Artemidoros Aniketos was a king who ruled in the area of Gandhara and Pushkalavati in modern northern Pakistan and Afghanistan. Artemidoros has traditionally been seen as an Indo-Greek king, his remaining coins feature portraits of Artemidoros and Hellenistic deities and are typical of Indo-Greek rulers, but on a coin described by numismatician R. C. Senior, Artemidoros seems to claim to be the son of the Indo-Scythian king Maues. Not only does this coin enable a closer dating of Artemidoros. While Maues was'Great King of Kings', Artemidoros only styled himself King, he was either challenged by or ruled in tandem with other kings such as Menander II, whose coins have been found alongside his, Apollodotus II. In a 2009 article however, Bopearachchi disputes the interpretation of the coin according to which Artemidoros would be son of Maues; the analysis of several similar coins in good condition and cleaned-up reveals that the obverse should be read rajatirajasa moasa putrasa ca artemidorosa, the ca meaning "and", which opens the way to a possible translation being "King of kings Maues, the son of Artemidoros".
This would suggest that the son of Artemidoros would have issued coins in the name of his father, recognizing at the same time the suzerainty of Maues. In that case, Artemidoros would have been a regular Indo-Greek king, whose son made a transition with the rule of Maues. Bopearachchi has suggested a date of c. 85-80 BCE, but this was before the appearance of the Maues coin. Senior's dating is wider, c. 100–80 BCE, because Senior has given Maues an earlier date. During the 1990s, several new types of Artemidoros' coins appeared, of variable quality. R. C. Senior has suggested that Artemidoros relied on temporary mints because he held no major cities. All his coins were Indian bilinguals. Silver: Obverse: diademed or helmeted bust of king. Reverse: Artemis facing left or right, Nike facing left or right, or king on horseback. Artemis, the eponymous goddess of hunting, is seen using a curved bow, which may have been typical of Scythian tribes and further supports his affiliation with them. Bronzes: Artemis / humped bull or Artemis / lion.
Greco-Bactrian Kingdom Seleucid Empire Greco-Buddhism Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthian Kingdom Kushan Empire The Shape of Ancient Thought. Comparative studies in Greek and Indian Philosophies by Thomas McEvilley ISBN 1-58115-203-5 The Greeks in Bactria and India, W. W. Tarn, Cambridge University Press. Coins of Artemidoros More Coins of Artemidoros
Hermaeus Soter or Hermaios Soter was a Western Indo-Greek king of the Eucratid Dynasty, who ruled the territory of Paropamisade in the Hindu-Kush region, with his capital in Alexandria of the Caucasus. Bopearachchi dates Hermaeus to c. 90–70 BCE and R. C. Senior to c. 95–80 BCE. Hermaeus seems to have been successor of Philoxenus or Diomedes, his wife Kalliope may have been a daughter of Philoxenus, according to Senior. Judging from his coins, Hermaeus' rule was long and prosperous, but came to an end when the Yuezhi, coming from neighbouring Bactria, overran most of his Greek kingdom in the Paropamisade around 70 BCE. According to Bopearachchi, these nomads were the Yuezhi, the ancestors of the Kushans, whereas Senior considers them Sakas. Kushan ruler Kujula Kadphises associated himself to Hermaeus on his coins, either in attempt to solidify legitimacy or due to the difficulties minting early coins. In any case, the Yuezhi-Kushans preserved a close cultural interaction with the Greeks as late as the 3rd century CE.
Given the importance of Hermaeus to the nomad rulers, it is possible that Hermaeus himself was of nomad origin. Hermaeus issued Indian silver coins of three types; the first type has a diademed or sometimes helmeted portrait, with reverse of sitting Zeus making benediction gesture. Hermaeus issued a rare series of Attic silver tetradrachms of this type, which were issued for export to Bactria; the second type was a joint series of Hermaeus with his queen Kalliope. The reverse departs from the traditional Hermaeus format, in that it shows the king on a prancing horse; the "king on a prancing horse" is characteristic of the contemporary Greek kings in the eastern Punjab such as Hippostratos, it has been suggested that the coin represented a marital alliance between the two dynastic lines. The horseman on Hermaeus' version is however portrayed somewhat different, being equipped with a typical Scythian longbow; the third series combined the reverses of the first series, without portrait. Hermaeus issued bronze coins with the head of Zeus-Mithras and a prancing horse on the reverse.
A Chinese historical record from the Hanshu Chap. 96A could possible be related to Hermaeus though this is speculative and the record more refers to Saka kings. The chronicle tells how a king who may be identified as Hermaeus received the support of the Chinese against Indo-Scythian occupants, may explain why his kingdom was so prosperous despite the general decline of the Indo-Greeks during the period; the Chinese records would put Hermaeus's dates with his reign ending around 40 BCE. According to the Hanshu, Chap. 96A, king of Jibin, killed some Chinese envoys. After the death of the king, his son sent an envoy to China with gifts; the Chinese general Wen Zhong, commander of the border area in western Gansu, accompanied the escort back. Wutoulao's son plotted to kill Wen Zhong; when Wen Zhong discovered the plot, he allied himself with Yinmofu, "son of the king of Rongqu". They killed Wutoulao's son. Yinmofu was installed as king of Jibin, as a vassal of the Chinese Empire, receiving the Chinese seal and ribbon of investiture.
Yinmofu himself is recorded to have killed Chinese envoys in the reign of Emperor Yuandi sent envoys to apologize to the Chinese court, but he was disregarded. During the reign of Emperor Chengdi other envoys were sent, but they were rejected as simple traders; these events may have initiated an alliance between the Greeks and the Yuezhi, explaining why the Yuezhi gained pre-eminence after the reign of Hermaeus, why their rulers such as Heraios minted coins in a way faithful to the Greek type, why the first Kushan emperor Kujula Kadphises associated himself with Hermaeus on his coins, in a way characteristic of a ruler asserting his pedigree. Greco-Bactrian Kingdom Seleucid Empire Greco-Buddhism Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthian Kingdom Kushan Empire The Greeks in Bactria and India, W. W. Tarn, Cambridge University Press; the Coin Types of the Indo-Greek Kings, 256-54 B. C. A. K. Narain China in Central Asia, the Early Stage: 125 B. C.-A. D. 23: an annotated translation of chapters 61 and 96 of the History of the Former Han Dynasty, A. F. P. Hulsewé, M. A. N. Loewe, 1979.
Leiden: E. J. Brill. Coins of Hermaeus More coins of Hermaeus
Maues was the first recorded Indo-Scythian king. He established Saka hegemony by conquering Indo-Greek territories; the Sakas or Scythians, were nomadic Eastern Iranian people. Sanskrit texts including the Manusmriti and Mahabharata mention the Sakas; the Mahabharata situated the Sakas along with the Yona in the north-west. The Sakas from Sakastan defeated and killed the Parthian king Phraates II in 126 B. C. Indo-Scythians established themselves in the Indus around 88 B. C. during the end of Mithridates II of Parthias reign. The Sakas and Pahlavas became associated during the Saka migration; this can be demonstrated from various sources, such as the adoption of titles. Maues took the title of "Great King of Kings", an exceeded version of a traditional Persian royal title Maues is the first recorded ruler of the Sakas in the Indus, he is first mentioned in the Moga inscription: "In the seventy eighth, 78, year the Great King, the Great Moga, on the fifth, 5, day of the month Panemos, on this first, of the Kshaharata and Kshatrapa of Chukhsa - Liaka Kusuluka by name - his son Patika - in the town of Takshasila..."
Mauses is mentioned the Maira inscription in the Salt Range in Pakistan as'Moasa'. Maues vastly expanded his domain by conquering key cities along the Indus; this included seizing Taxila in Punjab, Gandharas capital city Pushkalavati from the Indo-Greek Kingdoms. Maues has overstruck coins belonging to Archebius as well as Apollodotus II in Taxila; the Sakas extend their power up to Mathura during his reign. Maues is the first recorded Ruler led the Saka from Sakastan in 80-70 B. C. into the Indus. His army first occupied Kandahar From here,Maues invaded the Indus by traversing the Bolan Pass. Maues first conquered the Sindh, from here the Saka expanded south towards Gujarat and north towards Punjab and into Gandhara. Maues issued joint coins mentioning a queen Machene. Machene may have been a daughter of one of the Indo-Greek houses. An Indo-Greek king, Artemidoros issued coins where he describes himself as "Son of Maues". A few of the coins of Maues, struck according to the Indian square standard depict a King in a cross-legged seated position.
This may represent Maues himself, or one of his divinities. It has been suggested that this might be one of the first representations of the Buddha on a coin, in an area where Buddhism was flourishing at the time, but the seated personage seems to hold a sword horizontally, which favors the hypotheses of the depiction of the king Maues himself. Maues struck some coins incorporating Buddhist symbolism, such as the lion, symbol of Buddhism since the time of the Mauryan king Ashoka; the symbolism of the lion had been adopted by the Buddhist Indo-Greek king Menander II. Maues therefore supported Buddhism, although whether sincerely or for political motives is unclear, his coins included a variety of other religious symbols such as the bull of Shiva, indicating wide religious tolerance. Yuezhi Ahir clans Greco-Bactrian Kingdom Indo-Greek Kingdom Indo-Parthian Kingdom Kushan Empire Kambojas Kamuia Aiyasi Kamuia Kharaosta Kamuio Arta "The Shape of Ancient Thought. Comparative studies in Greek and Indian Philosophies" by Thomas McEvilley ISBN 1-58115-203-5 "The Greeks in Bactria and India", W.
W. Tarn, Cambridge University Press. "The Crossroads of Asia. Transformation in image and symbol" ISBN 0-9518399-1-8 Coins of Maues Other coins of Maues Online catalogue of Maues coins
The Yavana Era, Yona Era or Yonana was a computational era used in the Indian subcontinent from the 2nd century BCE for several centuries thereafter. It is thought that the era started around 186 BCE, corresponds to accession to the Greco-Bactrian throne of Demetrius, said to have initiated the Indo-Greek conquest of parts of Northwestern South Asia; the creation of specific eras is a well-known phenomenon marking great dynastical events, such as the Seleucid era, the Arsacid Era in Parthia, BCE), the Azes era in Gandhara, the Kanishka era, when he established his empire in 127 CE. Although Greco-Bactrian or Indo-Greek kings did not put dates on their coins, some of them Plato and Heliocles uncharacteristically do so; some of the coins of Plato have inscriptions such as MZ, MT, MN which can be interpreted as dates in the Greek numerals system using the Yavana era which started around 186 BCE. In that case Plato ruled around 140 BCE; this matches the dating given by numismatician Bopearachchi, who places Plato between 145–140 BCE, since his coins are not found in the ruins of Ai Khanoum, a Bactrian city, destroyed during the reign of Eucratides.
A discovered reliquary from Bajaur gives a triple dating which allows to clarify the relationship between several eras: it is dated to the 27th regnal year of Vijayamitra, a king of the Indo-Scythian Apraca, the 73rd years of the Azes era, the 201st year of the Greeks. "In the twenty-seventh - 27 - year in the reign of Lord Vijayamitra, the King of the Apraca. It means that the Azes era started 128 years after the beginning of the Yavana era; the Yavanarajya inscription was discovered in Mathura, India in 1988. The inscription, carved on a block of red sandstone, is dated to the 1st century BCE, is located at the Mathura Museum in Mathura; the inscription is important in that the Mathura sculptors mention the date of their dedication as "The last day of year 116 of Yavana hegemony". It is considered that this inscription is attesting the control of the Indo-Greeks in the 2nd and 1st centuries BCE in Mathura, a fact, confirmed by numismatic and literary evidence. Several Gandhara Buddha statues with dated inscriptions, are now thought to have been dated in the Yavana Era.
One of the statues of the Buddha from Loriyan Tangai has an inscription mentioning "the year 318". The era in question is not specified, but it is now thought, following the discovery of the Bajaur reliquary inscription, that it is about the Yavana era beginning in 186 BCE, gives a date for the Buddha statue of about 143 CE; the inscription at the base of the statue is: sa 1 1 1 100 10 4 4 Prothavadasa di 20 4 1 1 1 Budhagosa danamu Saghorumasa sadaviyasa "In year 318, the day 27 of Prausthapada, gift of Buddhaghosa, the companion of Samghavarma" This would make it one of the earliest known representations of the Buddha, after the Bimaran casket, at about the same time as the Buddhist coins of Kanishka. The two devotees on the right side of the pedestal are in Indo-Scythian suit, their characteristic trousers appear on close-up pictures. The statue is now in Indian Museum of Calcutta. Another statue of Buddha, the Buddha of Hashtnagar, is inscribed from the year 384, thought to be 209 CE. Only the pedestal is preserved in the British Museum, the statue itself, with folds of clothing having more relief than those of the Loriyan Tangai Buddha, having disappeared
Azilises was an Indo-Scythian king who ruled in the area of Gandhara. Azilises issued some joint coins with Azes, where Azes is presented as king on the obverse, Azilises is introduced as king on the obverse in kharoshthi. Yuezhi Greco-Bactrian Kingdom Indo-Greek Kingdom Indo-Parthian Kingdom Kushan Empire The Shape of Ancient Thought. Comparative studies in Greek and Indian Philosophies by Thomas McEvilley ISBN 1-58115-203-5 The Greeks in Bactria and India, W. W. Tarn, Cambridge University Press. Coins of Azilises
Pakistan the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country. Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, China in the far northeast, it is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, shares a maritime border with Oman. The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was the site of several ancient cultures and intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent; the ancient history involves the Neolithic site of Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, was home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks, Turco-Mongols and Sikhs. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander III of Macedon, the Seleucid Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Gupta Empire, the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, the Delhi Sultanate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Afghan Durrani Empire, the Sikh Empire and, most the British Empire.
Pakistan is the only country to have been created in the name of Islam. It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a diverse geography and wildlife. A dominion, Pakistan adopted a constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic. An ethnic civil war and Indian military intervention in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh. In 1973, Pakistan adopted a new constitution which stipulated that all laws are to conform to the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah. A regional and middle power, Pakistan has the sixth-largest standing armed forces in the world and is a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear-weapons state, the second in South Asia and the only nation in the Muslim world to have that status. Pakistan has a semi-industrialised economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector and a growing services sector, it is ranked among the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, is backed by one of the world's largest and fastest-growing middle class.
Pakistan's political history since independence has been characterized by periods of military rule, political instability and conflicts with India. The country continues to face challenging problems, including overpopulation, poverty and corruption. Pakistan is a member of the UN, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the OIC, the Commonwealth of Nations, the SAARC and the Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition; the name Pakistan means "land of the pure" in Urdu and Persian. It alludes to the word pāk meaning pure in Pashto; the suffix ـستان is a Persian word meaning the place of, recalls the synonymous Sanskrit word sthāna स्थान. The name of the country was coined in 1933 as Pakstan by Choudhry Rahmat Ali, a Pakistan Movement activist, who published it in his pamphlet Now or Never, using it as an acronym referring to the names of the five northern regions of British India: Punjab, Kashmir and Baluchistan; the letter i was incorporated to ease pronunciation. Some of the earliest ancient human civilisations in South Asia originated from areas encompassing present-day Pakistan.
The earliest known inhabitants in the region were Soanian during the Lower Paleolithic, of whom stone tools have been found in the Soan Valley of Punjab. The Indus region, which covers most of present day Pakistan, was the site of several successive ancient cultures including the Neolithic Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro; the Vedic period was characterised by an Indo-Aryan culture. Multan was an important Hindu pilgrimage centre; the Vedic civilisation flourished in the ancient Gandhāran city of Takṣaśilā, now Taxila in the Punjab, founded around 1000 BCE. Successive ancient empires and kingdoms ruled the region: the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander the Great's empire in 326 BCE and the Maurya Empire, founded by Chandragupta Maurya and extended by Ashoka the Great, until 185 BCE; the Indo-Greek Kingdom founded by Demetrius of Bactria included Gandhara and Punjab and reached its greatest extent under Menander, prospering the Greco-Buddhist culture in the region.
Taxila had one of the earliest universities and centres of higher education in the world, established during the late Vedic period in 6th century BCE. The school consisted of several monasteries without large dormitories or lecture halls where the religious instruction was provided on an individualistic basis; the ancient university was documented by the invading forces of Alexander the Great, "the like of which had not been seen in Greece," and was recorded by Chinese pilgrims in the 4th or 5th century CE. At its zenith, the Rai Dynasty of Sindh ruled the surrounding territories; the Pala Dynasty was the last Buddhist empire, under Dharmapala and Devapala, stretched across South Asia from what is now Bangladesh through Northern India to Pakistan. The Arab conqueror Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh in 711 CE; the Pakistan government's official chronol
The Apracharajas were an Indo-Scythian dynasty ruling dynasty of Western Pakistan. The Apracharaja capital, known as Apracapura, was located in the Bajaur district of the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Apraca rule of Bajaur existed from the 1st century BCE to the 1st century CE, its rulers formed the dynasty, referred to as the Apracharajas. Before the arrival of the Indo-Greeks and the Indo-Scythians, Apracan territory was the stronghold of the warlike Aspasioi tribe of Arrian, recorded in Vedic Sanskrit texts as Ashvakas; the Apracas are known in history for having offered a stubborn resistance to the Macedonian invader, Alexander the Great in 326 BCE. The Indo-Scythians of the Apracharajas dynasty were successors of the Indo-Scythian king Azes, it seems that they established their dynasty from around 12 BCE. Their territory seems to have centered in Bajaur and extended to Swat, Gandhāra, parts of eastern Afghanistan; the Apracharajas embraced Buddhism: they are known for their numerous Buddhist dedications on reliquaries.
On their coins Hellenic designs, derived from the coinage of the Indo-Greeks, continued to appear alongside Buddhist ones. Vijayamitra dedicated in his name a Buddhist reliquary; some of his coins bear the Buddhist triratna symbol. Indravarman, while still a Prince dedicated in 5-6 CE a Buddhist reliquary, the Bajaur casket, now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Numerous Buddhist dedications were made by the rulers of the Apracas: "Members of the Apraca family in the northwestern borderlands of Pakistan and Afghanistan made numerous Buddhist donations recorded in Kharosṭḥī inscriptions dated in the era of Azes. Although most of these inscriptions lack specific provenance, the domain of the Aparacas was centered in Bajaur and extended to Swat, Gandhāra, parts of eastern Afghanistan in the last half of the first century BCE and the early decades of the first century CE. Since the discovery of an inscribed reliquary casket from Shinkot in Bajaur donated by the Apraca king Vijayamitra, other inscriptions record donations of relics by at least four generations of kings and court officials.
Apraca kings known from Kharosṭḥī inscriptions and seals included Indravasu, Visṇuvarman, Indravarman, but the dynastic genealogy remains uncertain." A discovered inscription in Kharoshthi on a Buddhist reliquary, the Bajaur reliquary inscription, gives a relationship between several eras of the period and mentions several Apraca rulers: "In the twenty-seventh year in the reign of Lord Viyeemitro, the King of the Apraca. This inscription would date to c. 15 CE, according to the new dating for the Azes era which places its inception c. 47 BCE. The rulers seem to have been related to Kharaostes. Dr. Prashant Srivastava, an Indian professor from the University of Lucknow, has in a research monograph highlighted the significant role played by the Apraca Dynasty rulers, has connected the Apraca kings of Pakistan to the Ashvaka clan of Vedic literature; the Apraca kings are mentioned in the Bajaur casket. Vijayamitra, Queen: Rukhana Indravasu, Queen: Vasumitra Vispavarma or Visnuvarma, Queen: Śiśirena Iṃdravarmo, Queen: Utara Aspo or Aspavarmo Sasan Ashvakas Apraca King Imdravarmo's Silver Reliquary