Socialist realism is a style of idealized realistic art, developed in the Soviet Union and was the official style in that country between 1932 and 1988, as well as in other socialist countries after World War II. Socialist realism is characterized by the glorified depiction of communist values, such as the emancipation of the proletariat. Despite its name, the figures in the style are often idealized in sculpture, where it leans on the conventions of classical sculpture. Although related, it should not be confused with social realism, a type of art that realistically depicts subjects of social concern, or other forms of "realism" in the visual arts. Socialist realism was the predominant form of approved art in the Soviet Union from its development in the early 1920s to its eventual fall from official status beginning in the late 1960s until the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. While other countries have employed a prescribed canon of art, socialist realism in the Soviet Union persisted longer and was more restrictive than elsewhere in Europe.
Socialist realism was developed by many thousands of artists, across a diverse society, over several decades. Early examples of realism in Russian art include the work of the Peredvizhnikis and Ilya Yefimovich Repin. While these works do not have the same political connotation, they exhibit the techniques exercised by their successors. After the Bolsheviks took control of Russia on October 25, 1917, there was a marked shift in artistic styles. There had been a short period of artistic exploration in the time between the fall of the Tsar and the rise of the Bolsheviks. Shortly after the Bolsheviks took control, Anatoly Lunacharsky was appointed as head of Narkompros, the People's Commissariat for Enlightenment; this put Lunacharsky in the position of deciding the direction of art in the newly created Soviet state. Although Lunacharsky did not dictate a single aesthetic model for Soviet artists to follow, he developed a system of aesthetics based on the human body that would help to influence socialist realism.
He believed that "the sight of a healthy body, intelligent face or friendly smile was life-enhancing." He concluded that art had a direct effect on the human organism and under the right circumstances that effect could be positive. By depicting "the perfect person", Lunacharsky believed art could educate citizens on how to be the perfect Soviets. There were two main groups debating the fate of Soviet art: traditionalists. Russian Futurists, many of whom had been creating abstract or leftist art before the Bolsheviks, believed communism required a complete rupture from the past and, therefore, so did Soviet art. Traditionalists believed in the importance of realistic representations of everyday life. Under Lenin's rule and the New Economic Policy, there was a certain amount of private commercial enterprise, allowing both the futurists and the traditionalists to produce their art for individuals with capital. By 1928, the Soviet government had enough strength and authority to end private enterprises, thus ending support for fringe groups such as the futurists.
At this point, although the term "socialist realism" was not being used, its defining characteristics became the norm. The first time the term "socialist realism" was used was in 1932; the term was settled upon in meetings that included politicians of the highest level, including Stalin himself. Maxim Gorky, a proponent of literary socialist realism, published a famous article titled "Socialist Realism" in 1933 and by 1934 the term's etymology was traced back to Stalin. During the Congress of 1934, four guidelines were laid out for socialist realism; the work must be: Proletarian: art relevant to the workers and understandable to them. Typical: scenes of everyday life of the people. Realistic: in the representational sense. Partisan: supportive of the aims of the State and the Party; the purpose of socialist realism was to limit popular culture to a specific regulated faction of emotional expression that promoted Soviet ideals. The party was of the utmost importance; the key concepts that developed assured loyalty to the party, "partiinost'", "ideinost", "klassovost", "pravdivost".
There was a prevailing sense of optimism, socialist realism's function was to show the ideal Soviet society. Not only was the present gloried, but the future was supposed to be depicted in an agreeable fashion; because the present and the future were idealized, socialist realism had a sense of forced optimism. Tragedy and negativity were not permitted, unless they were shown in place; this sentiment created what would be dubbed "revolutionary romanticism."Revolutionary romanticism elevated the common worker, whether factory or agricultural, by presenting his life and recreation as admirable. Its purpose was to show. Art was used as educational information. By illustrating the party's success, artists were showing their viewers that sovietism was the best political system. Art was used to show how Soviet citizens should be acting; the ultimate aim was to create what Lenin called "an new type of human being": The New Soviet Man. Art was a way to instill party values on a massive scale. Stalin described the socialist realist artists as "engineers of souls."Common images used in socialist realism were flowers, the body, flight and new technology.
These poetic images were used to show the utopianism of the Soviet state. Art became more than an aesthetic pleasure.
Anton Vladimirovich Antonov-Ovseyenko was a Russian historian and writer. Born on 23 February 1920, he was the son of a Bolshevik military leader Vladimir Antonov-Ovseyenko. In 1935, he joined the historical faculty of the Moscow State Pedagogical Institute. In 1938, he was expelled from Komsomol and the institute wherein, however, he was reinstated in the same year, he was spent 13 years in labor camps. Antonov-Ovseyenko is best known for his biography of Lavrentiy Beria and he wrote several books. Antonov-Ovseyenko operated a state museum on the Gulag, for which the Moscow administration provided a building in August 2001; when he died in 2013, he was still working two full days a week to continue documenting what he called "the evils of the Soviet era" and to help with plans for a new, larger space. The Time of Stalin: Portrait of a Tyranny, Harper & Row, 1981, ISBN 0-06-010148-2 Theater of Joseph Stalin Moscow. "Grėgori-Pėĭdzh", 1995. ISBN 5-900493-15-6 Enemy of the people, Moscow. Intellekt, 1996.
Russian text online Beria Moscow, ACT, 1999, ISBN 5-237-03178-1 Naprasnyi podvig? Moscow: ACT, 2003. ISBN 5-17-017525-6 Anton Antonov-Ovseyenko on IMDb Anton Antonov Ovseyenko, Who Exposed Stalin Terror, Dies at 93 New York Times, July 10, 2013
USSR State Prize
The USSR State Prize was the Soviet Union's state honor. It was established on September 9, 1966. After the breakup of the Soviet Union, the prize was followed up by the State Prize of the Russian Federation; the State Stalin Prize called the Stalin Prize, existed from 1941 to 1954 – some sources give an incorrect termination date of 1952. It played the same role. In 1944 and 1945, the last two years of the Second World War the award ceremonies for the Stalin Prize were not held. Instead, in 1946 the ceremony was held twice: in January for the works created in 1943–1944 and in June for the works of 1945. USSR State Prize of 1st, 2nd and 3rd degrees was awarded annually to individuals in the fields of science, literature and architecture to honor the most prominent achievements which either advanced the Soviet Union or the cause of socialism; the prize was awarded to specific works rather than to individuals. Each constituent Soviet republic and autonomous republic had a State Prize; the Stalin Prize was an honor different from the Stalin Peace Prize.
The latter was created on 21 December 1949 and was awarded to foreign recipients rather than to Soviet citizens. It should not be confused with the Lenin Prize. Adela Rosenthal: mathematics Abraham Alikhanov: physics Alexander Evseevich Braunstein: biochemistry Nikolai Burdenko: neurosurgery Mikhail Gurevich: aeronautical engineering Sergey Ilyushin: aeronautical engineering Aleksandr Khinchin: mathematics Andrey Kolmogorov: mathematics Semyon Lavochkin: aeronautical engineering Mikhail Loginov: artillery design Trofim Lysenko: biology Dmitri Maksutov: astronomic optics Vladimir Obruchev: geology Evgeny Paton: electrical welding Nikolai Polikarpov: aeronautical engineering Nikolay Semyonov: chemical physics Sergei Sobolev: mathematics Alexey Shchusev: architecture Alexander Sergeyevich Yakovlev: aeronautical engineering Ivan Matveyevich Vinogradov: mathematics Semyon Volfkovich: chemistry Nikolai Ponomarev: astronomic optics Aleksandr Danilovich Aleksandrov: mathematics Nicholas Astrov: tank engineer Ivan Grave: artillery, for his work Ballistics of Semiclosed Space Sergey Ilyushin: aeronautical engineering Mstislav Keldysh: mathematics Isaak Kikoin: physics Mikhail Koshkin: tank engineer Leonid Isaakovich Mandelstam: physics Sergei Rubinstein: psychology Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Shmuk: biochemistry Alexander Vishnevsky: surgeon Alexander Sergeyevich Yakovlev: aeronautical engineering Nikolay Zelinsky work on organic chemistry Ivan Bardin Ivan Plotnikov: inventor of artificial leather kirza Igor Kurchatov: physicist Nicholas Astrov: tank engineer Zinaida Vissarionovna Ermol'eva: biochemistry Sergey Ilyushin: aeronautical engineering Ivan Knunyants: Chemistry Feodosy Krasovsky: astronomy Semyon Lavochkin: aeronautical engineering Nikolai Nikolaevich Polikarpov: aeronautical engineering Sergey Ivanovich Vavilov: physics Vladimir Vernadsky: mineralogy and geochemistry Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich: 2nd degree, physics – for works on combustion and detonation Mustafa Topchubashov: general surgeon Laureates for this year were announced in 1946.
Laureates for this year were announced in 1946 Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov: physics Viktor Hambardzumyan: astrophysics Sergey Ilyushin: aeronautical engineering Eugen Kapp: music composition Mstislav Keldysh: mathematics Lev Landau: physics Semyon Lavochkin: aeronautical engineering Lazar Lyusternik: mathematics Dmitri Maksutov: 1st degree, astronomic optics Anatoly Ivanovich Malcev: 2nd degree, for the research on Lie groups Vasily Sergeevich Nemchinov: mathematics Pelageya Polubarinova-Kochina: mathematics Alexander Sergeyevich Yakovlev: aeronautical engineering Sergey Ivanovich Vavilov: physics Leo Silber: immunology Yevgeny Tarle: historian Boris Zbarsky, biochemistry Nikolay Zelinsky work on chemistry of proteins Konstantin Petrzhak and Georgy Flyorov: physics Mark Veyngerov for developing of Express Optic-Acoustical Gas Analysis. Valentin Felixovich Voyno-Yasenetsky: medicine Anatoly Savin, technology Yusif Mammadaliyev:Chemistry Aliashraf Abdulhuseyn oglu Alizade: Geologist Manfred von Ardenne: for a table-top electron microscope Georgy Beriev: aeronautical engineering Nikolay Bogolyubov: mathematics Grigory Eisenberg Mikhail Gurevich: aeronautical engineering Sergey Ilyushin: aeronautical engineering Artem Mikoyan: aeronautical engineering Alexander Sergeyevich Yakovlev: aeronautical engineering Nikolai Bernstein: neurophysiology Alexander Gapeev: geology Mikhail Gurevich: aeronautical engineering Artem Mikoyan: aeronautical engineering Arseny Mironov: aeronautical engineering Semyon Lavochkin: aeronautical engineering Alexander Sergeyevich Yakovlev: aeronautical engineering Mikhail Gurevich: aircraft engineering Mikhail Kalashnikov: engineering Leonid Kantorovich: mathematics Boris Kurchatov: radiochemistry Artem Mikoyan: aircraft engineering Nikolaus Riehl: first class, for contributions to the Soviet atomic bomb project Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich: 1st degree, physics – for special works Anatoly Savin Max Taitz: aircraft flight testing Viktor Hambardzumyan: astrophysics Sergey Ilyushin: aeronautical engineering Eugen Kapp: music composition Vladimir Obruchev: geology Aleksei Pogorelov: mathematics Dmitri Skobeltsyn: physics Ilia Vekua: mathematics Mstislav Leopoldovich Rostropovich: Musician Sviatoslav Teofilovich Richter
Working Commission to Investigate the Use of Psychiatry for Political Purposes
The Working Commission to Investigate the Use of Psychiatry for Political Purposes was an offshoot of the Moscow Helsinki Group and a key source of information on psychiatric repression in the Soviet Union. The commission was established on 5 January 1977 on the initiative of Alexandr Podrabinek along with a 47-year-old self-educated worker Feliks Serebrov, a 30-year-old computer programmer Vyacheslav Bakhmin and Irina Kuplun and was composed of five open members and several anonymous ones, including a few psychiatrists who, at great danger to themselves, conducted their own independent examinations of cases of alleged psychiatric abuse; the leader of the commission was Alexandr Podrabinek who published a book Punitive Medicine containing a ‘white list’ of two hundred of prisoners of conscience in Soviet mental hospitals and a ‘black list’ of over one hundred medical staff and doctors who took part in committing people to psychiatric facilities for political reasons. The psychiatric consultants to the Commission were Dr Alexander Voloshanovich and Dr Anatoly Koryagin.
The task stated by the Commission was not to diagnose persons or to declare people who sought help mentally ill or mentally healthy. However, in some instances individuals who came for help to the Commission were examined by a psychiatrist who provided help to the Commission and made a precise diagnosis of their mental condition. At first it was psychiatrist Aleksandr Voloshanovich from the Moscow suburb of Dolgoprudny, who made these diagnoses, but when he had been compelled to emigrate on 7 February 1980, his work was continued by the Kharkov psychiatrist Anatoly Koryagin. Koryagin's contribution was to examine former and potential victims of political abuse of psychiatry by writing psychiatric diagnoses in which he deduced that the individual was not suffering from any mental disease; those reports were employed as a means of defense: if the individual was picked up again and committed to mental hospital, the Commission had vindication that the hospitalization served non-medical purposes.
Some foreign psychiatrists including the Swedish psychiatrist Harald Blomberg and British psychiatrist Gery Low-Beer helped in examining former or potential victims of psychiatric abuse. The Commission publicly referred to them when it was essential; the commission gathered as much information as possible of victims of psychiatric terror in the Soviet Union and published this information in their Information Bulletins. For the four years of its existence, the Commission published more than 1,500 pages of documentation including 22 Information Bulletins in which over 400 cases of the political abuse of psychiatry were documented in great detail. Summaries of the Information Bulletins were published in the key samizdat publication, A Chronicle of Current Events; the Information Bulletins were sent to the Soviet officials, with request to verify the data and notify the Commission if mistakes were found, to the West, where human rights defenders used them in the course of their campaigns. The Information Bulletins were used to provide the dissident movement with information about Western protests against the political abuse.
The Working Commission gathered information about relevant international events and published reports on the Honolulu Congress of the World Psychiatric Association, including the texts of the key resolutions, printed translations of long letters by Professor Peter Berner about the course of establishing the Review Committee on abuse. Over fifty victims examined by psychiatrists of the Moscow Working Commission between 1977 and 1981 and the files smuggled to the West by Vladimir Bukovsky in 1971 were the material which convinced most psychiatric associations that there was distinctly something wrong in the USSR. Peter Reddaway said that after he had studied official documents in the Soviet archives, including minutes from meetings of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, it became evident to him that Soviet officials at high levels paid close attention to foreign responses to these cases, if someone was discharged, all dissidents felt the pressure had played a significant part and the more foreign pressure the better.
In the autumn of 1978, the British Royal College of Psychiatrists carried a resolution in which it reiterated its concern over the abuse of psychiatry for the suppression of dissent in the USSR and applauded the Soviet citizens, who had taken an open stance against such abuse, by expressing its admiration and support for Semyon Gluzman, Alexander Podrabinek, Alexander Voloshanovich, Vladimir Moskalkov. Members of the Working Commission have been stifled through impisonment. All of its members were forced to emigrate; the Working Commission ceased to exist on 21 July 1981 when its last member Feliks Serebrov was sentenced to 5 years of camps and 5 years of exile. Prior to that, members of the Working Commission were arrested and sentenced to various terms of imprisonment and exile: Alexander Podrabinek was sentenced to 3 years of imprisonment, Vyacheslav Bakhmin was sentenced to 3 years of imprisonment, Leonard Ternovsky was sentenced to 3 years of imprisonment, Irina Grivnina was sentenced to 5 years of exile, Anatoly Koryagin was sentenced to severe punishment under Part 1 of Article of 70 the RSFSR Criminal Code, 7 years in prison camps and 5 years of subsequent exile.
The charge was anti-Soviet activities for having corresponded with the British medical journal The Lancet, which published an article by Koryagin critical of the Soviet government's use of involuntary psychiatric confinement for political reasons
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964. Khrushchev was responsible for the de-Stalinization of the Soviet Union, for backing the progress of the early Soviet space program, for several liberal reforms in areas of domestic policy. Khrushchev's party colleagues removed him from power in 1964, replacing him with Leonid Brezhnev as First Secretary and Alexei Kosygin as Premier. Khrushchev was born in 1894 in the village of Kalinovka, close to the present-day border between Russia and Ukraine, he was employed as a metal worker during his youth, he was a political commissar during the Russian Civil War. With the help of Lazar Kaganovich, he worked his way up the Soviet hierarchy, he supported Joseph Stalin's purges, approved thousands of arrests. In 1938, Stalin sent him to govern Ukraine, he continued the purges there.
During what was known in the Soviet Union as the Great Patriotic War, Khrushchev was again a commissar, serving as an intermediary between Stalin and his generals. Khrushchev was present at the bloody defense of Stalingrad, a fact he took great pride in throughout his life. After the war, he returned to Ukraine before being recalled to Moscow as one of Stalin's close advisers. On 5 March 1953, the death of Stalin triggered a power struggle in which Khrushchev emerged victorious after consolidating his leadership of the party with that of the Council of Ministers. On 25 February 1956, at the 20th Party Congress, he delivered the "Secret Speech", which denounced Stalin's purges and ushered in a less repressive era in the Soviet Union, his domestic policies, aimed at bettering the lives of ordinary citizens, were ineffective in agriculture. Hoping to rely on missiles for national defense, Khrushchev ordered major cuts in conventional forces. Despite the cuts, Khrushchev's rule saw the most tense years of the Cold War, culminating in the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Khrushchev's popularity was eroded by flaws in his policies. This emboldened his potential opponents, who rose in strength and deposed the Premier in October 1964. However, he did not suffer the deadly fate of previous Soviet power struggles, was pensioned off with an apartment in Moscow and a dacha in the countryside, his lengthy memoirs were smuggled to the West and published in part in 1970. Khrushchev died in 1971 of a heart attack. Khrushchev was born on 15 April 1894, in Kalinovka, a village in what is now Russia's Kursk Oblast, near the present Ukrainian border, his parents, Sergei Khrushchev and Xeniya Khrushcheva, were poor peasants of Russian origin, had a daughter two years Nikita's junior, Irina. Sergei Khrushchev was employed in a number of positions in the Donbas area of far eastern Ukraine, working as a railwayman, as a miner, labouring in a brick factory. Wages were much higher in the Donbas than in the Kursk region, Sergei Khrushchev left his family in Kalinovka, returning there when he had enough money.
Kalinovka was a peasant village. Nikita worked as a herdsboy from an early age, he was schooled for a total of four years, part in the village parochial school and part under Shevchenko's tutelage in Kalinovka's state school. According to Khrushchev in his memoirs, Shevchenko was a freethinker who upset the villagers by not attending church, when her brother visited, he gave the boy books, banned by the Imperial Government, she urged Nikita to seek further education. In 1908, Sergei Khrushchev moved to the Donbas city of Yuzovka. Yuzovka, renamed Stalino in 1924 and Donetsk in 1961, was at the heart of one of the most industrialized areas of the Russian Empire. After the boy worked in other fields, Khrushchev's parents found him a place as a metal fitter's apprentice. Upon completing that apprenticeship, the teenage Khrushchev was hired by a factory, he lost that job when he collected money for the families of the victims of the Lena Goldfields Massacre, was hired to mend underground equipment by a mine in nearby Rutchenkovo, where his father was the union organiser, he helped distribute copies and organise public readings of Pravda.
He stated that he considered emigrating to the United States for better wages, but did not do so. When World War I broke out in 1914, Khrushchev was exempt from conscription because he was a skilled metal worker, he was employed by a workshop that serviced ten mines, he was involved in several strikes that demanded higher pay, better working conditions, an end to the war. In 1914, he married daughter of the lift operator at the Rutchenkovo mine. In 1915, they had a daughter, in 1917, a son, Leonid. After the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II in 1917, the new Russian Provisional Government in Petrograd had little influence over Ukraine. Khrushchev was elected to the worker's council in Rutchenkovo, in May he became its chairman, he did not join the Bolsheviks until 1918, a year in which the Russian Civil War, between the Bolsheviks and a coalition of opponents known as the White Army, began in earnest. His biographer, William Taubman, suggests that Khrushchev's delay in affiliating himself with the Bolsheviks was because he felt closer to the Mensheviks who prioritised economic progress, whereas the Bolsheviks so
Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois Russian Cemetery
Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois Russian Cemetery is part of the Cimetière de Liers and is called the Russian Orthodox cemetery, in Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois. The Cimetière de Liers was created as the second communal cemetery on February 8, 1879 in the city of Sainte Geneviève des Bois in France, 25 km south from Paris. To house the burials of the White Russians who arrived in Paris after the Bolshevik revolution in Russia, some of the land was granted in 1927 to an English benefactress, Dorothy Paget who had set up with Elena Orlov and her sister Princess Vera Meshchersky a still active retirement home for Russian émigrés nearby in the Château de la Cossonnerie; this part of the cemetery is since known as the Russian Cemetery. In 1938 -- 39 Albert Benois designed the Dormition Church; the church is regarded as an important historic monument and is built in the style of Novgorod Churches of the 15th and 16th century. Since the 1960s, the municipal authorities have periodically attempted to close the cemetery, claiming that the grounds are needed for public services.
Part of the area surrounding the cemetery has been developed as housing estates. There have been reports that the exhumed remains cremated; the cemetery is not considered a landmark and has no legal protection, although the French Ministry of Culture and Communication recognises the cemetery as an important historical monument and it has an entry in the Base Mérimée. As its future remains precarious, several notable Russians – including Ivan Ilyin and Ivan Shmelev – were exhumed and reburied in Moscow; the cemetery is closed to new burials. It was only after pressure from the central government that the burial of Rudolf Nureyev was sanctioned there, his tomb is covered with a mosaic decoration to represent a traditional kilim blanket. In November 2000 Russian president Vladimir Putin visited the cemetery to pay homage to those buried there. Many trees have been planted to create an authentic Russian feel to the cemetery, it is estimated. There is one mausoleum, it is estimated that between 10,000 and 15,000 Russian emigrants or French people of Russian origin have been buried here.
Among those are Nobel Prize winner author Ivan Bunin authors including Andrei Amalrik, Gaito Gazdanov, Zinaida Gippius, Dmitry Merezhkovsky, Viktor Nekrasov, Aleksey Remizov, Ivan Shmelyov, Nadezhda Teffi and Boris Zaytsev. Selected others: Tatiana Botkina, Patrick Topaloff and Eugene Znosko-Borovsky. There are memorials for Russians who died in the War effort. There are military divisions such as for the Alekseyev Division, the Drozdovsky Division, the Don Cossacks, the Cadet Corps; the cemetery is located on Rue Léo Lagrange in Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois. There are two entrances both on Rue Léo Lagrange. There is a bus station opposite the intersection with Rue Léo Lagrange leading to the cemetery; the nearest train stations are at St. Michel-sur-Orge. 241 records of the 5220 graves in the cemetery, in 2 volumes / 2 languages, French: Amis de Ste Geneviève des Bois et ses environs, La Nécropole russe de Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois, Vulcano Communication, Evry 2009 ISBN 978-2-9524786-1-8 and translate in Russian by Anastasia de Seauve, бщество друзей истории Сент-Женевьев-де-Буа и его окрестностей, пер.
С франц. Анастасия де Сов, Русский некрополь Сент-Женевьев-де-Буа, Vulcano Communication, Evry 2009 The cemetery at russie.net The cemetery in the Base Mérimée Cimetière de Sainte Genevieve Des Bois at Find A Grave. Guide to finding Andrei Tarkovsky's grave at the cemetery Guide to finding Rudolf Nureyev's grave at the cemetery
Communist Party of the Soviet Union
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union. The CPSU was the sole governing party of the Soviet Union until 1990, when the Congress of People's Deputies modified Article 6 of the most recent 1977 Soviet constitution, which had granted the CPSU a monopoly over the political system; the party was founded in 1912 by the Bolsheviks, a majority faction detached from the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, led by Vladimir Lenin, who seized power in the October Revolution of 1917. After 74 years, it was dissolved on 29 August 1991 on Soviet territory, soon after a failed coup d'état by hard-line CPSU leaders against Soviet president and party general secretary Mikhail Gorbachev and was outlawed three months on 6 November 1991 in Russian territory; the CPSU was a Communist party, organized on the basis of democratic centralism. This principle, conceived by Lenin, entails democratic and open discussion of policy issues within the party followed by the requirement of total unity in upholding the agreed policies.
The highest body within the CPSU was the Party Congress. When the Congress was not in session, the Central Committee was the highest body; because the Central Committee met twice a year, most day-to-day duties and responsibilities were vested in the Politburo, the Secretariat and the Orgburo. The party leader was the head of government and held the office of either General Secretary, Premier or head of state, or some of the three offices concurrently—but never all three at the same time; the party leader was the de facto chairman of the CPSU Politburo and chief executive of the Soviet Union. The tension between the party and the state for the shifting focus of power was never formally resolved, but in reality the party dominated and a paramount leader always existed. After the founding of the Soviet Union in 1922, Lenin had introduced a mixed economy referred to as the New Economic Policy, which allowed for capitalist practices to resume under the Communist Party dictation in order to develop the necessary conditions for socialism to become a practical pursuit in the economically undeveloped country.
In 1929, as Joseph Stalin became the leader of the party, Marxism–Leninism, a fusion of the original ideas of German philosopher and economic theorist Karl Marx, Lenin, became formalized as the party's guiding ideology and would remain so throughout the rest of its existence. The party pursued state socialism, under which all industries were nationalized and a planned economy was implemented. After recovering from the Second World War, reforms were implemented which decentralized economic planning and liberalized Soviet society in general under Nikita Khrushchev. By 1980, various factors, including the continuing Cold War, ongoing nuclear arms race with the United States and other Western European powers and unaddressed inefficiencies in the economy, led to stagnant economic growth under Alexei Kosygin, further with Leonid Brezhnev and a growing disillusionment. After a younger vigorous Mikhail Gorbachev, assumed leadership in 1985, rapid steps were taken to transform the tottering Soviet economic system in the direction of a market economy once again.
Gorbachev and his allies envisioned the introduction of an economy similar to Lenin's earlier New Economic Policy through a program of "perestroika", or restructuring, but their reforms along with the institution of free multiparty elections led to a decline in the party's power, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the banning of the party by last RSFSR President Boris Yeltsin and subsequent first President of an evolving democratic and free market economy of the successor Russian Federation. A number of causes contributed to CPSU's loss of control and the dissolution of the Soviet Union during the early 1990s; some historians have written that Gorbachev's policy of "glasnost" was the root cause, noting that it weakened the party's control over society. Gorbachev maintained. Others have blamed the economic stagnation and subsequent loss of faith by the general populace in communist ideology. In the final years of the CPSU's existence, the Communist Parties of the federal subjects of Russia were united into the Communist Party of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.
After the CPSU's demise, the Communist Parties of the Union Republics became independent and underwent various separate paths of reform. In Russia, the Communist Party of the Russian Federation emerged and has been regarded as the inheritor of the CPSU's old Bolshevik legacy into the present day. 1912–18:Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party 1918–25:Russian Communist Party 1925–52:All-Union Communist Party 1952–91:Communist Party of the Soviet Union The origin of the CPSU was in the Bolshevik majority faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin, left the party in January 1912 to form a new one at the Prague Party Conference, called the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party – or RSDLP. Prior to the February Revolution, the first phase of the Russian Revolutions of 1917, the party worked underground as organized anti-Tsarist groups. By the time of the revolution, many of the party's central leaders, including Lenin, were in exile. With Emperor Nicholas II, deposed in February 1917, a republic was established and administered by a provisional gove