In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes that removes soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, transports it to another location. This natural process is caused by the dynamic activity of erosive agents, that is, ice, air, plants and humans. In accordance with these agents, erosion is sometimes divided into water erosion, glacial erosion, snow erosion, wind erosion, zoogenic erosion, anthropogenic erosion; the particulate breakdown of rock or soil into clastic sediment is referred to as physical or mechanical erosion. Eroded sediment or solutes may be transported just a few millimetres, or for thousands of kilometres. Natural rates of erosion are controlled by the action of geological weathering geomorphic drivers, such as rainfall; the rates at which such processes act control. Physical erosion proceeds fastest on steeply sloping surfaces, rates may be sensitive to some climatically-controlled properties including amounts of water supplied, wind speed, wave fetch, or atmospheric temperature.
Feedbacks are possible between rates of erosion and the amount of eroded material, carried by, for example, a river or glacier. Processes of erosion that produce sediment or solutes from a place contrast with those of deposition, which control the arrival and emplacement of material at a new location. While erosion is a natural process, human activities have increased by 10-40 times the rate at which erosion is occurring globally. At well-known agriculture sites such as the Appalachian Mountains, intensive farming practices have caused erosion up to 100x the speed of the natural rate of erosion in the region. Excessive erosion causes both "on-site" and "off-site" problems. On-site impacts include decreases in agricultural productivity and ecological collapse, both because of loss of the nutrient-rich upper soil layers. In some cases, the eventual end result is desertification. Off-site effects include sedimentation of waterways and eutrophication of water bodies, as well as sediment-related damage to roads and houses.
Water and wind erosion are the two primary causes of land degradation. Intensive agriculture, roads, anthropogenic climate change and urban sprawl are amongst the most significant human activities in regard to their effect on stimulating erosion. However, there are many prevention and remediation practices that can curtail or limit erosion of vulnerable soils. Rainfall, the surface runoff which may result from rainfall, produces four main types of soil erosion: splash erosion, sheet erosion, rill erosion, gully erosion. Splash erosion is seen as the first and least severe stage in the soil erosion process, followed by sheet erosion rill erosion and gully erosion. In splash erosion, the impact of a falling raindrop creates a small crater in the soil, ejecting soil particles; the distance these soil particles travel can be as much as 0.6 m vertically and 1.5 m horizontally on level ground. If the soil is saturated, or if the rainfall rate is greater than the rate at which water can infiltrate into the soil, surface runoff occurs.
If the runoff has sufficient flow energy, it will transport loosened soil particles down the slope. Sheet erosion is the transport of loosened soil particles by overland flow. Rill erosion refers to the development of small, ephemeral concentrated flow paths which function as both sediment source and sediment delivery systems for erosion on hillslopes. Where water erosion rates on disturbed upland areas are greatest, rills are active. Flow depths in rills are of the order of a few centimetres or less and along-channel slopes may be quite steep; this means that rills exhibit hydraulic physics different from water flowing through the deeper, wider channels of streams and rivers. Gully erosion occurs when runoff water accumulates and flows in narrow channels during or after heavy rains or melting snow, removing soil to a considerable depth. Valley or stream erosion occurs with continued water flow along a linear feature; the erosion is both downward, deepening the valley, headward, extending the valley into the hillside, creating head cuts and steep banks.
In the earliest stage of stream erosion, the erosive activity is dominantly vertical, the valleys have a typical V cross-section and the stream gradient is steep. When some base level is reached, the erosive activity switches to lateral erosion, which widens the valley floor and creates a narrow floodplain; the stream gradient becomes nearly flat, lateral deposition of sediments becomes important as the stream meanders across the valley floor. In all stages of stream erosion, by far the most erosion occurs during times of flood when more and faster-moving water is available to carry a larger sediment load. In such processes, it is not the water alone
Spearmint known as garden mint, common mint, lamb mint and mackerel mint, is a species of mint native to the Balkan Peninsula and Turkey. It is naturalized in much of Europe and Asia, in parts of northern and western Africa, North America, South America, as well as various oceanic islands. Spearmint has two subspecies: Mentha spicata condensata Greuter & Burdet. Spearmint is a herbaceous, perennial plant growing 30–100 cm tall, with variably hairless to hairy stems and foliage, a wide-spreading fleshy underground rhizome; the leaves are 5–9 cm long and 1.5–3 cm broad, with a serrated margin. The stem is square-shaped, a trademark of the mint family of herbs. Spearmint produces flowers in slender spikes, each flower pink or white in colour, 2.5–3 mm long, broad. The spearmint plant flowers from the months of July to September, has large pollen grains and seeds, which measure 37–42 mm and 0.62–0.90 mm respectively. Hybrids involving spearmint include Mentha × piperita, Mentha × gracilis, Mentha × villosa.
The name'spear' mint derives from the pointed leaf tips. The plant is a triploid species, which could be a result of chromosome doubling. Mentha longifolia and Mentha suaveolens are suspected to be the contributing diploid species. John Gerard's Herbal states that: "It is good against watering eyes and all manner of break outs on the head and sores, it is applied with salt to the biting of mad dogs," and that "They lay it on the stinging of wasps and bees with good success." He mentions that "the smell rejoice the heart of man", for which cause they used to strew it in chambers and places of recreation and repose, where feasts and banquets are made."Mention of spearmint dates back to at least the 1st century AD, with references from naturalist Pliny and mention in the Bible. Further records show descriptions of mint in ancient mythology. Findings of early versions of toothpaste using mint in the 14th century suggest widespread domestication by this point, it was introduced into England through the Romans by the 15th century, the “Father of British Botany”, of the surname Turner, mentions mint as being good for the stomach.
Spearmint is document as being an important cash crop in Connecticut during the period of the American Revolution, at which time mint teas were noted as being a popular drink due to them not being taxed. Research suggests that spearmint is an allopolyploid derivation of M. longifolia and M. suaveolens, with varied leaf blade dimensions, prominence of leaf veins, pubescence. While spearmint is known to be native to Europe and Asia, its true natural range is unknown due to early domestication. Spearmint can adapt to grow in various types of soil. Spearmint tends to thrive with plenty of organic material in full sun to part shade; the plant is known to be found in moist habitats such as swamps or creeks, where the soil is sand or clay. Spearmint ideally thrives in soils that are moist, rich in nutrients and organic matter, have a crumbly texture, planted deeply. PH range should be between 6.0 and 7.5. Fungal diseases are common diseases in spearmint. Two main diseases are leaf spot. Puccinia menthae is a fungus that causes the disease called “rust”.
Rust affects the leaves of spearmint by producing pustules inducing the leaves to fall off. Leaf spot is a fungal disease that occurs when Alternaria alernata is present on the spearmint leaves; the infection looks like circular dark spot on the top side of the leaf. Other fungi that cause disease in spearmint are Rhizoctonia solani, Verticillium dahliae, Phoma strasseri, Erysiphe cischoracearum; some nematode diseases in spearmint include root root lesions. Nematode species that cause root knots in this plant are various Meloidogyne species; the other nematode species are Pratylenchus. Spearmint can be infected by tobacco ringspot virus; this virus can lead to stunted plant deformation of the leaves in this plant. In China, spearmint have been seen with deformed leaves; this is an indication that the plant can be infected by the viruses, cucumber mosaic and tomato aspermy. Spearmint grows well in nearly all temperate climates. Gardeners grow it in pots or planters due to its invasive, spreading rhizomes.
Spearmint leaves can be used dried, or frozen. They can be preserved in salt, sugar syrup, alcohol, or oil; the leaves lose their aromatic appeal after the plant flowers. It can be dried by cutting just before, or right as the flowers open, about one-half to three-quarters the way down the stalk; some dispute exists as to. Spearmint is used for its aromatic oil, called oil of spearmint; the most abundant compound in spearmint oil is R--carvone, which gives spearmint its distinctive smell. Spearmint oil contains significant amounts of limonene, 1,8-cineol. Unlike oil of peppermint, oil of spearmint contains minimal amounts of menthone, it is used as a flavoring for toothpaste and confectionery, is sometimes added to shampoos and soaps. Spearmint has been used traditionally as medicines for minor ailments such as fevers, and
A gully is a landform created by running water, eroding into soil on a hillside. Gullies resemble large ditches or small valleys, but are metres to tens of metres in depth and width; when the gully formation is in process, the water flow rate can be substantial, causing a significant deep cutting action into soil. The earliest known usage of the term is from 1657, it originates from a diminutive form of goule which means throat. It is possible that the term was derived from a type of knife at the time, a gully-knife, because hills that have gullies look as if they are cut open with a sharp knife. Gully erosion is the process. Hillsides are more prone to gully erosion when they are cleared of vegetation, through deforestation, over-grazing or other means; the eroded soil is carried by the flowing water after being dislodged from the ground when rainfall falls during short, intense storms such as during thunderstorms. A gully may grow in length by means of headward erosion at a knick point; this erosion can result from interflow as well as surface runoff.
Gullies reduce the productivity of farmland where they incise into the land, produce sediment that may clog downstream waterbodies. Because of this, much effort is invested into the study of gullies within the scope of geomorphology, in the prevention of gully erosion, in restoration of gullied landscapes; the total soil loss from gully formation and subsequent downstream river sedimentation can be sizeable. Gullies can be enlarged by a number of human activities. Artificial gullies are formed during hydraulic mining when jets or streams of water are projected onto soft alluvial deposits to extract gold or tin ore; the remains of such mining methods are visible landform features in old goldfields such as in California and northern Spain. The badlands at Las Medulas for example, were created during the Roman period by hushing or hydraulic mining of the gold-rich alluvium with water supplied by numerous aqueducts tapping nearby rivers; each aqueduct produced large gullies below by erosion of the soft deposits.
The effluvium was washed with smaller streams of water to extract the nuggets and gold dust. Gullies are widespread at mid- to high latitudes on the surface of Mars, are some of the youngest features observed on that planet forming within the last few 100,000 years. There, they are one of the best lines of evidence for the presence of liquid water on Mars in the recent geological past resulting from the slight melting of snowpacks on the surface or ice in the shallow subsurface on the warmest days of the Martian year. Flow as springs from deeper seated liquid water aquifers in the deeper subsurface is a possible explanation for the formation of some Martian gullies. Oxford English Dictionary
Pastoralism is the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock. It is animal husbandry: the care and use of animals such as cattle, goats, llamas, reindeer and sheep. "Pastoralism" has a mobile aspect but this can take many forms and be at different scales. Sedentary pastoralism is becoming more common as the hardening of political borders, expansion of crop agriculture, building of fences reduces ability to move. Mobile pastoralism includes moving herds distances in search of fresh pasture and water, something that can occur daily or within a few hours, to transhumance, where animals are moved seasonally, to nomadism, where pastoralists and families move with the animals year-round. In sedentary pastoralism, or pastoral farming, pastoralists grow crops and improve pastures for their livestock. One example is a savanna area where pastoralists and their animals gather when rainwater is abundant and the pasture is rich scatter during the drying of the savanna.. Another is the movement of livestock from summer pastures in lowlands, to montane pastures in the summer where grass is green and plentiful during the dry season.
Grazing in woodlands and forests may be referred to as silvopastoralism. Pastoralist herds interact with their environment, mediate human relations with the environment as a way of turning uncultivated plants like wild grass into consumable, high quality, food. In many places, grazing herds on savannas and woodlands can help maintain the biodiversity of the savannas and prevent them from evolving into dense shrublands or forests. Grazing and browsing at the appropriate levels can increase biodiversity in Mediterranean climate regions. Pastoralists may use fire to make ecosystems more suitable for grazing and browsing animals. For instance, the Turkana people of northwest Kenya use fire to prevent the invasion of the savanna by woody plant species. Biomass of the domesticated and wild animals was increased by a higher quality of grass. Pastoralism is found in many variations throughout the world where enviornmental charactersitics such as aridity, poor soils, cold or hot temperature, lack of water make crop growing difficult or impossible.
Pastoralism remains a way of life in Africa, the Tibetan plateau, the Eurasian steppes, the Andes, the Pampas and other many other places. Composition of herds, management practices, social organization and all other aspects of pastoralism vary between areas and between social groups. Many traditional practices have had to adapt to the changing circumstance of the modern world, including climatic conditions affecting the availability of grasses and the loss of mobility over large landscapes. Ranches of the United States and sheep stations and cattle stations of Australia are seen by some as modern variations. One theory is. Bates and Lees proposed that it was the incorporation of irrigation into farming which ensued in specialization. Advantages of mixed farming include reducing risk of failure, spreading labour, re-utilizing resources; the importance of these advantages and disadvantages to different farmers differs according to the sociocultural preferences of the farmers and the biophysical conditions as determined by rainfall, soil type, disease.
The increased productivity of irrigation agriculture led to an increase in population and an added impact on resources. Bordering areas of land remained in use for animal breeding; this meant. Specialization occurred as a result of the increasing importance of both intensive agriculture and pastoralism. Both agriculture and pastoralism developed with continuous interactions. There is another theory that suggests pastoralism evolved from gathering. Hunters of wild goats and sheep were knowledgeable about the needs of the animals; such hunters followed the herds on their seasonal rounds. Undomesticated herds were chosen to become more controllable for the proto-pastoralist nomadic hunter and gatherer groups by taming and domesticating them. Hunter-gatherers' strategies in the past have been diverse and contingent upon the local environment conditions, like those of mixed farmers. Foraging strategies have included hunting or trapping big game and smaller animals, collecting shellfish or insects, gathering wild plant foods such as fruits and nuts.
These diverse strategies for survival amongst the migratory herds could provide an evolutionary route towards nomadic pastoralism. Pastoralism occurs in uncultivated areas. Wild animals eat the forage from the marginal lands and humans survive from milk and meat of the herds and trade by-products like wool and milk for money and food. Pastoralists do not exist at basic subsistence. Pastoralists compile wealth and participate in international trade. Pastoralists have trade relations with agriculturalists, horticulturalists, other groups. Pastoralists are not extensively dependent on milk and meat of their herd. McCabe noted that when common property institutions are created, in long-lived communities, resource sustainability is much higher, evident in the East African grasslands of pastoralist populations. However, it needs to be noted that the property rights structure is only one of the many different parameters that affect the sustainability of resources, common or private property per se, does not lead to sustainability.
Some pastoralists supplement herding with hunting and gathering, fishing and/or small-scale farming or pastoral farming. Mobility allows pastoralists to adapt to the environment, which opens up the poss
Greece the Hellenic Republic, self-identified and known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of 11 million as of 2016. Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the northeast; the Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a large number of islands, of which 227 are inhabited. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres; the country consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace and the Ionian Islands.
Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilisation, being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, Western drama and notably the Olympic Games. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as poleis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Philip of Macedon united most of the Greek mainland in the fourth century BC, with his son Alexander the Great conquering much of the ancient world, from the eastern Mediterranean to India. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, in which Greek language and culture were dominant. Rooted in the first century A. D. the Greek Orthodox Church helped shape modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence.
Greece's rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The sovereign state of Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, a high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001, it is a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Greece's unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power, it is the largest economy in the Balkans. The names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The Greek name of the country is Hellas or Ellada, its official name is the Hellenic Republic. In English, the country is called Greece, which comes from Latin Graecia and means'the land of the Greeks'; the earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, in the Greek province of Macedonia. All three stages of the stone age are represented for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries, as Greece lies on the route via which farming spread from the Near East to Europe. Greece is home to the first advanced civilizations in Europe and is considered the birthplace of Western civilisation, beginning with the Cycladic civilization on the islands of the Aegean Sea at around 3200 BC, the Minoan civilization in Crete, the Mycenaean civilization on the mainland; these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek.
The Mycenaeans absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC, during a time of regional upheaval known as the Bronze Age collapse. This ushered from which written records are absent. Though the unearthed Linear B texts are too fragmentary for the reconstruction of the political landscape and can't support the existence of a larger state contemporary Hittite and Egyptian records suggest the presence of a single state under a "Great King" based in mainland Greece; the end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to the year of the first Olympic Games. The Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, which spread to the shores of the Black Sea, So
University of Freiburg
The University of Freiburg the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg, is a public research university located in Freiburg im Breisgau, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. The university was founded in 1457 by the Habsburg dynasty as the second university in Austrian-Habsburg territory after the University of Vienna. Today, Freiburg is the fifth-oldest university in Germany, with a long tradition of teaching the humanities, social sciences and natural sciences; the university is made up of 11 faculties and attracts students from across Germany as well as from over 120 other countries. Foreign students constitute about 18.2% of total student numbers. Named as one of elite universities of Germany by academics, political representatives and the media, the University of Freiburg stands amongst Europe's top research and teaching institutions; the University of Freiburg has been associated with figures such as Martin Heidegger, Hannah Arendt, Rudolf Carnap, David Daube, Johann Eck, Hans-Georg Gadamer, Friedrich Hayek, Edmund Husserl, Friedrich Meinecke, Max Weber, Paul Uhlenhuth and Ernst Zermelo.
As of October 2018, 21 Nobel laureates are affiliated with the University of Freiburg as alumni, faculty or researchers, 15 academics have been honored with the highest German research prize, the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize, while working at the university. Albrechts University, the university started with four faculties, its establishment belongs to the second wave of German university foundings in the late Middle Ages, like the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen and the University of Basel. Established by papal privilege, the University in Freiburg was – like all or most universities in the Middle Ages – a corporation of the church body and therefore belonged to the Roman Catholic Church and its hierarchy; the bishop of Basel was its provost or chancellor, the bishop of Constance was its patron, the real founder of the university was the sovereign, Archduke Albert VI of Austria, being the brother of Frederick III, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. At its founding, the university was named after Albert VI of Austria.
He provided the university with land and endowments, as well as its own jurisdiction. He declared Albrechts University as the "county university" for his territory until it was handed over to the Austrian House of Habsburg in 1490; the university soon attracted many students, such as the humanists Geiler von Kaysersberg, Johann Reuchlin, Jakob Wimpfeling. When Ulrich Zasius was teaching law, Freiburg became a centre of humanist jurisprudence. From 1529 to 1535, Erasmus of Rotterdam taught in Freiburg. From around 1559 on, the university was housed at the Altes Collegium, today called the "new town-hall"; the importance of the university decreased during the time of the Counter-Reformation. To counter reformatory tendencies, the administration of two faculties was handed over to the Roman Catholic order of the Jesuits in 1620. From 1682 on, the Jesuits built their college, as well as the Jesuit church. In 1679, Freiburg temporarily became French territory, along with the southern parts of the upper Rhine.
French King Louis XIV disliked the Austrian system and gave the Jesuits a free hand to operate the university. On November 6, 1684, a bilingual educational program was initiated. From 1686 to 1698, the faculty fled to Konstanz. After Freiburg was re-conquered and appointed as capital of Further Austria, a new time began for the university by the reforms of Empress Maria Theresa of Austria; the requirements for admission were changed for all faculties in 1767 and Natural Sciences were added as well as Public Administration. In 1767, the university became a governmental institution despite the Church's protests; the Church lost its predominant influence on the university when the Jesuits were suppressed following a decree signed by Pope Clement XIV in 1773. Johann Georg Jacobi in 1784 was the first Protestant professor teaching at the university in Freiburg; when Freiburg became a part of the newly established Grand Duchy of Baden in 1805, a crisis began for the university in Freiburg. Indeed, there were considerations by Karl Friedrich, Grand Duke of Baden and Karl, Grand Duke of Baden to close down the university in Freiburg while both of them thought that the Grand Duchy could not afford to run two universities at the same time.
The university had enough endowments and earnings to survive until the beginning of the regency of Ludwig I, Grand Duke of Baden in 1818. In 1820, he saved the university with an annual contribution. Since the university has been named Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg as an acknowledgement of gratitude by the university and the citizens of Freiburg. In the 1880s, the population of the student body and faculty started to grow quickly; the scientific reputation of Albert Ludwigs University attracted several researchers such as economist Adolph Wagner, historians Georg von Below and Friedrich Meinecke, jurists Karl von Amira and Paul Lenel. In 1900, Freiburg became the first German university to accept female students. In the beginning of the 20th century, several new university buildings were built in the centre of Freiburg, such as the new