Stanislovas "Stasys" Stonkus was a Soviet and Lithuanian basketball player who competed for the Soviet Union in the 1952 Summer Olympics and in the 1956 Summer Olympics. He was born in Telšiai. In 1954, he graduated from the Lithuanian National Physical Education Institute, he trained at VSS Žalgiris in Kaunas. He was a member of the Soviet team, he played. Four years he won his second silver medal as part of the Soviet team, he defended his doctoral dissertation at Tartu University in 1974, his Dr Habil. before the Joint Council in Moscow. After serving as rector of the Physical Education Institute, he was vice-president of the Lithuanian Olympic Committee for four years. Stonkus has compiled a dictionary of sports terms in Lithuanian and has written several studies on sport. Profile
PBC CSKA Moscow
PBC CSKA Moscow is a Russian professional basketball team based in Moscow, Russia. The club is a member of the EuroLeague. CSKA won two titles between 2006 and 2008, in Europe's principal club competition, the EuroLeague, making the final in all four seasons, has advanced to the EuroLeague Final Four 16 times in the 21st century. CSKA is dominating in winning all but one titles up-to-date. With 7 EuroLeague championships, one NEBL championship, 49 home league championships, 7 home cups and 9 VTB United League titles in total, CSKA is the most successful basketball team in Russia, is one of the most successful basketball teams in Europe. In Euroleague in 2006 CSKA won its first title in a long time, defeating Maccabi 73-69 in the final in Prague. Next year the team lost in the 2007 final 93–91 to Panathinaikos on the Greens' home floor, the Nikos Galis Olympic Indoor Hall in Athens. In 2008, they won a rematch of the 2006 final against Maccabi 91–77 in Madrid. In 2009, they lost a rematch of the 2007 final against Panathinaikos 73–71 in Berlin.
The club competed in 8 consecutive EuroLeague Final Fours from 2003 to 2010, an all-time record. CSKA won its last up-to-date title in 2016, after beating Fenerbahçe in the final, by a score of 101–96, in overtime. Well-known players that have played for the club over the years include: Sergei Belov, Gennadi Volnov, Viktor Zubkov, Yuri Korneev, Vladimir Andreev, Anatoly Myshkin, Stanislav Yeryomin, Ivan Edeshko, Alzhan Zharmukhamedov, Sergei Tarakanov, Rimas Kurtinaitis, Vladimir Tkachenko, Sergei Bazarevich, Sasha Volkov, Andrei Kirilenko, Trajan Langdon, Darius Songaila, Gordan Giriček, Dragan Tarlać, Marcus Brown, Ramūnas Šiškauskas, Theo Papaloukas, Nenad Krstić, Miloš Teodosić, J R Holden and Nando de Colo. Alexander Gomelsky, the legendary basketball coach, worked in CSKA for nearly 20 years, turning it into a powerhouse. Nowadays, CSKA has the reputation for being one of the richest sports clubs in Europe, having been owned by Russian billionaire Mikhail Prokhorov, being owned by Norilsk Nickel.
CSKA was founded on 29 April 1923 known as OPPV, when on that day soldiers and sportsmen fought in football against each other for the first place of Moscow. "OPPV", which means Опытно-показательная военно-спортивная площадка всевобуча, a department in the General military education service, was the first central sports department of the Red Army. It was based on the pre-revolutionary "Community of Amateur Skiers"; the first success of the basketball department came at the 1924 Soviet League championship, played between cities, not clubs. Two more titles followed in 1928 and 1935. In 1938, the Soviet League championship was played between clubs, CSKA under the name CDKA debuted there. Stalin's son, Vasily founded the club VVS MVO, with CDKA merging with it. By the end of the Great Patriotic War, CSKA established itself as one of the most respected Soviet basketball teams. In 1953 and 1954, the club was renamed CDSA, between 1955–60, it was known as CSK MO, in 1960, it received its current name CSKA.
CSKA won the FIBA European Champions Cup title, in 1961, 1963, 1969, 1971. They won the Soviet League championship 24 times. CSKA won the Russian League title, every year from 1992, through 2000, every year from 2003 to 2008. CSKA made the 1996 EuroLeague Final Four, they made the 2001 SuproLeague Final Four, the 2003 EuroLeague Final Four, the 2004 EuroLeague Final Four, the 2005 EuroLeague Final Four, before winning the EuroLeague championship at the 2006 EuroLeague Final Four. In the 2004–05 season, the team became the first in the history of the EuroLeague to go through the regular-season phase undefeated, during the 2004–05 EuroLeague season, before the 2005 EuroLeague Final Four, it had only lost to one team: FC Barcelona. Though CSKA lost in the semifinals on their home court to Spanish League club TAU Cerámica, to Panathinaikos, of the Greek League, in the third-place game; that sent them to the 2nd grade teams in the EuroLeague draw, although they finished the league with the best record.
That same year they lost a game in the finals series of the Russian League, but they got the Russian League crown. In 2006, CSKA qualified by finishing third in their group, they finished at the top of their Top 16 group, being denied a perfect record at Tau, in their final game. CSKA entered the 2006 EuroLeague Final Four on a roll, as the only club to sweep their best-of-three quarterfinal series, by defeating Turkish Super League power Efes Pilsen, they defeated Barça in the EuroLeague semis, before defeating the high-powered offense of Maccabi Tel Aviv, of the Israeli Super League, in the final, on April 30 though the overall record of Maccabi's games with CSKA Moscow favored the Israeli club. The following year, they nearly repeated as EuroLeague champions, but wound up facing Panathinaikos in the final, on the Greek team's home floor, OAKA Indoor Hall, designated more than a year earlier as the site for that year's Final Four. Panathinaikos won a fought battle. In 2008, their EuroLeague championship win at the 2008 EuroLeague Final Four, put them in sole possession of second place for overall top-tier level European-wide titles.
Only Real Madrid, with eight titles, had won more than CSKA's six titles
Viktor Alekseyevich Zubkov is a Russian politician and businessman who served as the 36th Prime Minister of Russia from September 2007 to May 2008. He was Vladimir Putin's First Deputy Prime Minister during the presidency of Dmitry Medvedev. A civil servant who held various positions in the Leningrad Oblast under the Soviet regime, he served as advisor to Cabinet Ministers. Zubkov was a financial crime investigator until he was nominated on 12 September 2007 by President Vladimir Putin to replace Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov, who had resigned earlier that day; the nomination was approved in the Duma on 14 September 2007. On 7 May 2008 Zubkov's cabinet was automatically dismissed; this procedure, following an inauguration of the President of Russia is required by the Russian Constitution. After Putin became Prime Minister, Zubkov was appointed First Deputy Prime Minister of Russia. Zubkov is the current chairman of the board of directors of Gazprom, Russia's largest corporation and one of the largest oil and natural gas companies in the world.
Born in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Zubkov graduated from the Economic Department of the Leningrad Agriculture Institute in 1972. In 1966 he was drafted to the Soviet Army for an 18-month term. From 1967 to 1985 he worked on leading positions in kolkhozes of Leningrad Oblast. From 1985 to 1991 he occupied several leading positions in the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in Leningrad Oblast: Chairman of the Priozersk City Executive Committee, First Secretary of the Priozersk City Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, head of the Department of Agriculture and Food Industry and the Agricultural Department of the Regional Committee of the CPSU, he was First Deputy Chairman of the Leningrad Oblast Executive Committee from 1989 to 1991. In January 1992 to November 1993 he was a deputy Chairman of the External Relations Committee of the Saint Petersburg Mayor Office led by Vladimir Putin. From 3 November 1993, to 30 November 1998, Zubkov was the Chief of the Saint Petersburg Department of the State Tax Inspection and a Deputy Chairman of the State Tax Inspection for Saint Petersburg.
In December 1998, during the term of Yevgeny Primakov's Cabinet the State Tax Inspection was reorganized into the Tax Ministry of Russia and Zubkov's deputy head position was abolished, but he was reappointed Chief of the Saint Petersburg Directorate of the Tax Ministry. On 23 July 1999 Zubkov was appointed Deputy Tax Minister of Russia for the Northwestern region. In a few days he was appointed Chief of the Saint Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast Directorate of the Tax Ministry. On 12 August 1999 he was registered as a contender in the Leningrad Oblast governor election, assisted by Boris Gryzlov as his election campaign manager, but lost the election to Valeriy Serdyukov on 19 September 1999, with 8.64 percent of the vote. On 5 November 2001 he left his positions in the Tax Ministry and was appointed First Deputy Finance Minister of Russia and Chairman of the Financial Monitoring Committee of the ministry, aimed to fight money laundering. On 16 March 2004 after the dismissal of Mikhail Kasyanov's Cabinet, the Financial Monitoring Committee was renamed to Federal Financial Monitoring Service of the Finance Ministry, but Zubkov retained his position in Mikhail Fradkov's First Cabinet and Mikhail Fradkov's Second Cabinet.
In a 2006 survey of political experts, Zubkov was ranked as Russia's 84th most influential politician. Zubkov's daughter is married to the former Russian Defense Minister. On 12 September 2007, President Vladimir Putin proposed his candidacy for the post of Prime Minister and on 14 September, the State Duma approved him in the post. Zubkov resigned 8 May 2008; some Kremlinologists viewed Zubkov as one more technical Prime Minister, interpreting the move as a way to renew a competition between possible successors. Another theory suggested that Putin chose a man of unquestioning loyalty to help him control powerful factions jostling for position inside the Kremlin. Another clue to his usefulness lies in Zubkov's experience under Putin as the man leading the fight against financial crime. Putin said that there were five people who can run for president and can be elected, including Zubkov. On 13 September Zubkov himself said he might run for President of Russia in 2008. However, in December 2007 Putin gave his support to Dmitry Medvedev for the 2008 presidential election dashing Zubkov's hopes for the presidency.
After Medvedev took office, Zubkov succeeded him as Chairman of Gazprom. Order "For Merit to the Fatherland" 1st class 2nd class - for his great personal contribution to the economic policy of the state and many years of fruitful activity 3rd class - for outstanding contribution to protecting the economic interests of the Russian Federation and many years of diligent work 4th class - for services to the state and a major contribution to the implementation of economic reforms Ceremonial dagger Order of the Red Banner of Labour Order of the Badge of Honour Medal "Veteran of Labour" Honored Economist of the Russian Federation - for services in the field of economics and finance Diploma of the Government of the Russian Federation Honorary Citizen of the Leningrad Region Order of Holy Prince Daniel of Moscow, 1st class Biography by Vladimir Pribylovsky Profile at Gazprom Profile: Viktor Zubkow at BBC News, 12 September 2007 "Viktor Zubkov collected news and commentary"; the New York Times. Works by or about Viktor Zubkov in
Valerian Vladimirovich Kuybyshev was a Russian revolutionary, Red Army officer, prominent Soviet politician. Kuybyshev was born in Omsk in the Russian Empire on 6 June 1888, he studied at the Omsk Military Cadet School. He joined the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in 1904; the following year, he entered a military medical academy, but was expelled in 1906 for controversial political activities. Between 1906 and 1914, Kuybyshev performed subversive activities for the Bolsheviks throughout the Empire, for which he was exiled to Narym in Siberia where—together with Yakov Sverdlov—he set up a local Bolshevik organization. In May 1912 he fled and returned to Omsk, where he was arrested the next month, imprisoned for a year, he was transferred to Tambov to live independently under police surveillance, but soon fled again, whereafter he spent 1913–14 encouraging civil unrest in the cities of St. Petersburg and Vologda. During the Russian Civil War he chaired the revolutionary committee of Samara province and became a political commissar in the First and Fourth Red Armies.
In 1920 Kuybyshev was elected a member of Presidium of the Red International of Trade Unions, which charged him with the implementation of the GOELRO plan. From 6 July 1923 to 5 August 1926 he was the first economical inspector of the USSR. From 1926 to 1930 he chaired the Supreme Council of the National Economy, from 1930 to 1934 he directed Gosplan, he served as a full member of the Politburo from 1934 until his death; as a principal economic advisor to Joseph Stalin, he was one of the most influential members in the Communist Party. He was awarded the Order of the Red Banner. Kuybyshev was one of the initiators of the first edition of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia and was a member of its chief editorial board. Kuybyshev died in Moscow on 25 January 1935 of heart alcoholism; as Bolshevik tradition had established, he was buried outside the Kremlin walls. Kuybyshev married twice, but never had any children, he was a practiced poet. One of his wives was the niece of Galina Aleksandrovna Troyanovskaya.
The city of Samara, the town of Bolgar, the town of Haghartsin, Armenia were all renamed Kuybyshev during the period between 1935 and 1991. The towns of Kuybyshev in Novosibirsk Oblast and Kuybyshev, still have his name. Media related to Valerian Kuybyshev at Wikimedia Commons Biography page page page Newspaper clippings about Valerian Kuybyshev in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
The 1961 FIBA European Championship called FIBA EuroBasket 1961, was the twelfth FIBA EuroBasket regional basketball championship, held by FIBA Europe. Eighteen national teams affiliated with the International Basketball Federation entered the competition; the competition was hosted by Yugoslavia. The event was held at the Beograd City Fair. Soviet Union Yugoslavia Bulgaria France Czechoslovakia Hungary Romania Belgium Poland Turkey Israel East Germany Spain Finland Netherlands West Germany Greece Sweden England 1. Soviet Union: Jānis Krūmiņš, Gennadi Volnov, Valdis Muižnieks, Maigonis Valdmanis, Viktor Zubkov, Armenak Alachachian, Yuri Korneev, Vladimir Ugrekhelidze, Aleksander Petrov, Aleksander Kandel, Viacheslav Novikov, Albert Valtin 2. Yugoslavia: Radivoj Korać, Ivo Daneu, Slobodan Gordić, Radovan Radović, Nemanja Đurić, Vital Eiselt, Sreten Dragojlović, Marjan Kandus, Miha Lokar, Miodrag Nikolić, Zvonko Petričević, Željko Troskot 3. Bulgaria: Viktor Radev, Mincho Dimov, Ljubomir Panov, Georgi Panov, Atanas Atanasov, Ilija Mirchev, Petko Lazarov, Tsvetko Savov, Khristo Tsvetkov, Khristo Donev, Radko Zlatev, Stefan Stojkov 4.
France: Jean-Paul Beugnot, Henri Grange, Christian Baltzer, Bernard Mayeur, Michel Rat, Lucien Sedat, Jerome Christ, Michel House, Michel le Ray, Andre Goisbault, Jean-Claude Vergne, Andre Souvre
Rostov-on-Don is a port city and the administrative centre of Rostov Oblast and the Southern Federal District of Russia. It lies in the southeastern part of the East European Plain on the Don River, 32 kilometers from the Sea of Azov; the southwestern suburbs of the city abut the Don River delta. The population is over one million people. From ancient times, the area around the mouth of the Don River has held cultural and commercial importance. Ancient indigenous inhabitants included the Scythian and Savromat tribes, it was the site of Tanais, an ancient Greek colony, Fort Tana, under the Genoese and Fort Azak in the time of the Ottoman Empire. In 1749, a custom house was established on the Temernik River, a tributary of the Don, by edict of Empress Elizabeth, the daughter of Peter the Great, in order to control trade with Turkey, it was co-located with a fortress named for Dimitry of Rostov, a metropolitan bishop of the old northern town of Rostov the Great. Azov, a town closer to the Sea of Azov on the Don lost its commercial importance in the region to the new fortress.
In 1756, the "Russian commercial and trading company of Constantinople" was founded at the "merchants' settlement" on the high bank of the Don. Towards the end of the eighteenth century, with the incorporation of Ottoman Black Sea territories into the Russian Empire, the settlement lost much of its militarily strategic importance as a frontier post. In 1796, the settlement was chartered and in 1797, it became the seat of Rostovsky Uyezd within Novorossiysk Governorate. In 1806, it was renamed Rostov-on-Don. During the 19th century, due to its river connections with Russia's interior, Rostov developed into a major trade centre and communications hub. A railway connection with Kharkiv was completed in 1870, with further links following in 1871 to Voronezh and in 1875 to Vladikavkaz. Concurrent with improvements in communications, heavy industry developed. Coal from the Donets Basin and iron ore from Krivoy Rog supported the establishment of an iron foundry in 1846. In 1859, the production of pumps and steam boilers began.
Industrial growth was accompanied by a rapid increase in population, with 119,500 residents registered in Rostov by the end of the nineteenth century along with 140 industrial businesses. The harbour was one of the largest trade hubs in southern Russia for the export of wheat and iron ore. In 1779, Rostov-on-Don became associated with a settlement of Armenian refugees from the Crimea at Nakhichevan-on-Don; the two settlements were separated by a field of wheat. In 1928, the two towns were merged; the former town border lies beneath the Teatralnaya Square of central Rostov-on-Don. By 1928, following the incorporation of the hitherto neighbouring city of Nakhichevan-on-Don, Rostov had become the third largest city in Russia. In the early 20th century, epidemics of cholera during the summer months were not uncommon. During the Russian Civil War, the Whites and the Reds contested Rostov-on-Don the most industrialized city of South Russia. By 1928, the regional government had moved from the old Cossack capital of Novocherkassk to Rostov-on-Don.
In the Soviet years, the Bolsheviks demolished two of Rostov-on-Don's principal landmarks: St. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral and St. George Cathedral. During World War II, German forces occupied Rostov-on-Don, at first for ten days from November 21, 1941 to November 29, 1941 after attacks by the German First Panzer Army in the Battle of Rostov and for seven months from July 23, 1942 to February 14, 1943; the town was of strategic importance as a railway junction and a river port accessing the Caucasus, a region rich in oil and minerals. It took ten years to restore the city from the damage during World War II. On August 11 and 12, 1942 in Rostov-on-Don 27,000 Jews were massacred by the German military at a site called Zmievskaya Balka. In 2018, Rostov-on-Don hosted several matches of the FIFA World Cup. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Rostov-na-Donu Urban Okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts; as a municipal division, this administrative unit has urban okrug status.
Rostov-on-Don is divided into eight city districts: The 2010 census recorded the population of Rostov-on-Don at 1,089,261 making it the tenth most populous city in Russia. Albert Parry, born in 1901 in Rostov-on-Don, wrote of the summers of his childhood: There were sultry days of brassy sun, but cool evenings on the balconies facing the Don River, with the soft glow of charcoal in the samovar, with the ripe cherries crushed by your spoon against the bottom and sides of your glass of scalding tea. Rostov-on-Don lies in a humid continental climate; the winter is moderately cold, with an average February temperature of −3.1 °C. The lowest recorded temperature of −31.9 °C occurred in January 1940. Summers are humid; the city's highest recorded temperature of +40.1 °C was reported on 1 August 2010. The mean annual precipitation is 643 millimeters, the average wind speed is 2.7 m/s, the average air humidity is 72%. In December 1996, Rostov-on-Don adopted a coat of arms, a flag and a mayoral decoration as the symbols of the town.
The first coat of arms of Rostov-on-Don was approved by the Tsar. In 1904, some changes were made. One lasting oil painting of the coat-of-arms is kept in the regional local history museum but its accuracy and authenticity is uncertain. In June 1996, the Rostov-on-Don City Duma adopted a variant of the coat-of-arms in which a tower represents th
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic known as the Russian Soviet Republic and the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, as well as being unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia, or Russia, was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, afterwards the largest, most populous and most economically developed of the 15 Soviet socialist republics of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1990 a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991, during the last two years of the existence of the USSR. The Russian Republic comprised sixteen smaller constituent units of autonomous republics, five autonomous oblasts, ten autonomous okrugs, six krais and forty oblasts. Russians formed the largest ethnic group; the capital of the Russian SFSR was Moscow and the other major urban centers included Leningrad, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod and Samara. The economy of Russia became industrialized, accounting for about two-thirds of the electricity produced in the USSR.
By 1961, it was the third largest producer of petroleum due to new discoveries in the Volga-Urals region and Siberia, trailing in production to only the United States and Saudi Arabia. In 1974, there were 475 institutes of higher education in the republic providing education in 47 languages to some 23,941,000 students. A network of territorially organized public-health services provided health care. After 1985, the "perestroika" restructuring policies of the Gorbachev administration liberalised the economy, which had become stagnant since the late 1970s under General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev, with the introduction of non-state owned enterprises such as cooperatives; the Russian Soviet Republic was proclaimed on 7 November 1917 as a sovereign state and the world's first constitutionally socialist state with the ideology of Communism. The first Constitution was adopted in 1918. In 1922, the Russian SFSR signed the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR setting up of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The 1977 Soviet Constitution stated that "Union Republic is a sovereign state that has united in the Union" and "each Union Republic shall retain the right to secede from the USSR". On 12 June 1990, the Congress of People's Deputies adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty, established separation of powers, established citizenship of Russia and stated that the RSFSR shall retain the right of free secession from the USSR. On 12 June 1991, Boris Yeltsin, supported by the Democratic Russia pro-reform movement, was elected the first and only President of the RSFSR, a post that would become the presidency of the Russian Federation; the August 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt with the temporary brief internment of President Mikhail Gorbachev destabilised the Soviet Union. On 8 December 1991, the heads of Russia and Belarus signed the Belavezha Accords; the agreement declared dissolution of the USSR by its original founding states and established the Commonwealth of Independent States as a loose confederation.
On 12 December, the agreement was ratified by the Supreme Soviet. On 25 December 1991, following the resignation of Gorbachev as President of the Soviet Union, the Russian SFSR was renamed the Russian Federation, with President Yeltsin re-establishing the sovereign and independent state. With the lowering at 12 midnight of the red flag with hammer and sickle design of the now former USSR from the towers of the Kremlin in Moscow on 26 December 1991, the USSR was self-dissolved by the Soviet of the Republics, which by that time was the only functioning chamber of the parliamentary Supreme Soviet. After dissolution of the USSR, Russia declared that it assumed the rights and obligations of the dissolved central Soviet government, including UN membership and permanent membership on the Security Council, but excluding foreign debt and foreign assets of the USSR; the 1978 RSFSR Constitution was amended several times to reflect the transition to democracy, private property and market economy. The new Russian Constitution, coming into effect on 25 December 1993 after a constitutional crisis abolished the Soviet form of government and replaced it with a semi-presidential system.
Under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky, the Bolshevik communists established the Soviet state on 7 November 1917 after the interim Russian Provisional Government, most led by opposing democratic socialist Alexander Kerensky, which governed the new Russian Republic after the overthrow of the Russian Empire government of the Romanov imperial dynasty of Czar Nicholas II the previous March, was now itself overthrown during the following October Revolution, the second of t