Enghave Brygge is a waterfront area in the Southern Docklands of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located between Teglholmen to Kalvebod Brygge to the north. An abandoned industrial site, a plan for its redevelopment was adopted in July 2013; the most prominent landmark in the area is the H. C. Ørsted Power Station. The land is owned by JM Danmark samt By & Havn; the plan for the area has been created by Juul Frost Arkitekter, Gröning Arkitekter and Danielsen Architecture in collaboration with the City. The area will comprise 2,400 apartments and about 37.800 square metres of commercial and retail space. A central element in the plan is the creation of a 700 metres long canal, Enghave Canal, which will be a modern equivavalent to Christianshavn Canal on the other side of the harbor; the buildings along the water will be located on 11 individual "islands". A greenspace will mark the transition to H. C. Ørsted Power Station. Enghave Brygge will be a station on the planned South Harbour Line of the Copenhagen Metro.
Bridges will connect Enghave Brygge to Teglholmen to the south and across the harbor to the southern part of Islands Brygge. Enghave Brygge is seen in silhouet st 0:42:28 in the first Olsen Gang film. In The Last Exploits of the Olsen Gang, Bøffen tries to make Egon "disappear and stay disappeared" by embedding his feet in a concrete block and dumping him into the harbor from a crane at one of the scrapyards on Enghave Brygge. Enghave Brygge is used as a location at 0:43:46 in The Olsen Gang on the Track. Enghave Brygge is used as a location at 0:28:00 in The Olsen Gang Outta Sight. Frederiks Brygge Local plan proposal
Vilhelm Heinrich Friederichsen was a Danish architect. Friederichsen was born in Copenhagen, the son of carpenter Peter Wilhelm Friederichsen and Helene Theresia Seerup, he apprenticed as a carpenter and attended the Technical Institute in Læderstræde in the winter time for three years before enrolling at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in 1856 where he studied under Gustav Friedrich Hetsch and Christian Hansen. He won the small silver medal in 1864 and graduated in 1865. Friederichsen and Peter Christian Bønecke won third prize in the competition for the new Royal Danish Theatre in 1871 and specialized in the design of hospitals, he designed the first phase of the Øresund Hospital in 1875-76 and the Blegdam Hospital in 1878-80. In 1883-85, he designed the Sankt Johannes Stiftelse complexes on both sides of Ruesgade for which he received the C. F. Hansen Medal in 1886, he designed Præstø County's hospital in Stege in 1892 and extensions of Næstved Hospital in 1893-94. In the late 1880s and early 1890s, he was involved in the preparation of the relocation of Frederiks Hospital and Fødselsstiftelsen but his 1892 Rigshospitalet proposal was not selected.
Friederichsen was the designer of a large number of public and private buildings in the new neighbourhoods that developed on the outskirts of Copenhagen towards the end of the century. He served as Building Inspector in Copenhagen's 1st District in 1875-89, he designed some of the first slaughterhouses in the first phase of the new Cattle Market in 1881-83. He married Anna Kirstine Katharine Madsen m a daughter of fire department director Niels Madsen and Mariane Sarine Johansen, on 26 July 1867 in Frederiksberg. Dannebrogsgade 24, Copenhagen Vodroffsvej 5-9, Frederiksberg Viktoriagade 16, Copenhagen Vesterbrogade 55, Copenhagen Absalonsgade 22, Copenhagen Vesterbrogade 73 B/Saxogade 2, Copenhagen Frederiksberg Allé 2, Frederiksberg Hauchsvej 13, Frederiksberg Five buildings on Gammelholm, Copenhagen Øresund Hospital, Carl Nielsens Allé, Copenhagen Blegdam Hospital, Copenhagen Sankt Johannes Stiftelse and Sortedams Dossering 1st phase Cattle Market and Vestre Gasværk Trommesalen 1-3 Mynstersvej 3, Frederiksberg Vesterbrogade 66, Copenhagen Viktoriagade 14, Copenhagen Tullinsgade 23, Copenhagen Sporvejsselskabets remises, Århusgade 101 and Blegdamsvej 132, Copenhagen Extension of remise, Bragesgade 5, Nørrebro Frederikssund Hospital, Frederikssund Vesterbrogade 39-41, Copenhagen Rosenkranskirken and School, Boyesgade 8, Copenhagen Præstø County Hospital, Stege Mariahjemmet and St- Knud's Chapel, Vester Voldgade 115, Copenhagen Epidemihus, Præstø County Hospital, Ringstedgade, Næstved Egestræde School, Store Heddinge Tårnborgvej 4 and 6-8, Copenhagen Buildings, Tivoli Gardens, Copenhagenj Vilhelm Friederichsen at Kunstindeks Danmark
Denmark the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, is bordered to the south by Germany; the Kingdom of Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand and the North Jutlandic Island; the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2, land area of 42,394 km2, the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2, a population of 5.8 million. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark and Norway were ruled together under one sovereign ruler in the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523.
The areas of Denmark and Norway remained under the same monarch until Denmark -- Norway. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several devastating wars with the Swedish Empire, ending with large cessions of territory to Sweden. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden, while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands and Iceland. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. An industrialised exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century that created the basis for the present welfare state model with a developed mixed economy; the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy, which had begun in 1660.
It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city, main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948. Denmark negotiated certain opt-outs, it is among the founding members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE, the United Nations. Denmark is considered to be one of the most economically and developed countries in the world. Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks in some metrics of national performance, including education, health care, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance and human development; the country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility, a high level of income equality, is among the countries with the lowest perceived levels of corruption in the world, the eleventh-most developed in the world, has one of the world's highest per capita incomes, one of the world's highest personal income tax rates.
The etymology of the word Denmark, the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as one kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centered on the prefix "Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -"mark" ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave"; the -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth; the larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's "baptismal certificate", though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚢᚱᚴ tanmaurk on the large stone, genitive ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚱᚴᛅᚱ "tanmarkar" on the small stone.
The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "Danes", in the accusative. The earliest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to the Eem interglacial period from 130,000–110,000 BC. Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC; the Nordic Bronze Age in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot. During the Pre-Roman Iron Age, native groups began migrating south, the first tribal Danes came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age, in the Roman Iron Age; the Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron; the tribal Danes came from the east Danish islands and Scania and spoke an early form of North Germanic.
Historians believe that before their arrival, most of Jutland and the nearest islands were settled by tribal J
Sønder Boulevard is a boulevard in the Vesterbro district of Copenhagen, whose broad central reserve has been turned into a linear park with various facilities for sports and other activities. It continues south-west to Enghavevej at Enghave station. Sønder Boulevard follows the initial stretch of Denmarks first railway, the West Line between Copenhagen and Roskilde, which opened in 1847. In 1864, the rail line was moved to a more northern course, through Frederiksberg, before being moved to its current position just south of Sønder Boulevard in 1911; the portion of the abandoned railway terrain closest to the city was transformed into a street known as Ny Stormgade, but Sønder Boulevard in its current form was established in 1905. The name was chosen to complement Vester Boulevard, renamed H. C. Andersens Boulevard in 1954. In World War II, a stray British bomb hit No. 106 and exploded during Operation Carthage on 21 March 1945, killing 11 people in the building. Sønder Boulevard was long a dilapidated thoroughfare dominated by traffic.
The elm trees which lined it were hit by Dutch elm disease and had to be removed. After Halmtorvet was refurbished between 1999 and 2003, Sønder Boulevard was given similar treatment from 2005 to 2007; the project was designed by SLA. The boulevard has sections with different forms of vegetation such as perennial gardens. Facilities include a playground with a shipwreck theme, a ball cage, a track for BMX bikes and seating areas with different ambiances. Most of the boulevard is lined with typical Copenhagen five-storey residential buildings from the late 19th and early 20th century. Absalon's Church was completed in 1934 to design by Arthur Wittmaack. Wittmaack has designed the cinema Boulevard Teatret which opened at No. 79-81 in 1924. In 1965, it was taken over by Peter Refn og Knud Hauge and operated as Copenhagen's first art cinema under the name Camera, it closed after Refn took over Grand Teatret in 1974. The Camera cinema was used as a location in the 1967 film Fantasterne and again in the 1968 film Min søsters børn vælter byen.
Sønder Boulevard on SLA's website Sønder Boulevard with images on online architecture guide
Weathering steel referred to by the genericized trademark COR-TEN steel and sometimes written without the hyphen as corten steel, is a group of steel alloys which were developed to eliminate the need for painting, form a stable rust-like appearance after several years exposure to weather. U. S. Steel holds the registered trademark on the name COR-TEN; the name COR-TEN refers to the two distinguishing properties of this type of steel: corrosion resistance and tensile strength. Although USS sold its discrete plate business to International Steel Group in 2003, it still sells COR-TEN branded material in strip-mill plate and sheet forms; the original COR-TEN received the standard designation A242 from the ASTM International standards group. Newer ASTM grades are A606 for thin sheet. All alloys are in common use; the surface oxidation of weathering steel takes six months, but surface treatments can accelerate the oxidation to as little as two hours. In 1933 the United States Steel Corporation developed and patented a steel with exceptional mechanical resistance for use in railroad hopper cars, for the handling of heavy bulk loads including coal, metal ores, other mineral products and grain.
The controlled corrosion for which this material is now best known was a welcome benefit discovered soon after, prompting USS to apply the trademarked name Cor-Ten. Because of its inherent toughness, this steel is still used extensively for bulk transport and storage containers. Railroad passenger cars were being built in Cor-Ten, albeit painted, by Pullman-Standard for the Southern Pacific from 1936, continuing through commuter coaches for the Rock Island Line in 1949. Weathering refers to the chemical composition of these steels, allowing them to exhibit increased resistance to atmospheric corrosion compared to other steels; this is because the steel forms a protective layer on its surface under the influence of the weather. The corrosion-retarding effect of the protective layer is produced by the particular distribution and concentration of alloying elements in it; the layer protecting the surface develops and regenerates continuously when subjected to the influence of the weather. In other words, the steel is allowed to rust.
The mechanical properties of weathering steels depend on how thick the material is. The original A242 alloy has a yield strength of 50 kilopounds per square inch and ultimate tensile strength of 70 ksi for light-medium rolled shapes and plates up to 0.75 inches thick. It has yield strength of 46 ksi and ultimate strength of 67 ksi for medium weight rolled shapes and plates from 0.75–1 inch thick. The thickest rolled sections and plates – from 1.5–4 in thick have yield strength of 42 ksi and ultimate strength of 63 ksi. ASTM A 242 is available in Type 1 and Type 2. Both have different applications based on the thickness. Type 1 is used in housing structures, construction industry and freight cars; the Type 2 steel, called Corten B is used majorly in urban furnishing, passenger ships or cranes. A588 has a yield strength of at least 50 ksi, ultimate tensile strength of 70 ksi for all rolled shapes and plate thicknesses up to 4 in thick. Plates from 4–5 in have yield strength at least 46 ksi and ultimate tensile strength at least 67 ksi, plates from 5–8 in thick have yield strength at least 42 ksi and ultimate tensile strength at least 63 ksi.
Weathering steel is popularly used in outdoor sculptures for its rustic antique appearance. One example is the large Chicago Picasso sculpture, which stands in the plaza of the Daley Center Courthouse in Chicago, constructed of weathering steel. Other examples include numerous works by Richard Serra, it is used in bridge and other large structural applications such as the New River Gorge Bridge, the second span of the Newburgh–Beacon Bridge, the creation of the Australian Centre for Contemporary Art and MONA. It is widely used in marine transportation, in the construction of intermodal containers as well as visible sheet piling along widened sections of London's M25 motorway; the first use of weathering steel for architectural applications was the John Deere World Headquarters in Moline, Illinois. The building was designed by architect Eero Saarinen, completed in 1964; the main buildings of Odense University, designed by Knud Holscher and Jørgen Vesterholt and built 1971–1976, are clad in weathering steel, earning them the nickname Rustenborg.
In 1977, Robert Indiana created a Hebrew version of the Love sculpture made from weathering steel using the four-letter word ahava for the Israel Museum Art Garden in Jerusalem, Israel. In Denmark, all masts for supporting the catenary on electrified railways are made of weathering steel for aesthetic reasons. Weathering steel was used in 1971 for the Highliner electric cars built by the St. Louis Car Company for Illinois Central Railroad; the use of weathering steel was seen as a cost-cutting move in comparison with the contemporary railcar standard of stainless steel. A subsequent order in 1979 was built to similar specs, including weathering steel bodies, by Bombardier; the cars were painted, a standard practice for weathering steel railcars. The durability of weathering steel did not live up to expectations, with rust holes appearing in the railcars. Painting may
Vesterbro is one of the 15 administrative and city tax districts comprising the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark. It covers an area of 3.76 km², has a population of 51,466 and a population density of 13,688 per km². Neighboring city districts are: to the northeast, the Indre By known as "Copenhagen Center" or "Downtown Copenhagen" or "City" to the north, Frederiksberg municipality, not a part of Copenhagen municipality but rather an enclave surrounded by the municipality to the west, Valby to the south, Kongens Enghave. Vesterbro is located just outside Copenhagen’s city center—the Inner City or Indre By—making it a attractive place to live, as are the other areas outside the center: the Indre Nørrebro, Indre Østerbro and Christianshavn; the district is located west of the city center at the location of the old Western Gate, access way into the old city. The gate, along with the other three gates into the old city-- Østerport near the current Østerport station), Nørreport near the current Nørreport station, Amagerport between Christianshavn and the island of Amager-- were dismantled in 1856.
The name "Vesterbro" translates into English as "Western Bridge", refers to the paved road leading into the city through the Western Gate. Vesterbro is the area of the bridge into the city of Copenhagen, a much smaller city at the time when the name was created. At that time, the city was ringed by a moat which exist today as others; the area is under the process of being renovated to a great extent and the renovation ended in 2017. The environment and sustainability is one of the essential reasons for the renovation. Vesterbro has a central location, it has had a reputation as a center for prostitution and drug trafficking, where only the poorest would live, there is still a certain amount of these activities in the area on Istedgade and near Halmtorvet, but there has been police focus on clearing up troublesome areas. The area is known as the easy place to get drugs in Copenhagen. Vesterbro was the name of the paved country road that led into the city center from the west. Few country roads in those days were paved, but the amount of traffic into the capital necessitated it.
Until 1853 after the cholera epidemic that had hit Copenhagen, there had been a "no build" zone outside Copenhagen’s old part of town, the part now known as the Inner City or Indre By. This Demarcation Line indicated an area beyond the city’s centuries old defense wall system where Copenhagen’s defense forces could strike the enemy unhindered; until there was little development outside the center of the city, except with special permission. Though much of the area was used as grazing land, by the 1780s there were approx. 1,000 inhabitants of the area, as well as a number of commercial enterprises, the house of the Royal Copenhagen Shooting Society and Danish Brotherhood. The society received permission to build outside the old city limits in the 1750s, the building has housed the Copenhagen City Museum since 1956. With the abolishment of the demarcation line in 1853, the dismantling of the old fortifications that ringed the center of town in the late 1860s, the removal of the old entrance gates to the city in 1856, the population spread out to the “as yet” undeveloped areas outside the center.
This movement came first to the inner ring of areas outside the center: the Indre Østerbro, the Indre Nørrebro and Frederiksberg. At that time the name Vesterbro began being used for the entire area around the street named Vesterbro, late in the 1800s the name of the street itself was changed to Vesterbrogade. Istedgade Carlsberg neighbourhood Copenhagen Puppet Festival Det Ny Teater Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek Tivoli Gardens Tycho Brahe Planetarium Museum of Copenhagen Copenhagen Meatpacking District Radisson SAS Royal Hotel, Copenhagen Sorte Hest Enghaveparken Skydebanehaven City of Copenhagen’s statistical office Copenhagen/Vesterbro travel guide from Wikivoyage Spurce Source
Kongens Enghave known as Sydhavnen, is a district in southern Copenhagen. The area has been one of the poorest neighbourhoods in Copenhagen, dissected by major transport corridors and characterized by social problems as well as industry along the harbour-front. Since the turn of the millennium, this picture is starting to change. While the district in general remains a poor neighbourhood with social challenges, the harbour-front areas of Sluseholmen and Teglholmen have undergone massive redevelopment into new residential neighbourhoods which have been praised for their architecture. A significant cluster of IT and telecommunications companies have emerged in the area. Kongens Enghave covers an area of 4.46 km², has a population of 15,414 and a population density of 3,455 per km2. It used to be one of 15 administrative districts of Copenhagen, but since an administrative reform in 2006-08, it has been part of the official district of Vesterbro/Kongens Enghave. Kongens Enghave is bounded by the Carlsberg area to the north, Vesterbro to the north-east and Valby to the west, while Copenhagen Harbour to the east and south separates it from Amager Vest.
Kongens Enghave is first mentioned in 1632. The area was used for harvesting of hay for the royal stables at Copenhagen Castle. In 1776, a small plague hospital was built on Kalvebod Beach; the name Frederiksholm is first seen in 1667–68 when large areas on the coast were reclaimed and drained. The history of the district dates back to 1795 when the old Enghavevej was built, running all the way from Vesterbrogade to Gammel Køge Landevej by way of present-day Sydhavns Plads and Mozarts Plads; the land was divided into 22 estates at the same event. From about 1900, a few country houses and farmsteads were built along the road: rederiksholm, -"Larsens Minde", Lises Minde, Wilhelms Minde as well as a few small cottages used by fishermen and hunters. Frederiksholm, the only of these houses that still exist today, was built by king Frederick VI; the estate covered about 50 hectares, about half of, gardens and the remainder meadows. In 1834, it kept 10 horses. From the 1870s, it served as residence for the manager of Frederiksholm Brickyard.
Copenhagen's city walls were decommissioned in 1857. Vestre Cemetery was established in 1870. In 1871, two brothers, Køhler, purchased the Frederiksholm estate and established a brickyard in the grounds; the storm surge in November 1872 led to widespread floodings in the area. In response, as a private initiative, the Køhler brothers carried out extensive reclamations along the coast, and- Shortly thereafter, they established Frederiksholm Harbour in association with their brickyard; the brick yard produced many of the bricks used in the construction of Vesterbro prior to its closure in 1918. Karens Minde, a mental institution, was opened by Johan Keller in 1876. Vestre Prison opened in 1895. In the beginning of the 20th century, Port of Copenhagen was expanded with extensive docklands with many industrial enterprises in the area. Otto Mønsted opened a margarine factory in 1911, it was joined by Lemvig Møller & Munch and Sømderværftet, a subsidiary of Københavns Flydeværft & Skibsdok. Burmeister & Wain established in the a foundry in the area in 1920 and took over Sønderværftet in 1926.
In 1924 Ford Motor Company moved its assembly plant from Nørrebro to the Southern Docklands. The factory was designed by Albert Kahn and opened on 15 November 1924; the Kongens Enghave district developed around the heavy industry of the Southern Docklands. The residential areas were built to satisfy a demand for housing for the workers and it has thus always been considered a working class neighbourhood; the Ford assembly plant closed in 1965 and most of the remaining industry disappeared in the 1970s and 80s. Kongens Enghave gained a reputation for being the area in Denmark with most people on social welfare, the lowest education rate and life expectancy and high incidence of all major social problems. In the 1990s, companies such as Nokia, Philips and TDC established in the area. In 2002 a masterplan was adopted for redevelopment of the Southern Docklands, it was created by Copenhagen Municipality, By & Sjoerd Soeters. This redevelopment, still ongoing, has attracted new residents. Rising real-estate prices and a shortage of cheap accommodation in Copenhagen during the last half of the 1990s and the first half of the 2000s have drawn new income groups and students to the area.
In 2011, Nokia closed their large R&D department in Copenhagen with more than 1,000 employees. Their buildings now house an Aalborg University campus; the parts of Kongens Enghave attracting most attention today are the redeveloped harbour-front areas of Sluseholmen and Teglholmen. In particular, the Sluseholmen Canal District is recognized as one of the most successful new neighbourhoods in Copenhagen, for which it won the 2009 Danish Urban Planning Award; the most important green spaces of the Kongens Enghave district include Vestre Cemetery and the semi-natural Sydhavnstippen area. A cluster of Danish headquarters of multinational companies such as Nokia, Philips, TDC, DaimlerChrysler and BMW Group has formed in the Sydhavnen area; as a precedor, through the takeover, of Burmeister and Wain, MAN Diesel & Turbo has its Danish headquarter on Teglholmen, together with a smaller factory-plant, in which the research and development of diesel-technology takes place, being the last active heavy industry-plant in the area.
There are two S-train stations located in Kongens Enghave: Sydhavn station and Sjælør station, both of which are on the Køge radial of the S-train network. A third S-train station