Jack Owen is an American musician, best known as a renowned guitarist in the death metal genre. He is the guitarist for death metal band Six Feet Under, he was one of the founding members of Cannibal Corpse. He stayed with the band from their formation in 1988 until 2004 when he left because he wanted to move on, as stated in the Centuries of Torment DVD; that year though, he was hired by Deicide—another influential and long-running Florida death metal band—with whom he recorded four albums. He left the band in 2016. In 2007, Owen played shows with Adrift before joining Order of Ennead at times when their guitarist, John Li, was unavailable. In 2009 Owen played guitar for a white power band Attack on their album Fade Away, though at the time he was unaware of their racist beliefs. Jack Owen was born in New York, to Norma and Glenn Owen, he said in an interview that his dad would bring out his acoustic guitar and play classic country songs by Hank Williams Sr. and other artists. "That's where most of my inspiration comes from" says Owen.
Eaten Back to Life Butchered at Birth Tomb of the Mutilated The Bleeding Vile Gallery of Suicide Bloodthirst Gore Obsessed The Wretched Spawn The Stench of Redemption Till Death Do Us Part To Hell with God In the Minds of Evil Absolution Played bass live in 2007 on European tour. Fade Away 2009 Grave Descent MCD 2011 Sessions, "The Pact" 2013 Full Length Release https://web.archive.org/web/20130902111237/http://www.html.forrestfogarty.us/
Death metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal music. It employs distorted and low-tuned guitars, played with techniques such as palm muting and tremolo picking, deep growling vocals, powerful drumming featuring double kick and blast beat techniques, minor keys or atonality, abrupt tempo and time signature changes, chromatic chord progressions; the lyrical themes of death metal may invoke slasher film-stylized violence, occultism, Lovecraftian horror, mysticism, philosophy, science fiction, politics, they may describe extreme acts, including mutilation, torture, rape and necrophilia. Building from the musical structure of thrash metal and early black metal, death metal emerged during the mid-1980s. Bands such as Venom, Celtic Frost and Kreator were important influences on the genre's creation. Possessed, Necrophagia, Obituary and Morbid Angel are considered pioneers of the genre. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, death metal gained more media attention as popular genre. Niche record labels like Combat and Roadrunner began to sign death metal bands at a rapid rate.
Since death metal has diversified, spawning several subgenres. Melodic death metal combines death metal elements with those of the new wave of British heavy metal. Technical death metal is a complex style, with uncommon time signatures, atypical rhythms, unusual harmonies and melodies. Death-doom combines the deep growled vocals and double-kick drumming of death metal with the slow tempos and melancholic atmosphere of doom metal. Deathgrind and pornogrind mix the complexity of death metal with the intensity and brevity of grindcore. Deathcore combines death metal with metalcore traits. Death'n' roll combines death metal's growled vocals and distorted, detuned guitar riffs with elements of 1970s hard rock and heavy metal. English heavy metal band Venom, from Newcastle, crystallized the elements of what became known as thrash metal, death metal and black metal, with their 1981 album Welcome to Hell, their dark, blistering sound, harsh vocals, macabre, proudly Satanic imagery proved a major inspiration for extreme metal bands.
Another influential band, formed in 1981. Although the band was a thrash metal act, Slayer's music was more violent than their thrash contemporaries Metallica and Anthrax, their breakneck speed and instrumental prowess combined with lyrics about death, violence and Satanism won Slayer a rabid cult following. According to AllMusic, their third album Reign in Blood inspired the entire death metal genre, it had a big impact on genre leaders such as Death and Morbid Angel. Possessed, a band that formed in the San Francisco Bay Area during 1983, is described by Allmusic as "connecting the dots" between thrash metal and death metal with their 1985 debut album, Seven Churches. While attributed as having a Slayer influence and former members of the band had cited Venom and Motörhead, as well as early work by Exodus, as the main influences on their sound. Although the group had released only two studio albums and an EP in their formative years, they have been described by music journalists and musicians as either being "monumental" in developing the death metal style, or as being the first death metal band.
Earache Records noted that "the likes of Trey Azagthoth and Morbid Angel based what they were doing in their formative years on the Possessed blueprint laid down on the legendary Seven Churches recording. Possessed arguably did more to further the cause of'Death Metal' than any of the early acts on the scene back in the mid-late 80's." During the same period as the dawn of Possessed, a second influential metal band was formed in Orlando, Florida: Death. Called Mantas, Death was formed in 1983 by Chuck Schuldiner, Kam Lee, Rick Rozz. In 1984 they released their first demo entitled Death followed by several more; the tapes circulated through the tape trader world establishing the band's name. With Death guitarist Schuldiner adopting vocal duties, the band made a major impact on the scene; the fast minor-key riffs and solos were complemented with fast drumming, creating a style that would catch on in tape trading circles. Schuldiner has been credited by Allmusic's Eduardo Rivadavia for being recognized as the "Father of Death Metal".
Death's 1987 debut release, Scream Bloody Gore, has been described by About.com's Chad Bowar as being the "evolution from thrash metal to death metal", "the first true death metal record" by the San Francisco Chronicle. Along with Possessed and Death, other pioneers of death metal in the United States include Macabre, Massacre, Cannibal Corpse,Obituary, Post Mortem. By 1989, many bands had been signed by eager record labels wanting to cash in on the subgenre, including Florida's Obituary, Morbid Angel and Deicide; this collective of death metal bands hailing from Florida are labeled as "Florida death metal". Morbid Angel pushed the genre's limits both musically and lyrically, with the release of their debut album Altars of Madness in 1989; the album "redefined what it meant to be heavy while influencing an upcoming class of brutal death metal." Death metal spread to Sweden in the late 1980s, flourishing with pioneers such as Carnage, God Macabre, Entombed and Unleashed. In the early 1990s, the rise of melodic death metal was recognized, with bands such as Dark Tranquillity, At the Gates, In Flames.
Following the original death metal innovators, new subgenres began by the end of the decade. British band Napalm Death became associated with death metal, in particular, on their 1990 album Harmony Corruption; this alb
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
Kill is the tenth studio album by American death metal band Cannibal Corpse, released on March 21, 2006. This release marks the return of guitarist Rob Barrett, who had played on The Bleeding and Vile; the European version of the album comes with a live DVD filmed in Strasbourg in 2004 called Hammer Smashed Laiterie. The album was produced at Mana Recording Studios by Hate Eternal guitarist Erik Rutan. Music videos were produced for the tracks "Make Them Suffer" and "Death Walking Terror". In the week following its release, Kill became the second Cannibal Corpse album to make an appearance on the Billboard 200 chart, debuting at number 170; the album cover is one of only three Cannibal Corpse album covers to not feature explicit graphic violence. Alex Webster, in an interview, stated that they decided to have an album cover such as this because all the band members couldn't agree on a cover for the album, he stated that they wanted their fans to focus on their music and not to be distracted by a violent cover.
He stated "this time they wanted to do something different.""The original art that Vince gave us was cool, but we didn't think it would make the best cover. We decided to use it as interior art, just have a simple band logo/album title type cover; the main focus of our band should be music anyway, so I don't think it's a big deal that the cover's not a blood soaked scene of carnage the way our others have been. This doesn't mean we won't have more bloody covers in the future though." The album has been received quite positively by critics: AllMusic gave it a 3.5 out of 5 rating, stating that "Kill doesn't break any new ground for the veteran sickos, but if it ain't broke don't fix it -- just turn it up louder", while commenting that the songs are "13 aural assaults that will be welcomed by fans with open mouths". In 2018, Kill was inducted into Decibel Magazine's Hall of Fame via a special Cannibal Corpse issue. Writing and production credits are adapted from the album liner notes. George "Corpsegrinder" Fisher – vocals Pat O'Brien – lead guitar, rhythm guitar on "Submerged In Boiling Flesh" Rob Barrett – rhythm guitar, lead guitar on "Submerged In Boiling Flesh" Alex Webster – bass Paul Mazurkiewicz – drums Erik Rutan – backing vocals on "The Time to Kill is Now" Erik Rutan – production, mixing Shawn Ohtani – additional engineering Alan Douches – mastering Vincent Locke – cover art Brian Ames – design Alex Solca – photography Mana Recording Studios, St. Petersburg, FL, USA – recording, mixing West Westside Music – mastering Kill at AllMusic Kill at Metal Blade Records
Pat O'Brien (guitarist)
Pat O'Brien is the lead guitarist for the death metal band Cannibal Corpse, as well as a former member for the heavy metal band Nevermore, a former touring musician with the thrash metal band Slayer. O'Brien was born in Northern Kentucky, he graduated from Conner High School in Hebron, Kentucky in 1983 and resides in Tampa. He is of German heritage, his hobbies involve target shooting. O'Brien got his first guitar when he was 11, his mother bought him an acoustic guitar for Christmas. When he started to practice more he received his first electric guitar, a Gibson SG copy, his father bought him a 1974 Gibson Flying V. His influences include Black Sabbath, Deep Purple, Mercyful Fate and Metallica; as a guitarist, O'Brien is formally trained. He gave lessons at Buddy Rogers Music, a music store in Florence, where he encouraged his students to listen to jazz, fusion and blues and not focus on metal, he recalls that his interest in classical guitar came from a concert of Andrés Segovia he attended with his father.
Segovia remains his main inspiration. O'Brien started playing in a series of bands, sometimes as a touring musician and sometimes as a full-time member. Throughout the 1980s he played in heavy metal bands such as Prizoner. In the 1990s O'Brien evolved from heavy metal to death metal. Between 1990 and 1992 he played in the Cincinnati-based death/thrash metal band Ceremony alongside Steve Tucker, Greg Reed and Shannon Purdon, they released a demo in 1992 entitled Ceremony, an EP called The Days before the Death that did not come out before 2000 and for which O'Brien did the mastering with Mark Prator. After the band's breakup, O'Brien decided to move out of Cincinnati, he searched for a new band. Through tape trading he got hired by Nevermore, who at the time were looking for a second guitarist. O'Brien stayed in the band for two years during which they recorded the EP In Memory and the full-length The Politics of Ecstasy which both came out in 1996, he toured with the band and took part in a video shoot for the song "What Tomorrow Knows" from Nevermore's eponymous debut album.
However, he felt unsatisfied with the band. Following his departure from Nevermore, O'Brien went through a transitional period where he joined Monstrosity as a touring member but remained somewhat inactive for the rest of the time. In 1997 he was approached by Cannibal Corpse through several relations. After auditioning for the band, O'Brien became a permanent member replacing Rob Barrett, he has been featured on every Cannibal Corpse album since Gallery of Suicide. Since his involvement in Cannibal Corpse, O'Brien has been credited on some of the band's more technically complicated songs. One song, cited by other band members, both past and current, as the most difficult Cannibal Corpse song is "Frantic Disembowelment" from the album The Wretched Spawn. To this day the band has performed this song live only once. O'Brien has been complimented by his co-members and other musicians in the death metal scene for his proficiency. In the documentary DVD Centuries of Torment: The First 20 Years bassist Alex Webster stated that "Some of his rhythm parts are as difficult as a solo might be in another band."
Drummer Paul Mazurkiewicz commended his contribution to the band's music, stating "He is a vital part of the Cannibal sound. His songs are awesome and we need his songs on our CDs." O'Brien himself admitted that he tends to write more technical songs but regards it as a by-product of the songwriting process rather than an aim in itself. However unlike Webster and Mazurkiewicz, O'Brien does not take part in the composition of lyrics and instead focuses on the music. In April 2011 O'Brien filled in for Exodus' Gary Holt when Holt left the Slayer European tour to play with his own band. Holt himself had been filling in for the now deceased Slayer guitarist Jeff Hanneman since February 26, 2011, subsequently joining the band. O'Brien made several guest appearances as lead guitarist, he collaborated on Leather's solo debut album Shock Waves which came out in 1989. He played lead on the track "Balancing Act" which came out as a bonus track for the 1997 re-issue of Lethal's "Your Favorite God" EP. In 2006 he played lead guitar on "Render My Prey" on Spawn of Possession's album Noctambulant.
In 2008 O'Brien played guitar on the song "Race Against Disaster" on Jeff Loomis's debut solo album Zero Order Phase. In the same year he made a guest solo appearance on Kataklysm's album Prevail. On December 10, 2018, O'Brien was arrested in Tampa for burglary on a house in the 4700 block of Windflower Circle near the Northdale Golf and Country and for assaulting a responding deputy. Reports showed that around 6:57 p.m. he entered a home without permission from its two occupants, who remain unidentified. After one occupant told him to leave, O'Brien pushed a woman to the ground, left the house and hid in the property's backyard until police arrived. A responding deputy gave him orders; the deputy tased him, taking him into custody afterward. He was booked into the Hillsborough County Sheriff's Office on charges of burglary with assault or battery and aggravated assault on a law enforcement officer, was being held without bail; the burglarized home is in the same area of a golf course where a house fire broke out about the same time at 16311 Norwood Dr. where O'Brien was renting.
It was not clear if the fire was connected to his arrest. At O'Brien's court appearance on the morning of December
Audio mixing (recorded music)
In sound recording and reproduction, audio mixing is the process of combining multitrack recordings into a final mono, stereo or surround sound product. In the process of combining the separate tracks, their relative levels are adjusted and balanced and various processes such as equalization and compression are applied to individual tracks, groups of tracks, the overall mix. In stereo and surround sound mixing, the placement of the tracks within the stereo field are adjusted and balanced. Audio mixing techniques and approaches vary and have a significant influence on the final product. Audio mixing techniques depend on music genres and the quality of sound recordings involved; the process is carried out by a mixing engineer, though sometimes the record producer or recording artist may assist. After mixing, a mastering engineer prepares the final product for production. Audio mixing may be performed on digital audio workstation. In the late 19th century, Thomas Edison and Emile Berliner developed the first recording machines.
The recording and reproduction process itself was mechanical with little or no electrical parts. Edison's phonograph cylinder system utilized a small horn terminated in a stretched, flexible diaphragm attached to a stylus which cut a groove of varying depth into the malleable tin foil of the cylinder. Emile Berliner's gramophone system recorded music by inscribing spiraling lateral cuts onto a vinyl disc. Electronic recording became more used during the 1920s, it was based on the principles of electromagnetic transduction. The possibility for a microphone to be connected remotely to a recording machine meant that microphones could be positioned in more suitable places; the process was improved when outputs of the microphones could be mixed before being fed to the disc cutter, allowing greater flexibility in the balance. Before the introduction of multitrack recording, all sounds and effects that were to be part of a record were mixed at one time during a live performance. If the recorded mix wasn't satisfactory, or if one musician made a mistake, the selection had to be performed over until the desired balance and performance was obtained.
With the introduction of multi-track recording, the production of a modern recording changed into one that involves three stages: recording and mixing. Modern mixing emerged with the introduction of commercial multi-track tape machines, most notably when 8-track recorders were introduced during the 1960s; the ability to record sounds into separate channels meant that combining and treating these sounds could be postponed to the mixing stage. In the 1980s, home recording and mixing became more efficient; the 4-track Portastudio was introduced in 1979. Bruce Springsteen released the album Nebraska in 1982 using one; the Eurythmics topped the charts in 1983 with the song "Sweet Dreams", recorded by band member Dave Stewart on a makeshift 8-track recorder. In the mid-to-late 1990s, computers replaced tape-based recording for most home studios, with the Power Macintosh proving popular. At the same time, digital audio workstations, first used in the mid-1980s, began to replace tape in many professional recording studios.
A mixer is the operational heart of the mixing process. Mixers offer a multitude of inputs, each fed by a track from a multitrack recorder. Mixers have 2 main outputs or 8. Mixers offer three main functionalities. Summing signals together, done by a dedicated summing amplifier or, in the case of a digital mixer, by a simple algorithm. Routing of source signals to external processing units and effects. On-board processors with equalizers and compressors. Mixing consoles can be intimidating due to the exceptional number of controls. However, because many of these controls are duplicated, much of the console can be learned by studying one small part of it; the controls on a mixing console will fall into one of two categories: processing and configuration. Processing controls are used to manipulate the sound; these can vary in complexity, from simple level controls, to sophisticated outboard reverberation units. Configuration controls deal with the signal routing from the input to the output of the console through the various processes.
Digital audio workstations can perform many mixing features in addition to other processing. An audio control surface gives a DAW the same user interface as a mixing console; the distinction between a large console and a DAW equipped with a control surface is that a digital console will consist of dedicated digital signal processors for each channel. DAWs can dynamically assign resources like digital audio signal processing power, but may run out if too many signal processes are in simultaneous use; this overload can be solved by increasing the capacity of the DAW. Outboard gear and software plugins can be inserted into the signal path to extend processing possibilities. Outboard gear and plugins fall into two main categories: Processors – these devices are connected in series to the signal path, so the input signal is replaced with the processed signal. Examples include dynamic processing. However, some processors are used in parallel, as is the case in techniques such as parallel compression/limiting and sidechain equalization.
Effects – these can be considered as any unit that has an effect upon the signal, the term is used to describe units that are connected in parallel to the sig
An illustration is a decoration, interpretation or visual explanation of a text, concept or process, designed for integration in published media, such as posters, magazines, teaching materials, video games and films. Illustration means providing an example; the origin of the word “illustration” is late Middle English: via Old French from Latin illustratio, from the verb illustrate. Contemporary illustration uses a wide range of styles and techniques, including drawing, printmaking, montage, digital design, multimedia, 3D modelling. Most illustrators work on a freelance basis. Depending on the purpose, illustration may be expressive, realistic or technical. Specialist areas include: Architectural illustration Archaeological illustration Botanical illustration Concept art Fashion illustration Information graphics Technical illustration Medical illustration Narrative illustration Picture books Scientific illustration Technical and scientific illustration communicates information of a technical or scientific nature.
This may include exploded views, fly-throughs, instructional images, component designs, diagrams. The aim is "to generate expressive images that convey certain information via the visual channel to the human observer"Technical and scientific illustration is designed to describe or explain subjects to a nontechnical audience, so must provide "an overall impression of what an object is or does, to enhance the viewer's interest and understanding". In contemporary illustration practice, 2D and 3D software is used to create accurate representations that can be updated and reused in a variety of contexts. In the art world, illustration has at times been considered of less importance than graphic design and fine art. Today, due in part to the growth of graphic novel and video game industries, as well as increased use of illustration in magazines and other publications, illustration is now becoming a valued art form, capable of engaging a global market. Original illustration art has been known to attract high prices at auction.
The US artist Norman Rockwell's painting "Breaking Home Ties" sold in a 2006 Sotheby's auction for USD15.4 million. Many other illustration genres are valued, with pinup artists such as Gil Elvgren and Alberto Vargas, for example attracting high prices; the art of illustration is linked to the industrial processes of printing and publishing. The illustrations of medieval codices were known as illuminations, were individually hand drawn and painted. With the invention of the printing press during the 15th century, books became more distributed illustrated with woodcuts. 1600s Japan saw the origination of Ukiyo-e, an influential illustration style characterised by expressive line, vivid colour and subtle tones, resulting from the ink-brushed wood block printing technique. Subjects included popular figures and every day life. Hokusai’s The Great Wave of Kanazawa is a famous image of the time. During the 16th and 17th centuries in Europe, the main reproduction processes for illustration were engraving and etching.
In 18th Century England, a notable illustrator was William Blake. By the early 19th century, the introduction of lithography improved reproduction quality. In Europe, notable figures of the early 19th Century were John Leech, George Cruikshank, Dickens illustrator Hablot Knight Browne, and, in France, Honoré Daumier. All contributed to "serious" publications. At this time, there was a great demand for caricature drawings encapsulating social mores and classes; the British humorous magazine Punch built on the success of Cruikshank's Comic Almanac and employed many well-regarded illustrators, including Sir John Tenniel, the Dalziel Brothers, Georges du Maurier. Although all fine art trained, their reputations were gained as illustrators. Punch was most influential in the 1840s and 1850s; the magazine was the first to use the term "cartoon" to describe a humorous illustration and its widespread use led to John Leech being known as the world's first "cartoonist". In common with similar magazines such as the Parisian Le Voleur, Punch realised good illustration sold as well as good text.
With publication continuing into the 21st Century, Punch chronicles a gradual shift in popular illustration, from reliance on caricature to sophisticated topical observation. From the early 1800s newspapers, mass market magazines, illustrated books had become the dominant consumer media in Europe and the New World. By the 19th century, improvements in printing technology freed illustrators to experiment with color and rendering techniques; these developments in printing effected all areas of literature from cookbooks and traveling guides, as well as children's books. Due to advances in printing, it became more affordable to produce color photographs within books and other materials. By 1900 100 percent of paper was machine-made, while a person working by hand could produce 60-100lbs of paper per day, mechanization yielded around 1,000lbs per day. Additionally, in the 50 year period between 1846 and 1916, book production increased 400% and the price of books was cut in half. In America, this led to a "golden age of illustration" from before the 1880s until the early 20th century.
A small group of illustrators became successful, with the imagery they created considered a portrait of American aspirations of the time. Among the best known illustrators of that period were N. C. Wyeth and Howard Pyl