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Viken (region)

Viken, or Vika, was the historical name during the Viking Age and the High Middle Ages for an area of Scandinavia that surrounded the Oslofjord and included the coast of Bohuslän. Its definition changed over time, from the middle ages Viken only included Bohuslän. Viking Age-era Viken was defined as the strait running between Norway and the southwest coast of Sweden and the Jutland peninsula of Denmark, it is located in the southwestern Swedish province of Bohuslän. During the Viking Age Viken was the northernmost Danish province. Control over Viken shifted between Danish and Norwegian kings in the middle ages, Denmark continued to claim Viken until 1241. Viken is the name chosen for a future administrative region consisting of a merger of the counties of Akershus, Østfold; the cultural hub is centred in Oslo, but the capital of the region was at Borre. This area included the important cities of Tønsberg, Oslo and Konghelle. There is disagreement among modern historians as to where the boundaries of the geographical area called Viken were during the Viking era.

It is believed to have comprised the historical provinces of Vestfold, Vingulmark, Grenland and Båhuslen. The Danish kings had established dominion over the area. Norwegian royal power began to assert itself in Viken with King Olav Haraldsson due to a sharp weakening of the Danish royal power. Olaf first declared himself king of Norway in 1015 and established control of the nation in battle, principally the Battle of Nesjar in 1016. King Olav subsequently founded the city of Sarpsborg in Viken during 1016. During the Civil war era in Norway, the Bagler faction established themselves in the Viken area; the wealthier classes in Viken, were the basis of the Bagler party. The Norwegian kings achieved full authority with developments which reached its peak when the national capital was established at Oslo during the reign of King Haakon V of Norway in 1314. Viken is derived from the Old Norse word vík, meaning an creek; the modern Norwegian form Vika is derived from the definite form, Víkin, whilst the form Viken is derived from its Danish cognate and from the local dative case name, Viken.

Various theories have been offered that the word "viking" may be derived from this place name, meaning "a person from Viken". According to this theory the word "viking" described persons from this area, that it is only in the last few centuries that it has taken on the broader sense of early medieval Scandinavians in general. Faarlund, Jan Terje The Syntax of Old Norse: With a survey of the inflectional morphology and a complete bibliography ISBN 978-0-19-923559-9 Sigurdsson, Jon Vidar Det norrøne samfunnet ISBN 978-82-530-3147-7 Norseng, Per G..

Shavano (train)

The Shavano, named for nearby Mount Shavano, was operated by the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad. The passenger train ran between Salida and Gunnison, Colorado on the railroad's historic narrow gauge route over Marshall Pass; the Shavano operated as Train #315 westbound, #316 eastbound. The original east-west main line of the Denver & Rio Grande, constructed in the 1870s and 1880s, was built as a narrow-gauge railroad, with the rails spaced three feet apart; the line ran from Denver south to Pueblo, turned west through the Royal Gorge to Salida. The route continued over Marshall Pass to Gunnison and Grand Junction, before entering Utah and proceeding to Salt Lake City and Ogden; this existed as a through route only until 1890. The standard gauge route headed north from Salida via Tennessee Pass, rejoining the original narrow-gauge route at Grand Junction; this left the old narrow-gauge line over Marshall Pass as a local route. Narrow-gauge trains operated between Salida and Grand Junction until the Montrose-Grand Junction tracks were standard-gauged in 1906, truncating the narrow-gauge line to a Salida-Montrose route.

Narrow-gauge trains 315 and 316, carrying coaches and a parlor car, operated between Salida and Montrose until August 1936, when the Gunnison-Montrose portion of the route was discontinued. That autumn, the Rio Grande decided to upgrade its remaining narrow-gauge passenger trains, renovated 38 passenger cars for use on its Salida-Montrose and Alamosa-Durango routes; the refurbishment included the addition of enclosed vestibules, the installation of electric lights and steam heating, new interior seats and fixtures. The finished cars were the most comfortable and well-appointed narrow-gauge equipment in the United States; the equipment renovation project was completed by the spring of 1937, the new train entered service between Salida and Montrose on April 9. Dubbed the Shavano, the train included baggage and mail cars, a parlor car; the Shavano operated westbound from Salida to Gunnison in the morning. Despite the improvements made to the train, patronage was not sufficient to retain the service in light of the region's improving roads and increased automobile traffic.

The Rio Grande discontinued the Shavano on November 24, 1940, ending rail passenger service to Gunnison and leaving the San Juan Express as the railroad's last daily narrow-gauge passenger train. The train's old route over Marshall Pass was abandoned by the railroad in 1955. Danneman, Robert. A Ticket to Ride the Narrow Gauge: Colorado Rail Annual No. 24. Golden: Colorado Railroad Museum, 2000. ISBN 0-918654-24-6

St. John's Methodist Episcopal Church (Raton, New Mexico)

The St. John's Methodist Episcopal Church in Raton, New Mexico is a historic church, it was built in 1897 and added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1978. The listing included three contributing buildings, it is a 24 by 36 feet stone building. It was built of native red sandstone with a mortar similar to adobe which deteriorated. In more it was repointed with cement and a cement foundation was put into place, it is located on Johnson Mesa about 17 miles east of Raton on New Mexico State Road 72. National Register of Historic Places listings in Colfax County, New Mexico

Chaloem Phra Kiat District, Nakhon Ratchasima

Chaloem Phra Kiat is a district in the eastern part of Nakhon Ratchasima Province, northeastern Thailand. Five tambons were separated from Chakkarat District to create the new district on 5 December 1996, it was one of five districts named Chaloem Phra Kiat created on the same date to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the ascension to the throne of King Bhumibol Adulyadej. Neighbouring districts are: Non Sung, Chok Chai and Mueang Nakhon Ratchasima; the district is divided into five subdistricts. The township of Tha Chang covers parts of tambons Tha Chang Thong. Nakhon Ratchasima Airport amphoe.com

Rembert, South Carolina

Rembert is a census-designated place in Sumter County, South Carolina, United States. The population was 306 at the 2010 census, a decline from 406 in 2000, it is included in South Carolina Metropolitan Statistical Area. Ellerbe's Mill was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974. Rembert is located at 34°06′02″N 80°31′51″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 4.4 square miles, all land. It is named after Andre Rembert, immigrant to South Carolina; as of the census of 2000, there were 406 people, 144 households, 101 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 92.1 people per square mile. There were 163 housing units at an average density of 37.0/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 24.14 % 75.62 % African American, 0.25 % from other races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.48% of the population. There were 144 households out of which 32.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.5% were married couples living together, 25.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.2% were non-families.

24.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.82 and the average family size was 3.42. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 33.5% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 18 to 24, 26.6% from 25 to 44, 18.5% from 45 to 64, 12.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 82.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 75.3 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $18,958, the median income for a family was $25,417. Males had a median income of $19,911 versus $16,875 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $9,528. About 26.5% of families and 30.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 44.2% of those under age 18 and 51.3% of those age 65 or over

Avraham (given name)

Avraham is a masculine given name, the Hebrew version of Abraham. It may refer to: Avraham Adan, Israeli major general Avraham Avigdorov, Israeli soldier and recipient of the Hero of Israel award Avraham Ben-Yitzhak, Israeli Hebrew poet Avraham Burg, Israeli author and businessman Avraham Danzig, a Posek and codifier, author of the works of Jewish law Chayei Adam and Chochmat Adam Avraham Deutsch, Israeli politician Avraham Eilat, Israeli artist and curator Avraham Even-Shoshan, Russian-born Israeli Hebrew linguist and lexicographer, compiler of the Even-Shoshan dictionary Avraham Gombiner, rabbi and religious authority in Poland Avraham Granot and Israeli politician, a signatory of the Israeli declaration of independence Avraham Harman, Israeli diplomat and Hebrew University of Jerusalem president Avraham Herzfeld, Zionist activist and Israeli politician Avraham Hirschson, Israeli former politician convicted of embezzlement Avraham Katz, Israeli politician Avraham Katznelson, Russian-born Zionist and politician, a signatory of the Israeli declaration of independence Avraham Maimuni, son of Maimonides and his successor as Nagid of the Egyptian Jewish community Avraham Menchel, Israeli former footballer Avraham Neguise, Israeli politician Avraham Nudelman, Israeli footballer Avraham Ofek, Israeli sculptor, muralist and printmaker Avraham Ofer, Israeli politician who committed suicide over a corruption scandal Avraham Oz, Israeli associate professor of Theatre and Hebrew and Comparative literature at the University of Haifa and peace activist Avraham Palman, Israeli footballer Avraham Poraz, Israeli lawyer and former politician Avraham Ravitz, Israeli politician Avraham Sela, Israeli historian and scholar on the Middle East and international relations Avraham Shekhterman, Israeli politician Avraham Shapira, Israeli rabbi, head of the Rabbinical court of Jerusalem and head of the Supreme Rabbinical Court and Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi of Israel Avraham Yosef Shapira, Israeli politician and businessman Avraham Duber Kahana Shapiro, last Chief Rabbi of Lithuania Avraham Shochat, Israeli former politician, twice Minister of Finance Avraham Stern, one of the leaders of the Jewish paramilitary organization Irgun and founder of the breakaway paramilitary group Stern Gang Avraham Stern, Israeli politician Avraham Trahtman, Russian-born Israeli mathematician Avraham Yaski, Israeli architect Avraham Yoffe, Israeli general during the Six-Day War and politician Avraham Yosef, Chief Rabbi of Holon, a Sephardi representative on the Chief Rabbinate Council Avraham Zilberberg, Israeli politician