A day is the period of time during which the Earth completes one rotation around its axis. A solar day is the length of time which elapses between the Sun reaching its highest point in the sky two consecutive times. In 1960, the second was redefined in terms of the orbital motion of the Earth in year 1900, was designated the SI base unit of time; the unit of measurement "day", was symbolized d. In 1967, the second and so the day were redefined by atomic electron transition. A civil day is 86,400 seconds, plus or minus a possible leap second in Coordinated Universal Time, plus or minus an hour in those locations that change from or to daylight saving time. Day can be defined as each of the twenty-four-hour periods, reckoned from one midnight to the next, into which a week, month, or year is divided, corresponding to a rotation of the earth on its axis; however its use depends on its context, for example when people say'day and night','day' will have a different meaning. It will mean the interval of light between two successive nights.
However, in order to be clear when using'day' in that sense, "daytime" should be used to distinguish it from "day" referring to a 24-hour period. The word day may refer to a day of the week or to a calendar date, as in answer to the question, "On which day?" The life patterns of humans and many other species are related to Earth's solar day and the day-night cycle. Several definitions of this universal human concept are used according to context and convenience. Besides the day of 24 hours, the word day is used for several different spans of time based on the rotation of the Earth around its axis. An important one is the solar day, defined as the time it takes for the Sun to return to its culmination point; because celestial orbits are not circular, thus objects travel at different speeds at various positions in their orbit, a solar day is not the same length of time throughout the orbital year. Because the Earth orbits the Sun elliptically as the Earth spins on an inclined axis, this period can be up to 7.9 seconds more than 24 hours.
In recent decades, the average length of a solar day on Earth has been about 86 400.002 seconds and there are about 365.2422 solar days in one mean tropical year. Ancient custom has a new day start at either the setting of the Sun on the local horizon; the exact moment of, the interval between, two sunrises or sunsets depends on the geographical position, the time of year. A more constant day can be defined by the Sun passing through the local meridian, which happens at local noon or midnight; the exact moment is dependent on the geographical longitude, to a lesser extent on the time of the year. The length of such a day is nearly constant; this is the time as indicated by modern sundials. A further improvement defines a fictitious mean Sun that moves with constant speed along the celestial equator. A day, understood as the span of time it takes for the Earth to make one entire rotation with respect to the celestial background or a distant star, is called a stellar day; this period of rotation is about 4 minutes less than 24 hours and there are about 366.2422 stellar days in one mean tropical year.
Other planets and moons have solar days of different lengths from Earth's. A day, in the sense of daytime, distinguished from night time, is defined as the period during which sunlight directly reaches the ground, assuming that there are no local obstacles; the length of daytime averages more than half of the 24-hour day. Two effects make daytime on average longer than nights; the Sun has an apparent size of about 32 minutes of arc. Additionally, the atmosphere refracts sunlight in such a way that some of it reaches the ground when the Sun is below the horizon by about 34 minutes of arc. So the first light reaches the ground when the centre of the Sun is still below the horizon by about 50 minutes of arc. Thus, daytime is on average around 7 minutes longer than 12 hours; the term comes from the Old English dæg, with its cognates such as dagur in Icelandic, Tag in German, dag in Norwegian, Danish and Dutch. All of them from the Indo-European root dyau which explains the similarity with Latin dies though the word is known to come from the Germanic branch.
As of October 17, 2015, day is the 205th most common word in US English, the 210th most common in UK English. A day, symbol d, defined as 86 400 seconds, is not an SI unit, but is accepted for use with SI; the Second is the base unit of time in SI units. In 1967–68, during the 13th CGPM, the International Bureau of Weights and Measures redefined a second as … the duration of 9 192 631 770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the caesium 133 atom; this makes the SI-based day last 794 243 384 928 000 of those periods. Due to tidal effects, the
Portugal the Portuguese Republic, is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain, its territory includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. Portugal is the oldest state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled and fought over since prehistoric times; the pre-Celtic people, Celts and Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigoths and Suebi Germanic peoples. Portugal as a country was established during the Christian Reconquista against the Moors who had invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 711 AD. Founded in 868, the County of Portugal gained prominence after the Battle of São Mamede in 1128; the Kingdom of Portugal was proclaimed following the Battle of Ourique in 1139, independence from León was recognised by the Treaty of Zamora in 1143.
In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the world's major economic and military powers. During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably under royal patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator and King John II, with such notable voyages as Bartolomeu Dias' sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope, Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India and the European discovery of Brazil. During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castille, the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. However, events such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, the independence of Brazil, a late industrialization compared to other European powers, erased to a great extent Portugal's prior opulence. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established being superseded by the Estado Novo right-wing authoritarian regime.
Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to all its overseas territories; the handover of Macau to China in 1999 marked the end of what can be considered the longest-lived colonial empire. Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe, a legacy of around 250 million Portuguese speakers, many Portuguese-based creoles, it is a developed country with a high-income advanced economy and high living standards. Additionally, it is placed in rankings of moral freedom, democracy, press freedom, social progress, LGBT rights. A member of the United Nations and the European Union, Portugal was one of the founding members of NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries; the word Portugal derives from the Roman-Celtic place name Portus Cale. Portus, the Latin word for port or harbour, Cala or Cailleach was the name of a Celtic goddess – in Scotland she is known as Beira – and the name of an early settlement located at the mouth of the Douro River which flows into the Atlantic Ocean in the north of what is now Portugal.
At the time the land of a specific people was named after its deity. Those names are the origins of the - gal in Galicia. Incidentally, the meaning of Cale or Calle is a derivation of the Celtic word for port which would confirm old links to pre-Roman, Celtic languages which compare to today's Irish caladh or Scottish cala, both meaning port; some French scholars believe it may have come from ` Portus Gallus', the port of the Celts. Around 200 BC, the Romans took the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians during the Second Punic War, in the process conquered Cale and renamed it Portus Cale incorporating it to the province of Gaellicia with capital in Bracara Augusta. During the Middle Ages, the region around Portus Cale became known by the Suebi and Visigoths as Portucale; the name Portucale evolved into Portugale during the 7th and 8th centuries, by the 9th century, that term was used extensively to refer to the region between the rivers Douro and Minho. By the 11th and 12th centuries, Portugallia or Portvgalliae was referred to as Portugal.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe. The name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale; the region was settled by Pre-Celts and Celts, giving origin to peoples like the Gallaeci, Lusitanians and Cynetes, visited by Phoenicians, Ancient Greeks and Carthaginians, incorporated in the Roman Republic dominions as Lusitania and part of Gallaecia, after 45 BC until 298 AD. The region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula; these were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, did form organized societies. Neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing, it is believed by some scholars that early in the first millennium BC, several waves of Celts invaded Portugal from Central Europe and inter-married with the local populations, forming differe
Vilamoura is an unincorporated area in Algarve, on the southern coast of Portugal. It is one of the three corners of Algarve's Golden Triangle. Vilamoura comprises one of the largest single tourist complexes in Europe and with about 2,000 hectares of land; the nearest airport is in Faro. The area hosted the annual Almond Blossom Cross Country competition between 1996 and 2003, the same course was selected as the venue for the 2000 IAAF World Cross Country Championships; the resort developed around a small harbour, flanked by sandy beaches and close to the Roman ruins of Cerro da Vila. In Roman times this location was important in producing a fish paste known as "garum"; the ruins include the baths in which the mariners used to bathe. The resort was founded by Portuguese banker Cupertino de Miranda who, with the resort's management company Lusotur started initial planning and building in 1966. In 1996 Vilamoura was acquired by Quinta do Lago's Andre Jordan. In 2004 the resort was purchased by CatalunyaCaixa.
Vilamoura has the largest marina in Portugal with 845 berths, two beaches, a Lawn Bowling Club with two grass greens, a Tennis Centre, a Sports Club, a Shooting Club, 5 Star and 4 Star Hotels, Tourist Apartments, self-catering Villas, Night Clubs, an International Casino with glamorous shows, an excellent Riding School. With five different golf courses, since 2016 in ownership of Dom Pedro Golf as a part of the Dom Pedro Group, Vilamoura is a popular destination for golfers all year round. At the heart of Vilamoura is the marina which has the capacity to berth over 1,000 vessels; the marina is surrounded by large hotels and luxury holiday homes as well as a large casino and numerous restaurants and vibrant bars. At the far corner of the marina, it is possible to charter boats for big game fishing. There are facilities for jet skiing and parascending. Close by there are a number of sports clubs, a shooting range and many night clubs. Tourism in Vilamoura is extensive and well-developed, with many different resorts with ratings from three to five stars.
This is a higher average than the surrounding areas, which have ratings varying from two to four. As a consequence of being privately owned, the town is opulently designed; the town and marina have an extensive variety of activities which are on Tuesdays, Thursdays and at weekends, including touring the local caves along the coastline. This cave tour is done on tour boats; the area has two companies which operate trains-on-wheels for travel between resorts. For the avid historians there is a preserved Roman site and museum providing an insight to the area's past. A Roman fishing town, the ruins include baths in which the mariners used to bathe; the marina will be extended with Cidade Lacustre the new project that Lusort will be developing in Vilamoura in the next few years. Official Website of Dom Pedro GolfPhotos of Vilamoura Vilamoura Essential Guide Vilamoura Photos Vilamoura Map Panoramic Virtual Tour of Vilamoura Marina
Independent school (United Kingdom)
In the United Kingdom, independent schools are fee-paying private schools, governed by an elected board of governors and independent of many of the regulations and conditions that apply to state-funded schools. For example, pupils do not have to follow the National Curriculum. Many of the older and more exclusive schools catering for the 13–18 age-range in England and Wales are known as public schools as defined by the Public Schools Act 1868, the term "public" being derived from the fact that they were open to pupils regardless of where they lived or their religion. Prep schools educate younger children up to the age of 13 to "prepare" them for entry to the public schools and other independent schools; some former grammar schools converted to an independent fee-paying model following the 1965 Circular 10/65 which marked the end of their state funding. There are around 2,500 independent schools in the UK, which educate around 615,000 children, some 7 per cent of all British children and 18 per cent of pupils over the age of 16.
In addition to charging tuition fees, many benefit from gifts, charitable endowments and charitable status. Many of these schools are members of the Independent Schools Council. In 2017, the average cost for private schooling was £14,102 for day school and £32,259 for boarding school; some independent schools are old, such as The King's School, The King's School, Rochester, St Peter's School, Sherborne School, Warwick School, The King's School, Ely and St Albans School. These schools were under their complete dominion. However, it was during the late 14th & early 15th centuries that the first schools, independent of the church, were founded. Winchester & Oswestry were the first of their kind and paved the way for the establishment of the modern "Public school"; these were established for male scholars from poor or disadvantaged backgrounds. For instance, the Queen's Scholarships founded at Westminster in 1560, are for "the sons of decay'd gentlemen"; the transformation of free charitable foundations into institutions which sometimes charge fees came about readily: the foundation would only afford minimal facilities, so that further fees might be charged to lodge and otherwise maintain the scholars, to the private profit of the trustees or headmaster.
Facilities provided by the charitable foundation for a few scholars could profitably be extended to further paying pupils. After a time, such fees would eclipse the original charitable income, the original endowment would become a minor part of the capital benefactions enjoyed by the school. In 2009 senior boarding schools were charging fees of nearly £ 30,000 per annum. However, a majority of the independent schools today are still registered as a charity, bursary is available to students on a means test basis. Christ's Hospital in Horsham is an example. A large proportion of its students are funded by its charitable foundation or by various benefactors; the educational reforms of the 19th century were important under first Thomas Arnold at Rugby, Butler and Kennedy at Shrewsbury, the former emphasising team spirit and muscular Christianity and the latter the importance of scholarship and competitive examinations. Edward Thring of Uppingham School introduced major reforms, focusing on the importance of the individual and competition, as well as the need for a "total curriculum" with academia, music and drama being central to education.
Most public schools developed during the 18th and 19th centuries, came to play an important role in the development of the Victorian social elite. Under a number of forward-looking headmasters leading public schools created a curriculum based on classics and physical activity for boys and young men of the upper and upper middle classes, they were schools for the gentlemanly elite of Victorian politics, armed forces and colonial government. Successful businessmen would send their sons to a public school as a mark of participation in the elite. Much of the discipline was in the hands of senior pupils, not just a means to reduce staffing costs, but was seen as vital preparation for those pupils' roles in public or military service. More heads of public schools have been emphasising that senior pupils now play a much reduced role in disciplining. To an extent, the public school system influenced the school systems of the British Empire, recognisably "public" schools can be found in many Commonwealth countries.
Until 1975 there had been a group of 179 academically selective schools drawing on both private and state funding, the direct grant grammar schools. The Direct Grant Grammar Schools Regulations 1975 required these schools to choose between full state funding as comprehensive schools and full independence; as a result, 119 of these schools became independent. Pupil numbers at independent schools fell during the mid-1970s recession. At the same time participation at all secondary schools grew so that the share of the independent sector fell from a little under 8 per cent in 1964 to reach a low of 5.7 per cent in 1978. Both these trends were reversed during the 1980s, the share of the indepe
Mixed-sex education known as mixed-gender education, co-education or coeducation, is a system of education where males and females are educated together. Whereas single-sex education was more common up to the 19th century, mixed-sex education has since become standard in many cultures in Western countries. Single-sex education, remains prevalent in many Muslim countries; the relative merits of both systems have been the subject of debate. The world's oldest co-educational day and boarding school is Dollar Academy, a junior and senior school for males and females from ages 5 to 18 in Scotland, United Kingdom. From its opening in 1818 the school admitted both boys and girls of the parish of Dollar and the surrounding area; the school continues in existence to the present day with around 1,250 pupils. The first co-educational college to be founded was Oberlin Collegiate Institute in Ohio, it opened on December 3, 1833, including 29 men and 15 women. Equal status for women did not arrive until 1837, the first three women to graduate with bachelor's degrees did so in 1840.
By the late 20th century, many institutions of higher learning, for people of one sex had become coeducational. In early civilizations, people were educated informally: within the household; as time progressed, education became more formal. Women had few rights when education started to become a more important aspect of civilization. Efforts of the ancient Greek and Chinese societies focused on the education of males. In ancient Rome, the availability of education was extended to women, but they were taught separately from men; the early Christians and medieval Europeans continued this trend, single-sex schools for the privileged classes prevailed through the Reformation period. In the 16th century, at the Council of Trent, the Roman Catholic church reinforced the establishment of free elementary schools for children of all classes; the concept of universal elementary education, regardless of sex, had been created. After the Reformation, coeducation was introduced in western Europe, when certain Protestant groups urged that boys and girls should be taught to read the Bible.
The practice became popular in northern England and colonial New England, where young children, both male and female, attended dame schools. In the late 18th century, girls were admitted to town schools; the Society of Friends in England, as well as in the United States, pioneered coeducation as they did universal education, in Quaker settlements in the British colonies and girls attended school together. The new free public elementary, or common schools, which after the American Revolution supplanted church institutions, were always coeducational, by 1900 most public high schools were coeducational as well. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, coeducation grew much more accepted. In Great Britain and the Soviet Union, the education of girls and boys in the same classes became an approved practice. In Australia there is a trend towards increased coeducational schooling with new coeducational schools opening, few new single sex schools opening and existing single sex schools combining or opening their doors to the opposite gender.
The first mixed-sex institution of higher learning in China was the Nanjing Higher Normal Institute, renamed National Central University and Nanjing University. For millennia in China, public schools public higher learning schools, were for men. Only schools established by zongzu were for both male and female students; some schools such as Li Zhi's school in Ming Dynasty and Yuan Mei's school in Qing Dynasty enrolled both male and female students. In the 1910s women's universities were established such as Ginling Women's University and Peking Girls' Higher Normal School, but there were no coeducation in higher learning schools. Tao Xingzhi, the Chinese advocator of mixed-sex education, proposed The Audit Law for Women Students at the meeting of Nanjing Higher Normal School held on December seventh, 1919, he proposed that the university recruit female students. The idea was supported by the president Guo Bingwen, academic director Liu Boming, such famous professors as Lu Zhiwei and Yang Xingfo, but opposed by many famous men of the time.
The meeting decided to recruit women students next year. Nanjing Higher Normal School enrolled eight Chinese female students in 1920. In the same year Peking University began to allow women students to audit classes. One of the most notable female students of that time was Jianxiong Wu. In 1949, the People's Republic of China was founded; the Chinese government has provided more equal opportunities for education since and all schools and universities have become mixed-sex. In recent years, many female and/or single-sex schools have again emerged for special vocational training needs but equal rights for education still apply to all citizens. In China Muslim Hui and Muslim Salars are against coeducation, due to Islam, Uyghurs are the only Muslims in China that do not mind coeducation and practice it. Admission to the Sorbonne was opened to girls in 1860; the baccalaureat became gender-blind in 1924, giving equal chances to all girls in applying to any universities. Mixed-sex education became mandatory for primary schools in 1957 and for all universities in 1975.
St. Paul's Co-educational College was the first mixed-sex secondary school in Hong Kong, it was founded in 1915 as St. Paul's Girls' College. At the end of World War II it was temporarily merged with St. Paul's College, a boys' school; when classes at the campus of St. Paul'