kingdom the 12-hour clock is used, with am/A or pm/P added. If services run at the same minutes past each hour for part of the day, Timetables with services arranged in rows of tables and stops or stations in columns are less common but otherwise similar to timetables with services in columns.
Some timetables, particularly at railway stations and bus stops, list the times that services depart from that location, sometimes other information such as destinations. Again, there may be separate lists for different days of the week, there may be a separate list for each line/direction, or a combined chronological list. In parts of mainland Europe train departures are listed on a yellow poster and these posters are placed at entrances to stations and on platforms. Dynamic electronic displays in stations may be at a place and list the next few departures for each line. Displays on platforms usually just show the departure from that platform
A compartment coach is a railway passenger coach divided into separate areas or compartments, with no means of moving between compartments. The compartment coach was developed at the beginning of the railway era in England simply by placing a post coach body on a railway undercarriage. Compartment coaches were used across almost the whole of Europe and were right up to the 1930s. On the European continent they were referred to as English coaches or coaches built to the English system. A corridor coach has covered gangways, side entrances and partitioned compartments with a corridor down one side, the first compartment coaches in the 19th century comprised several cabins on one undercarriage, similar to the post coaches. Compartment coaches with doors for each compartment, without any connexion between compartments, were built up to the end of the 20th century, countless four-, six- and eight-wheeled vehicles of this type were used in Germany and especially by the Prussian state railways. Until about 1880, four-wheeled compartment coaches were typical, after the end of the wave of nationalisations the Prussian state railways, around 1895, acquired the quieter-running six-wheelers.
For this, so-called norms were established for four-, six- and, for the six-wheelers, both fixed axle and sliding axle designs were envisaged. Those coaches designed specifically for suburban traffic had no toilets, on the other coaches, a gangway was specified in order to keep the number of toilets to a minimum for economic reasons. Numerous coaches had therefore to be converted, after the end of the 19th century, fourth class compartment coaches were procured. Four- and six-wheeled compartment coaches were used in all train categories on main lines. With the advent of the D-Zug express coaches in 1892, compartment coaches were deployed in passenger trains on main lines, so ticket checking by the guard became a function of station staff. By contrast, open coaches were common on branch lines, because there were often no platform barriers on branch line stations, from 1895, especially in Prussia and Saxony, eight-wheeled compartment coaches were built. They were predominantly used in the semi-fast trains or Eilzüge introduced in 1907, over 3,500 coaches were built in several batches starting in 1818.
The compartments in the coaches were sometimes linked to provide access to the toilets, in third class coaches the privies lacked flushing facilities until some time later. Initially the window frames on compartment coaches - like the bodies themselves - were made of wood. After 1900 they were made of a brass alloy based on a patent by the Julius Pintsch AG firm, the upper part of the window frame on these coaches was rounded. From 1910 the former lighting was replaced by more efficient gas lighting
On a steam locomotive, a driving wheel is a powered wheel which is driven by the locomotives pistons. On diesel and electric locomotives, the wheels may be directly driven by the traction motors. Coupling rods are not usually used, and it is common for each axle to have its own motor. Jackshaft drive and coupling rods were used in the past but their use is now confined to shunting locomotives, on an articulated locomotive or a duplex locomotive, driving wheels are grouped into sets which are linked together within the set
The 4-6-2 locomotive became almost globally known as a Pacific type. The introduction of the 4-6-2 design in 1901 has been described as a milestone in locomotive progress. Nevertheless, new Pacific designs continued to be built until the mid-1950s, the type is well-suited to high speed running. The world speed record for steam traction of 126 miles per hour has been held by a British Pacific locomotive, the two earliest 4-6-2 locomotives, both created in the United States of America, were experimental designs which were not perpetuated. In 1889, the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway rebuilt a conventional 4-6-0 with trailing wheels as a means of reducing its axle load, in 1896, six Q class 4-6-2 tank locomotives were introduced on the Western Australian Government Railways. Even before Baldwin had completed the order from New Zealand, their engineers realised the advantages of the new type, the design was soon widely adopted by designers throughout the world. There are different opinions concerning the origin of the name Pacific, the design was a natural enlargement of the existing Baldwin 4-4-2 Atlantic type, but the type name may be in recognition of the fact that a New Zealand designer had first proposed it.
Usually, new arrangements were named for, or named by. In the case of the Pacific, that was the Missouri Pacific Railroad in 1902, the Pacific type was used on mainline railways around the world. During the first half of the 20th century, the Pacific rapidly became the predominant passenger steam power in North America, between 1902 and 1930, about 6,800 locomotives of the type were built by North American manufacturers for service in the United States and Canada. With exported locomotives included, about 7,300 were built in total, about 45% of these were built by the American Locomotive Company which became the main builder of the type, and 28% by Baldwin. Large numbers were used in South America, most of which were supplied by manufacturers in the United Kingdom. Africa was the continent upon which the Pacific was regularly used. The earliest African examples were built in the United Kingdom by Kitson, within a few weeks, these were followed by a German Pacific type that, although already designed in 1905, only entered service in late 1907.
The next was a British type, introduced in January 1908, by the outbreak of the First World War, the type was being widely used on the railways of Continental Europe. The Pacific type was introduced into Asia in 1907, the year that it was first used in Europe. By the 1920s, Pacifics were being used by many throughout the Asian continent. In 1923, the Pacific gave its name to Arthur Honeggers orchestral work, Pacific 231, during the first two decades of the 20th century, the Pacific wheel arrangement enjoyed limited popularity on tank locomotives
Corning train wreck
At 3,50 a. m. freight train No.393 left Elmira with 55 loaded cars, it experienced steaming problems and at 4,46 a. m. and pulled into a siding at East Corning freight station to investigate. As it was doing so a coupling broke, leaving several cars on the main line, the line operated Automatic Block Signals, the presence of a train in the block section automatically setting the preceding semaphore signals, the first to caution, the next to danger. In addition as it was foggy the flagman placed two torpedoes on the line to protect the rear of the train. Passenger train No.9 running from Hoboken, New Jersey, to Buffalo and Niagara Falls left Elmira at 4,47 and it heeded the signals and came to a halt behind the disabled freight train. The engineer of No.9 decided to assist the freight train, train No.11, an eight car mail express pulled by a Wootten-type engine, travelling from Hoboken to Buffalo, departed Elmira at 5,00 a. m. For some reason the engineer, William Schroeder, ignored two signals, one at caution and one at danger and plowed into the back of No.9 at a speed of 60 mph.
All but two of the express cars were derailed and whiplashed, bringing down the telegraph poles on both sides of the track, meaning it was an hour before news of the disaster reached Corning. Meanwhile, hordes of spectators gathered hampering subsequent access by medical, a special relief train arrived from Elmira at 7 a. m. carrying doctors and nurses, but by 9 a. m. injured were still trapped in the wreckage. The inquest heard that engineer Schroeder had appeared drunk the morning of the accident at 12,30 a. m, moreover, he was late for work that morning, appearing only after two men had been sent to rouse him. Schroeder denied being drunk, stating that he had drunk two gins as medicine, the inquest completed on July 17,1912, acquitting the Lackawanna Railroad but holding engineer Schroeder responsible for the crash. The ICC investigation, published on July 30,1912, centered on why No.11 failed to stop, a member of the New York Public Service Commission stated The railroad rules are very strict.
The engineers are required to know the location of every signal and that is part of their business. It is their duty to observe every signal, if for any reason, they cannot or do not see it as the passes, it is their duty to regard it as a danger signal. The investigation criticized the flagman from No,9, as unlike the flagman from the freight train, he failed to deploy torpedoes on the track. But as well as attributing blame to individuals the investigation made a number of recommendations, the regulations guiding the use of torpedoes should be clarified as they rely too greatly on the judgment of rail staff. Corning Engineer Blamed, New York Times, July 6,1912 DL&W Engineer Indicted, New York Times, September 28,1912
Wellington was a small unincorporated community and railroad community on the Great Northern Railway in northeastern King County, Washington. Founded in 1893, it was located at the west portal of the original Cascade Tunnel under Stevens Pass and it is infamous for being the site of the March 1,1910 Wellington avalanche, the worst avalanche in United States history, in which 96 people died. After the disaster, the name was changed to Tye, after the nearby Tye River. Tye was abandoned in 1929 when the second Cascade Tunnel came into use and this ghost town went on to have an elementary school built and named after it. Wellington Elementary is a school in the Northshore School District. The Wellington avalanche was the worst avalanche, measured in terms of lives lost, for nine days at the end of February 1910, the little town of Wellington, Washington was assailed by a terrible blizzard. Wellington was a Great Northern Railway stop high in the Cascades, on the west side of the old Cascade Tunnel, as much as a foot of snow fell every hour, and, on the worst day,11 feet of snow fell.
Two trains, a train and a mail train, both bound from Spokane to Seattle, were trapped in the depot. Late on February 28, the stopped and was replaced by rain. Just after 1 a. m. on March 1, as a result of a lightning strike, a ten-foot high mass of snow, half a mile long and a quarter of a mile wide, fell toward the town. A forest fire had ravaged the slopes above the town. The avalanche missed the Bailets Hotel, but hit the railroad depot, most of the passengers and crew were asleep aboard their trains. The impact threw the trains 150 feet downhill and into the Tye River valley, ninety six people were killed, including 35 passengers,58 Great Northern employees on the trains, and three railroad employees in the depot. Twenty-three passengers survived, they were pulled from the wreckage by railroad employees who immediately rushed from the hotel, the work was soon abandoned, it was not until 21 weeks later, during late July, that it was possible for the last of the bodies to be retrieved. This was not the only avalanche in the region that winter, three days later,63 railroad workers were killed in an avalanche nearby in British Columbia.
Wellington was quietly renamed Tye during October 1910 because of the unpleasant associations of the old name, in the same month, the Great Northern Railway began construction of concrete snow sheds to shelter the nearby tracks. The Wellington depot was closed when the second Cascade Tunnel was completed during 1929, the town was abandoned and it eventually burned. Gary Sherman and Catastrophe, The Triumph and Tragedy of the Great Northern Railway Through Stevens Pass, train disaster at Wellington kills 96 on March 1,1910
A train dispatcher is employed by a railroad to direct and facilitate the movement of trains over an assigned territory, which is usually part, or all, of a railroad operating division. The dispatcher is responsible for cost effective movement of trains and other railroad equipment to optimize physical. From that beginning, a system of train dispatching evolved, Train orders supplemented the timetable and the rule book. Experienced train dispatchers learned the idiosyncrasies of the engineers and train conductors. Initially, train dispatchers issued train orders using American Morse code over telegraph wires, the last train order known to have been issued using Morse code was copied at Whitehall, Montana, on May 6,1982, on the Burlington Northern Railroad. Beginning before World War II and accelerating after it, most major railroads installed centralized traffic control systems to train movements. Using CTC, a train dispatcher could align track switches anywhere on the territory so that trains could move into and out of sidings without having to stop, the train dispatcher could control the trackside signals governing the movement of trains.
Two-way radios enabled train dispatchers to communicate directly with train and engine crews and these capabilities eliminated the need for most train orders, but still required the oversight of a train dispatcher. Australia - In Australia they are known as Train Controllers, the exceptions being privately operated Railways such as the ones found in the Pilbara region. The mining giants BHP Billiton, Rio Tinto, Fortesque Metals Group and now Roy Hill all operate their own Railways from Remote Operation Centres, Canada - In Canada the train dispatcher is known as the Rail Traffic Controller. The two biggest employers of Rail Traffic Controller are Canadian National Railway and Canadian Pacific, New Zealand - In New Zealand a Dispatcher is known as a Train Controller the same as in Australia. NZRail recently centralised all Train Control into a single Control centre located in the National Capital of Wellington on southern end of the North Island, vince Coleman American Train Dispatchers Association List of railway industry occupations Association of American Railroads Standard Book of Rules,1926 edition.
Association of American Railroads Consolidated Code of Operating Rules,1967 edition
Firefighting is the act of attempting to prevent the spread of and extinguish significant unwanted fires in buildings, woodland, etc. A firefighter suppresses and extinguishes fires to protect lives and to prevent the destruction of property, firefighters may provide other services to their communities. Additional hazards include falls and structural collapse that can exacerbate the problems entailed in a toxic environment, to combat some of these risks, firefighters carry self-contained breathing equipment. The first step in an operation is reconnaissance to search for the origin of the fire, to identify the specific risks. Fires can be extinguished by water, fuel or oxidant removal, the earliest known firefighters were in the city of Rome. In 60 A. D. emperor Nero established a Corps of Vigils to protect Rome after a disastrous fire and it consisted of 7,000 people equipped with buckets and axes, and they fought fires and served as police. In the 4th century B. C. an Alexandrian Greek named Ctesibius made a force pump called a siphona.
As water rose in the chamber, it compressed the air inside, in the 16th century, syringes were used as firefighting tools, the larger ones being mounted on wheels. Another traditional method that survived was the brigade, involving two lines of people formed between the water source and the fire. Typically, men in one of the lines would pass along the full buckets of water toward the fire while in the other women and children would pass back the empty buckets to be refilled. In the 17th century, fire engines were made, notably in Amsterdam, ancient Rome did not have municipal firefighters. Instead, private individuals relied on their slaves or supporters to take action and they would not only form bucket brigades or attempt to smother smaller fires, but would demolish or raze nearby buildings to slow the spread of the fire. However, there is no mention of fires being extinguished, rather they were contained and burned themselves out, ancient Rome did not have an organized firefighting force until the Vigiles were formed in the reign of Augustus.
Prior to the Great Fire of London in 1666, some parishes in the UK had begun to organize rudimentary firefighting, after the Great Fire, Nicholas Barbon introduced the first fire insurance. In order to reduce costs, Barbon formed his own fire brigade. By the start of the 1800s, insured buildings were identified with a badge or mark, in 1833, these companies in London merged to form The London Fire Company Establishment. In World War II, the Auxiliary Fire Service and the National Fire Service were established to supplement local fire services, at that time, there was no countrywide standard for firefighting terms, ranks, or equipment. These were standardized after World War II, in January 1608, a fire destroyed many of the colonists provisions and lodgings in Jamestown, Virginia
Danish Railway Museum
The Danish Railway Museum is the national railway museum of Denmark, located in the city of Odense. Established in 1975, it is situated in an engine shed adjacent to the citys main railway station. It is the largest railway museum in Scandinavia, covering 10,000 square metres, it contains some 50 locomotives and railway carriages on 20 railtracks from all periods of Danish rail history, plus some original buildings of Danish railways. In school holidays, the museum runs a live steam-hauled train on a short section of track. These usually consist of a Class Hs loco and two carriages, DSB List of museums in Denmark Official website
Express trains are a form of rail service. Express trains make only a number of stops, instead of stopping locally. In some cases, trains run express where there is overlapping local train service available, and run local at the ends of the line. During overnight hours, or other times where it is practical, express trains may become local, while widely implemented in long-distance rail service, it has proven successful in the planning of some rapid transit systems. A large portion of the New York City Subway has a 4-track layout, several variations of express services are a feature in major Japanese railways, and on line 1 of the Seoul Metro
Valby is one of the 10 official districts of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is in the corner of Copenhagen Municipality, and has a mixture of different types of housing. Valby Hill marks the boundary between Valby and the — more central and more urban — neighbouring Vesterbro district, the expression west of Valby Hill is in Danish often used as a metonym for the provinces or outside Copenhagen. With the progressing redevelopment of the Carlsberg area into a new lively, high-density neighbourhood, other former industrial sites are under redevelopment and Valby is today one of the districts in Copenhagen with the fastest growing population. Valby covers an area of 9.23 km² and has a population of 46,161, the most distinctive geographical features of the district are Valby Hill in its north-eastern corner and Harrestrup Å which marks its western boundary. Valby borders on Damhus Lake in its extreme north-western corner, the Danshøj tumulus, along with many other archeological finds in the area, provides evidence that the Valby area has been inhabited since ancient times.
Modern Valby has developed around the two villages of Valby and Vigerslev, the first recorded mention of the name Valby is from 1186, as Walbu, but the history of both settlements probably goes back considerably longer. Valby means village/house on the plain, in the early Middle Ages both villages came under Utterslev, a Crown estate which included most of the area around Havn, the small market town which became Copenhagen. In 1682, Valby had 13 farms and 25 houses with no more land than a modest garden, at the time, the Valby community did not have its own church but instead, since 1628, belonged to Hvidovre Parish. In 1675, Hvidovre Church was extended with a Valby nave, in the 17th century, the road to Roskilde was taken through Valby and an inn opened. The first holder of the license was Hans Pedersen Bladt, a merchant who was elected mayor of Copenhagen in 1675. Valby profited from the proximity of Frederiksberg Palace which was constructed from 1699 to 1703 atop Valby Hill as a new residence for King Frederick IV.
The royal presence in the area brought along more activity in the village and it is said that Queen Marie Sophie, consort of King Frederick VI, often rode through Valby, handing out candy to the children. In 1721, the granted the community new trading privileges and a Rytterskole. Valby became particularly associated with raising poultry which the Valby women sold beside the Caritas Well on Gammeltorv in Copenhagen, the trade took place on Wednesdays and Saturdays, which were market days, until 1857. Instead Valby began to develop into an area where members of the bourgeoisie took up summer residency, one of the first to arrive in Valby proper was the actor James Price who spent his first summer there in 1795, shortly after his arrival in Denmark. He was followed by members of the bourgeoisie. When the first railway out of Copenhagen opened in 1847, a 30 km rail line to Roskilde, it had an intermediate station slightly east of where Valby station lies today