Chelles is a commune in the eastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located in the Seine-et-Marne department in the Île-de-France region 18 km from the center of Paris. Paleolithic artifacts were discovered by chance at Chelles by the pioneering nineteenth-century anthropologist Louis Laurent Gabriel de Mortillet. At the Merovingian villa of Calae the abbey of Notre-Dame-des-Chelles was founded by Balthild, a seventh-century queen of the Franks, it was demolished at the time of the French Revolution. There are two main streets in Avenue Foch and Avenue de la Résistance; the inhabitants are called Chellois. Chelles is served by Chelles – Gournay station on Paris RER line and on the Transilien Paris – Est suburban rail line; as of 2016 the commune has 13,000 students in 46 private schools. The commune includes 16 public elementary schools. There are also: Four public junior high schools: Collège Beau soleil, Collège Corot, Collège de l’Europe, Collège Weczerka - Beau Soleil and de l'Europe have Enseignement Général Professionnel Adapté programmes Three public senior high schools/sixth-form colleges, Lycée Gaston Bachelard, Lycée Professionnel Louis Lumière, Lycée Jehan de Chelles One private school - Institution Gasnier Guy, with private preschool and elementary school, junior high school, senior high school divisionsChelles includes a library, Bibliothèque Olympe de Gouges, a media centre, Médiathèque Jean-Pierre Vernant.
The commune includes the Musée Alfred-Bonno. There is a public swimming pool, a public skate park which opened in 1999. Chelles is town twinned with the city of Lindau Communes of the Seine-et-Marne department INSEE Official website 1999 Land Use, from IAURIF French Ministry of Culture list for Chelles Map of Chelles on Michelin
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Argenteuil is a commune in the northwestern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 12.3 km from the center of Paris. Argenteuil is a sub-prefecture of the Val-d'Oise department, the seat of the arrondissement of Argenteuil. Argenteuil is the second most populous commune in the suburbs of Paris and the most populous one in the Val-d'Oise department, although it is not its prefecture, shared between the communes of Cergy and Pontoise. Argenteuil shares borders with communes in 3 departements others than Val d'Oise: the Yvelines, Hauts-de-Seine and Seine-Saint-Denis departements; the name Argenteuil is recorded for the first time in a royal charter of 697 as Argentoialum, from a Latin/Gaulish root argento meaning "silver", "silvery", "shiny" in reference to the gleaming surface of the river Seine, on the banks of which Argenteuil is located, from a Celtic suffix -ialo meaning "clearing, glade" or "place of". Argenteuil was founded as a convent in the 7th century; the monastery that arose from the convent was destroyed during the French Revolution.
A rural escape for Parisians, it is now a suburb of Paris. Painters made Argenteuil famous, including Claude Monet, Jean-Étienne Delacroix, Auguste Renoir, Gustave Caillebotte, Alfred Sisley and Georges Braque. Fabien Ateba, basketball player Franck Beria, footballer Georges Braque, 3 May 1882, Co-founder of cubism and sculptor Ingrid Chauvin, French actress Chevalier d'Argenteuil, French soldier; the French transport system is straightforward to navigate, so Argenteuil is an ideal city where there is an extensive public transport system with stations in Argenteuil and Val d'Argenteuil, where the train stops at Transilien Paris. Saint-Lazare. Since redeveloped by STIF and SNCF, Argenteuil has been equipped with a new Paris-Saint-Lazare-Ermont-Eaubonne line; the new line was launched in 2006, adding the Paris-Saint Lazare / Cormeilles-en-Parisis - Pontoise / Mantes-la-Jolie service to Paris for about ten minutes. By Bus*:361 Gare d'Argenteuil à Gare de Pierrefitte - Stains RER; the commune has: 30 public preschools and one private elementary school with a preschool 26 public and 2 private elementary schools 11 junior high schools - 10 public and 1 private 6 senior high schools/sixth-form colleges:Lycée Georges Braque Lycée Cognacq-Jay Lycée Julie-Victoire Daubié Lycée Jean Jaurès Lycée Fernand et Nadia Léger Ecole nationale des professions de l'automobile Paris 13 University serves as the area university.
The Conservatoire à rayonnement départemental de Musique, Danse et Théâtre is located in Argenteuil. André Bon is one of its former students. By Claude Monet:Autumn at Argenteuil, Regatta at Argenteuil, Red Boats, The Bridge at Argenteuil, The Port at Argenteuil, The Seine at Argenteuil, View of Argenteuil-Snow, Bords de la Seine a Argenteuil, Snow at Argenteuil. By other painters:Argenteuil and Seine near Argenteuil by Édouard Manet, Regatta at Argenteuil by Pierre-Auguste Renoir, The Bridge in Argenteuil by Gustave Caillebotte. Communes of the Val-d'Oise department INSEE Association of Mayors of the Val d’Oise Official website Official facebook
Aubervilliers is a commune in the Seine-Saint-Denis department in the Île-de-France region in the north-eastern suburbs of Paris, France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Albertivillariennes. Aubervilliers is one of three communes in the Plaine Saint-Denis, 7.2 km north-east of the centre of Paris. The Canal Saint-Denis traverses the commune on the western side from north to south. Aubervilliers is a commune close to Paris and has numerous means of transport including: the A86 autoroute from L'Ile-Saint-Denis in the west to Drancy in the east with Exit 9 on the northern border of the commune, Route nationale N301 from Stains in the north and joining the Paris ring road in the south, the D20 from Gennevilliers in the west, the D27 from Bobigny in the east, the D115 from Pantin in the south-east; the Paris ring road is just outside the southern border of the commune and there are two access routes to it: by the Porte d'Aubervilliers and by the Porte de la Villette. These roads provide easy access to the network of roads and motorways around Paris as well as Le Bourget and Charles de Gaulle airports.
The Canal Saint-Denis once had important river ports and there was the Paris-Hirson railway and an industrial railway for Saint-Denis/Aubervilliers which served the Plaine Saint-Denis. The RER railway passes through the north of the commune and the station of Corneuve-Aubervilliers, located just north of the commune on the N301 road, serves Aubervilliers. There are two Metro stations on the south-western border on Avenue Jean-Jaures: Aubervilliers-Pantin-Quatre Chemins at the corner of Ave. de la Republique, Fort d'Aubervilliers at the corner of Ave. de la Division Leclerc. The commune is served by: Paris Métro Line 7: stations Aubervilliers-Pantin-Quatre Chemins and Fort d'Aubervilliers. Par la Paris Métro Line 12 since 18 December 2012 with the opening of the Front Populaire station and in 2017, there will be the Mairie d'Aubervilliers station and the new Aimé Césaire station near the Canal Saint-Denis. Ligne 3b of the Île-de-France tramway since 15 December 2012 with the opening of the Porte d'Aubervilliers located in the Paris area near the commune.
The main quarters or districts of the commune are: Quatre-Chemins. The town is mentioned in the Latinised form Albertivillare in 1059, it is from this. The place name of -villiers is a characteristic appellative for agricultural domains in the Merovingian and Carolingian periods; the first part is the Germanic personal name Adalbertus from which are derived the names Albert and Aubert and became a surname. It is homonymous with a hamlet in Seine-et-Marne and Auberville in Normandy; as with many communes in the outer suburbs the town had long been a rural area. Known as Notre-Dame-des-Vertus, the village was on a plain which produced the best vegetables around Paris. Aubervilliers first appears in the archives in 1059 as Albertivillare, meaning "estate of Adalbert". In the following year Henry I donated it to the Priory of Saint-Martin-des-Champs. In 1111 the serfs were freed in Aubervilliers. In 1182 the priory of Saint-Martin-des-Champs, located in Paris, granted Paris butchers the right to graze their cattle in the fields after the harvest was over.
In 1221, Guillaume Bateste, lord of Franconville, became the first Lord of Vivier les Aubervilliers. The church, which at the beginning of the 13th century depended on one of the parishes of Saint Denis, soon became famous for the miraculous appearance of an image of the Virgin. In 1336 Father Jacques Du Breul, Prior of the Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés, reported the Miracle of the rain: A young girl busy preparing flowers to adorn the statue of the Virgin in the church saw her face streaming with tears when the rain began to fall on the parched crops. In 1338 King Philip VI of France and his queen went to Aubervilliers to visit the image. From 1340 to 1792 people went there in droves each year from Paris and its surroundings. In 1402 Michel de Laillier, Lord of Ermenonville, became Lord of Vivier les Aubervilliers. In 1429 the town was occupied by the English but was retaken by Michel de Laillier in 1436. Louis XI went there in November 1474 to the house of Pierre L’Orfèvre, the new Lord of Vivier from until August 1478.
The image of the Virgin in lead that the king wore on his hat was a representation of the one at Aubervilliers. In 1531 the Lordship of Vivier les Aubervilliers was sold to the Montholon family which held it until 1779; the facade and tower of the church were built in the reign of Henry II. Civil wars which the Armagnacs stirred up in France led to the destruction of the
Ivry-sur-Seine is a commune in the Val-de-Marne department in the southeastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 5.3 km from the center of Paris. Paris's main Asian district, the Quartier Asiatique in the 13th arrondissement, borders the commune and now extends into the northern parts of Ivry. Asian commercial activity Chinese and Vietnamese, has increased in Ivry-sur-Seine during the past two decades; the commune contains one of the highest concentrations of Vietnamese in France, who began settling in the city in the late 1970s after the Vietnam War. Politically, Ivry-sur-Seine has demonstrated strong electoral support for the French Communist Party. Between 1925 and 2015 the office of mayor was held by just three individuals: Georges Marrane, Jacques Laloë, Pierre Gosnat, all members of the Communist Party. Ivry-sur-Seine is twinned with Bishop Auckland in England. Ivry-sur-Seine was called Ivry; the name Ivry comes from Medieval Latin Ivriacum or Ibriacum meaning "estate of Eburius", a Gallo-Roman landowner.
In 1897, the name of the commune became Ivry-sur-Seine, in order to distinguish it from other communes of France called Ivry. On 1 January 1860, the city of Paris was enlarged by annexing neighbouring communes. On that occasion, about a third of the commune of Ivry-sur-Seine was annexed to Paris, now forms the Chinatown area of the 13th arrondissement of Paris. Ivry-sur-Seine is most famous as the place of execution of Jean-Marie Bastien-Thiry in March 1963. Richard Ellman notes that James Joyce's daughter, received psychiatric treatment in the commune's hospital in 1936 and was visited by both Joyce and Samuel Beckett. Fnac has its head office in the commune; the head office moved there in 2008. E. Leclerc's head office is in the commune. Ivry-sur-Seine is served by two railway stations on the Paris Métro Line 7: Pierre et Marie Curie and Mairie d'Ivry; the east of the commune is served by Ivry-sur-Seine station on Paris RER line C with stops at the Bibliothèque Nationale de France and the city centre.
Orly Airport is located to the south of Ivry-sur-Seine. Senior high schools: Collège et lycée Romain Rolland Lycée technique Fernand LégerColleges and universities: ESIEA ESME Sudria École des technologies numériques appliquées Institut polytechnique des sciences avancées IONIS School of Technology and Management As of circa 1998 Ivry and Vitry-sur-Seine had a combined Asian population of 3,600; that year about 250 Asians from those communes worked in the 13th arrondissement of Paris, the overall demographics of Ivry and Vitry Asians were similar to those in the 13th arrondissement. Luc Abalo, handball player Nicolas Appert, spent a number of years in Ivry-sur-Seine Antonin Artaud, died in Ivry-sur-Seine on 4 March 1948. Yohann Auvitu, ice hockey player Souleymane Bamba, footballer Paul Boccara and historian. Pierre-Claude-Victor Boiste and editor of the Dictionnaire universel de la langue française Yannick Bonheur, figure skater Pierre Contant d'Ivry, architect born in Ivry-sur-Seine. Mana Dembele, footballer Jean Ferrat, spent a number of years in Ivry-sur-Seine before settling in Ardèche.
Catherine Ferry, singer Reda Kateb, actor Tripy Makonda, footballer Dany N'Guessan, footballer Jean Renaudie and founder of the Atelier de Montrouge, responsible for the complete renovation of Ivry town centre. Bakary Sako, footballer Antoine Spire and writer. Maurice Thorez, former leader of the French Communist Party, elected deputy for d'Ivry-sur-Seine in 1932 until his death in 1964. Mickael Toti, basketball player Makan Traore, footballer Bano Traore, athlete Communes of the Val-de-Marne department INSEE Mayors of Essonne Association Ivry-sur-Seine city council website
Clichy is a commune in the northwestern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located on 6.4 km from the center of Paris. Located in Clichy are the headquarters of the L'Oréal Group, the world's largest company in cosmetics and beauty; the name Clichy was recorded for the first time in the 6th century as Clippiacum corrupted into Clichiacum, meaning "estate of Cleppius", a Gallo-Roman landowner. In the 13th century, the plain of Clichy was used as a garenne, i.e. a hunting park and game preserve for the exclusive use of the king or a lord. Clichy became known as Clichy-la-Garenne. Between 1793 and 1795, during the French Revolution, Clichy-la-Garenne was renamed Clichy-la-Patriote because the word garenne reminded people of the feudal privileges that the new government abolished in 1789. After the Revolution, the French administration recorded the name of the commune only as Clichy, dropping the "la-Garenne"; this is the term in use in the 21st century. But, in many instances the municipality of Clichy refers to the commune traditionally as Clichy-la-Garenne, although this has not been the official name for more than 200 years.
Clichy was the capital of the Merovingians during the rule of Dagobert I. Its church was built in the 17th century under the direction of St Vincent de Paul, curé of Clichy. In 1830, part of the territory of Clichy became the commune of Batignolles-Monceau. On 1 January 1860, the city of Paris annexed neighboring communes, taking most of Batignolles-Monceau, which now forms the major part of the 17th arrondissement of Paris. A small part of the territory of Batignolles-Monceau was returned to Clichy. On 11 January 1867, part of the territory of Clichy was detached and merged with a part of the territory of Neuilly-sur-Seine to create the commune of Levallois-Perret; the canton covers a part of the commune. Clichy is twinned with: Heidenheim an der Brenz, Baden-Württemberg, since 1959 Sankt Pölten, since 1968 Merthyr Tydfil, United Kingdom since 1980 Santo Tirso, since 1991 Rubí, Spain, since 2005 Southwark, United Kingdom since 2005 Beit Sahour, since 2009 Clichy has cooperation agreements with: Ouakam, Senegal, since 2004 Douala, since 2006 L'Oréal Group has its head office in the Centre Eugène Schueller in Clichy.
In addition, Monoprix has its head office in Clichy. Société Bic has its head office in Clichy. At one time Fnac had its head office in Clichy. In 2008 the head office moved to Ivry-sur-Seine. Clichy is served by Mairie de Clichy station on Paris Métro Line 13, it is served by Clichy – Levallois station on the Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail line. The commune has 22 primary schools, three junior high schools, two senior high schools; the junior highs include: Collège Jean Jaurès Collège Jean Macé Collège Vincent Van GoghThe senior high schools: Lycée Newton Lycée René Auffray Olivier Messiaen, French composer, died here. Henry Miller, American author, lived with Alfred Perlès at 4 avenue Anatole France from 1932 to 1934. Jean-Luc Rougé, 1975 world Judo champion Audrey Bruneau, handball player Carlos, singer Rochel Chery, basketball player Claude Dielna footballer Vincent Doukantie footballer Gwladys Epangue taekwondo Jeremy Helan footballer Julian Jeanvier, footballer Moustapha Keita, footballer Souleymane M'Baye boxer Windsor Noncent footballer Steed Tchicamboud basketball player Jacques Mesrine, French criminal, known as the French Robin Hood Thomas Piketty Economist Communes of the Hauts-de-Seine department INSEE Clichy City Hall Facebook page of Clichy Twitter of Clichy Clichy et la vidéosurveillance
Versailles is a city in the Yvelines département in the Île-de-France region, renowned worldwide for the Château de Versailles and the gardens of Versailles, designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Located in the western suburbs of the French capital, 17.1 km from the centre of Paris, Versailles is in the 21st century a wealthy suburb of Paris with a service-based economy and a major tourist destination as well. According to the 2008 census, the population of the city is 88,641 inhabitants, down from a peak of 94,145 in 1975. A new town founded at the will of King Louis XIV, Versailles was the de facto capital of the Kingdom of France for over a century, from 1682 to 1789, before becoming the cradle of the French Revolution. After having lost its status of royal city, it became the préfecture of the Seine-et-Oise département in 1790 of Yvelines in 1968, it is a Roman Catholic diocese. Versailles is known for numerous treaties such as the Treaty of Paris, which ended the American Revolution, the Treaty of Versailles, after World War I.
Today, the Congress of France – the name given to the body created when both houses of the French Parliament, the National Assembly and the Senate, meet – gathers in the Château de Versailles to vote on revisions to the Constitution. The argument over the etymology of Versailles tends to privilege the Latin word versare, meaning "to keep turning, turn over and over", an expression used in medieval times for plowed lands, cleared lands; this word formation is similar to Latin seminare. During the Revolution of 1789, city officials had proposed to the Convention to rename Versailles Berceau-de-la-Liberté, but they had to retract their proposal when confronted with the objections of the majority of the population. From May 1682, when Louis XIV moved the court and government permanently to Versailles, until his death in September 1715, Versailles was the unofficial capital of the kingdom of France. For the next seven years, during the Régence of Philippe d'Orléans, the royal court of the young King Louis XV was the first in Paris, while the Regent governed from his Parisian residence, the Palais-Royal.
Versailles was again the unofficial capital of France from June 1722, when Louis XV returned to Versailles, until October 1789, when a Parisian mob forced Louis XVI and the royal family to move to Paris. Versailles again became the unofficial capital of France from March 1871, when Adolphe Thiers' government took refuge in Versailles, fleeing the insurrection of the Paris Commune, until November 1879, when the newly elected government and parliament returned to Paris. During the various periods when government affairs were conducted from Versailles, Paris remained the official capital of France. Versailles was made the préfecture of the Seine-et-Oise département at its inception in March 1790. By the 1960s, with the growth of the Paris suburbs, the Seine-et-Oise had reached more than 2 million inhabitants, was deemed too large and ungovernable, thus it was split into three départements in January 1968. Versailles was made the préfecture of the Yvelines département, the largest chunk of the former Seine-et-Oise.
At the 2006 census the Yvelines had 1,395,804 inhabitants. Versailles is the seat of a Roman Catholic diocese, created in 1790; the diocese of Versailles is subordinate to the archdiocese of Paris. In 1975, Versailles was made the seat of a Court of Appeal whose jurisdiction covers the western suburbs of Paris. Since 1972, Versailles has been the seat of one of France's 30 nationwide académies of the Ministry of National Education; the académie de Versailles, the largest of France's thirty académies by its number of pupils and students, is in charge of supervising all the elementary schools and high schools of the western suburbs of Paris. Versailles is an important node for the French army, a tradition going back to the monarchy with, for instance, the military camp of Satory and other institutions. Versailles is located 17.1 km west-southwest from the centre of Paris. The city sits on an elevated plateau, 130 to 140 metres above sea-level, surrounded by wooded hills: in the north the forests of Marly and Fausses-Reposes, in the south the forests of Satory and Meudon.
The city of Versailles has an area of 26.18 km2, a quarter of the area of the city of Paris. In 1989, Versailles had a population density of 3,344/km2, whereas Paris had a density of 20,696/km2. Born out of the will of a king, the city has a symmetrical grid of streets. By the standards of the 18th century, Versailles was a modern European city. Versailles was used as a model for the building of Washington, D. C. by Pierre Charles L'Enfant. The name of Versailles appears for the first time in a medieval document dated 1038. In the feudal system of medieval France, the lords of Versailles came directly under the king of France, with no intermediary overlords between them and the king. In the end of the 11th century, the village curled around a medieval castle and the Saint Julien church, its farming activity and its location on the road from Paris to Dreux and Normandy brought prosperity to the village, culminating in the end of the 13th century, the so-called "century of Saint Louis", famous for the prosperity of northern France and the building of Gothic cathedrals.
The 14th century brought the Black Death and t