South Lake Tahoe, California
South Lake Tahoe is the most populous city in El Dorado County, United States, in the Sierra Nevada. As its name suggests, the city is located on the southern shore of Lake Tahoe; the city's population was 21,403 at the 2010 census, down from 23,609 at the 2000 census. The city extends about 5 miles west-southwest along U. S. Route 50 known as Lake Tahoe Boulevard; the east end of the city, on the California–Nevada state line right next to the town of Stateline, Nevada, is geared towards tourism, with T-shirt shops, restaurants and Heavenly Mountain Resort with the Nevada casinos just across the state line in Stateline. The western end of town is residential, clusters around "The Y", the X-shaped intersection of US 50, State Route 89, the continuation of Lake Tahoe Boulevard after it loses its federal highway designation. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 16.6 square miles, of which 10.2 square miles is land and 6.4 square miles, or 38.80%, is water. Its elevation is about 6,237 feet above sea level.
The 2010 United States Census reported that South Lake Tahoe had a population of 21,403. The population density was 1,289.1 people per square mile. The racial makeup of South Lake Tahoe was 15,733 White, 182 African American, 232 Native American, 1,186 Asian, 39 Pacific Islander, 3,230 from other races, 801 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6,665 persons; the Census reported that 21,034 people lived in households, 181 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 188 were institutionalized. There were 8,918 households, out of which 2,421 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 3,100 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 983 had a female householder with no husband present, 594 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 857 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 67 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 2,918 households were made up of individuals and 652 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36.
There were 4,677 families. The population was spread out with 4,400 people under the age of 18, 2,478 people aged 18 to 24, 6,416 people aged 25 to 44, 6,013 people aged 45 to 64, 2,096 people who were 65 years of age or older; the median age was 35.6 years. For every 100 females, there were 113.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 115.7 males. There were 15,087 housing units at an average density of 908.7 per square mile, of which 8,918 were occupied, of which 3,473 were owner-occupied, 5,445 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 4.5%. 7,684 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 13,350 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2010, there were 21,403 people, 9,410 households, 5,391 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,347.5 people per square mile. There were 14,005 housing units at an average density of 1,392.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 75.73% White, 0.75% Black or African American, 0.97% Native American, 6.01% Asian, 0.17% Pacific Islander, 12.48% from other races, 3.90% from two or more races.
26.66% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 9,410 households out of which 30.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.3% were married couples living together, 12.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.7% were non-families. 29.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.15. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.2% under the age of 18, 11.4% from 18 to 24, 33.0% from 25 to 44, 21.9% from 45 to 64, 8.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 107.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 107.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $34,707, the median income for a family was $40,572. Males had a median income of $26,352 versus $22,280 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,452. About 9.1% of families and 12.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.7% of those under age 18 and 7.0% of those aged 65 or over.
South Lake Tahoe and the surrounding unincorporated communities are serviced by Lake Tahoe Unified School District, composed of four elementary schools a middle school and a high school. Due to budget cuts, Al Tahoe Elementary School and Meyers Elementary School closed in 2004. South Lake Tahoe houses a community college, Lake Tahoe Community College; the city council of South Lake Tahoe is composed of five elected members: three council members, a Mayor, a Mayor Pro Tem. The Mayor is elected by the City Council. In the state legislature, South Lake Tahoe is in the 1st Senate District, seat vacant, the 5th Assembly District, represented by Republican Frank Bigelow. Federally, South Lake Tahoe is in California's 4th congr
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat
Fannette Island is the only island in Lake Tahoe, California/Nevada, United States. It lies on the California side of the lake. Over a long period of time, it was called many different names, including Coquette, Baranoff, Dead Man's, Hermit's, Emerald Isle. Fannette Island is a part of Emerald Bay State Park, it is accessible by canoe, or kayak. Swimming to the island is not allowed, due to hazards including cold waters and boat traffic in the area; the ruins of a small stone building stand on the island. This ruin is the "Tea House", constructed by the owner of Vikingsholm. Fannette Island was the home of Captain Dick "Them's my toes" Barter from 1863 to 1873; the eccentric captain had built his own tomb and chapel on the island. He enjoyed sailing but died when caught in a sudden storm rowing back to the island, he survived by riding out the storm. He got frostbite in two toes and earned his nickname from his penchant of showing his self-amputated toes to guests, he was never interred in the chapel he built, as he was lost in a storm off Rubicon Point in 1873.
Media related to Fannette Island at Wikimedia Commons U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Fannette Island More information about Fannette Island, Emerald Bay, Vikingsholm, including link to a topographical map of the site, from AboutLakeTahoe.com California State Parks Emerald Bay State Park page Hermit's Ghost Haunts Emerald Bay AboutLakeTahoe.com, Fannette Island
Lake Tahoe is a large freshwater lake in the Sierra Nevada of the United States. Lying at 6,225 ft, it straddles the state line between Nevada, west of Carson City. Lake Tahoe is the largest alpine lake in North America, at 122,160,280 acre⋅ft trails only the five Great Lakes as the largest by volume in the United States, its depth is 1,645 ft, making it the second deepest in the United States after Crater Lake in Oregon. The lake was formed about two million years ago as part of the Lake Tahoe Basin, with the modern extent being shaped during the ice ages, it is known for the panorama of surrounding mountains on all sides. The area surrounding the lake is referred to as Lake Tahoe, or Tahoe. More than 75% of the lake's watershed is national forest land, comprising the Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit of the United States Forest Service. Lake Tahoe is a major tourist attraction in both California, it is home to winter sports, summer outdoor recreation, scenery enjoyed throughout the year. Snow and ski resorts are a significant part of the area's reputation.
The Nevada side offers large casinos, with highways providing year-round access to the entire area. Lake Tahoe is the second deepest lake in the U. S. with a maximum depth of 1,645 feet, trailing Oregon's Crater Lake at 1,949 ft. Tahoe is the 16th deepest lake in the world, the fifth deepest in average depth, it is about 22 mi long and 12 mi wide and has 72 mi of shoreline and a surface area of 191 square miles. The lake is so large. At lake level the opposing shorelines are below the horizon at its widest parts. Visibility may vary somewhat with atmospheric refraction. Fata Morgana may be responsible for Tahoe Tessie sightings. Two-thirds of the shoreline is in California; the south shore is dominated by the lake's largest city, South Lake Tahoe, which adjoins the town of Stateline, while Tahoe City, California, is located on the lake's northwest shore. Although highways run within sight of the lake shore for much of Tahoe's perimeter, many important parts of the shoreline lie within state parks or are protected by the United States Forest Service.
The Lake Tahoe Watershed of 505 sq mi includes the land area that drains to the lake and the Lake Tahoe drainage divide traverses the same general area as the Tahoe Rim Trail. Lake Tahoe is fed by 63 tributaries; these drain an area about the same size as the lake and produce half its water, with the balance entering as rain or snow falling directly on it. The Truckee River is the lake's only outlet, flowing northeast through Reno, into Pyramid Lake which has no outlet, it accounts for one third of the water that leaves the lake, the rest evaporating from the lake's vast surface. The flow of the Truckee River and the height of the lake are controlled by the Lake Tahoe Dam at the outlet; the natural rim is with a spillway at the dam controlling overflow. The maximum legal limit, to which the lake can be allowed to rise in order to store water, is at 6,229.1 ft. Around New Year 1996/1997 a Pineapple Express atmospheric river melted snow and caused the lake and river to overflow, inundating Reno and surrounding areas.
The Lake Tahoe Basin was formed by vertical motion faulting. Uplifted blocks created the Carson Range on the main Sierra Nevada crest on the west. Down-dropping and block tilting created the Lake Tahoe Basin in between; this kind of faulting is characteristic of the geology of the adjoining Great Basin to the east. Lake Tahoe is the youngest of several extensional basins of the Walker Lane deformation zone that accommodates nearly 0.47 in per year of dextral shear between the Sierra Nevada-Great Valley Block and North America. Three principal faults form the Lake Tahoe basin: the West Tahoe Fault, aligned between Meyers and Tahoe City, and, the local segment of the Sierra Nevada Fault, extending on shore north and south of these localities; the West Tahoe Fault appears to be the most active and hazardous fault in the basin. A study in Fallen Leaf Lake, just south of Lake Tahoe, used seafloor mapping techniques to image evidence for paleoearthquakes on the West Tahoe and revealed the last earthquake occurred between 4,100 and 4,500 years ago.
Subsequent studies revealed submarine landslides in Fallen Leaf Lake and Lake Tahoe that are thought to have been triggered by earthquakes on the West Tahoe fault and the timing of these events suggests a recurrence interval of 3,000–4,000 years. Some of the highest peaks of the Lake Tahoe Basin that formed during the process of Lake Tahoe creation are Freel Peak at 10,891 feet, Monument Peak at 10,067 feet, Pyramid Peak at 9,984 feet, Mount Tallac at 9,735 feet; the north shore boasts three peaks at 10,000+ feet: Mount Rose at 10,785 feet, Houghton and Relay peaks. Mt. Rose is a popular hiking and backcountry skiing destination. Eruptions from the extinct volcano Mount Pluto formed a volcanic
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area, it separates the "Old World" from the "New World". The Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Europe and Africa to the east, the Americas to the west; as one component of the interconnected global ocean, it is connected in the north to the Arctic Ocean, to the Pacific Ocean in the southwest, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, the Southern Ocean in the south. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean and the South Atlantic Ocean at about 8°N. Scientific explorations of the Atlantic include the Challenger expedition, the German Meteor expedition, Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the United States Navy Hydrographic Office; the oldest known mentions of an "Atlantic" sea come from Stesichorus around mid-sixth century BC: Atlantikoi pelágei and in The Histories of Herodotus around 450 BC: Atlantis thalassa where the name refers to "the sea beyond the pillars of Heracles", said to be part of the sea that surrounds all land.
Thus, on one hand, the name refers to Atlas, the Titan in Greek mythology, who supported the heavens and who appeared as a frontispiece in Medieval maps and lent his name to modern atlases. On the other hand, to early Greek sailors and in Ancient Greek mythological literature such as the Iliad and the Odyssey, this all-encompassing ocean was instead known as Oceanus, the gigantic river that encircled the world. In contrast, the term "Atlantic" referred to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast; the Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of millions of years ago. The term "Aethiopian Ocean", derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century. During the Age of Discovery, the Atlantic was known to English cartographers as the Great Western Ocean; the term The Pond is used by British and American speakers in context to the Atlantic Ocean, as a form of meiosis, or sarcastic understatement.
The term dates to as early as 1640, first appearing in print in pamphlet released during the reign of Charles I, reproduced in 1869 in Nehemiah Wallington's Historical Notices of Events Occurring Chiefly in The Reign of Charles I, where "great Pond" is used in reference to the Atlantic Ocean by Francis Windebank, Charles I's Secretary of State. The International Hydrographic Organization defined the limits of the oceans and seas in 1953, but some of these definitions have been revised since and some are not used by various authorities and countries, see for example the CIA World Factbook. Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas varies; the Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by South America. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea. To the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe: the Strait of Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean; the 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border.
In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean. The Atlantic has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays and seas; these include the Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Labrador Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea all of the Scotia Sea, other tributary water bodies. Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km compared to 135,663 km for the Pacific. Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 or 23.5% of the global ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 or 23.3% of the total volume of the earth's oceans. Excluding its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers 81,760,000 km2 and has a volume of 305,811,900 km3; the North Atlantic covers 41,490,000 km2 and the South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2. The average depth is 3,646 m and the maximum depth, the Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench, is 8,486 m.
The bathymetry of the Atlantic is dominated by a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It runs from 87°N or 300 km south of the North Pole to the subantarctic Bouvet Island at 42°S; the MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. The MAR reaches above 2,000 m along most of its length, but is interrupted by larger transform faults at two places: the Romanche Trench near the Equator and the Gibbs Fracture Zone at 53°N; the MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the othe