Netherlands Institute for Art History
The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world. The center specializes in documentation and books on Western art from the late Middle Ages until modern times, all of this is open to the public, and much of it has been digitized and is available on their website. The main goal of the bureau is to collect, via the available databases, the visitor can gain insight into archival evidence on the lives of many artists of past centuries. The library owns approximately 450,000 titles, of which ca.150,000 are auction catalogs, there are ca.3,000 magazines, of which 600 are currently running subscriptions. Though most of the text is in Dutch, the record format includes a link to library entries and images of known works. The RKD manages the Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, the original version is an initiative of the Getty Research Institute in Los Angeles, California. Their bequest formed the basis for both the art collection and the library, which is now housed in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek.
Though not all of the holdings have been digitised, much of its metadata is accessible online. The website itself is available in both a Dutch and an English user interface, in the artist database RKDartists, each artist is assigned a record number. To reference an artist page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record, usually of the form, for example, the artist record number for Salvador Dalí is 19752, so his RKD artist page can be referenced. In the images database RKDimages, each artwork is assigned a record number, to reference an artwork page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record, usually of the form, https, //rkd. nl/en/explore/images/ followed by the artworks record number. For example, the record number for The Night Watch is 3063. The Art and Architecture Thesaurus assigns a record for each term, they are used in the databases and the databases can be searched for terms. For example, the painting called The Night Watch is a militia painting, the thesaurus is a set of general terms, but the RKD contains a database for an alternate form of describing artworks, that today is mostly filled with biblical references.
To see all images that depict Miriams dance, the associated iconclass code 71E1232 can be used as a search term. Official website Direct link to the databases The Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus
Realism in the arts is the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, implausible and supernatural elements. Realism has been prevalent in the arts at many periods, and is in part a matter of technique and training. In the visual arts, illusionistic realism is the depiction of lifeforms, perspective. Realist works of art may emphasize the mundane, ugly or sordid, such as works of realism, regionalism. There have been various movements in the arts, such as the opera style of verismo, literary realism, theatrical realism. The realism art movement in painting began in France in the 1850s, the realist painters rejected Romanticism, which had come to dominate French literature and art, with roots in the late 18th century. Realism is the precise and accurate representation in art of the appearance of scenes. Realism in this sense is called naturalism, mimesis or illusionism, realistic art was created in many periods, and it is in large part a matter of technique and training, and the avoidance of stylization.
It becomes especially marked in European painting in the Early Netherlandish painting of Jan van Eyck, however such realism is often used to depict, for example, angels with wings, which were not things the artists had ever seen in real life. It is the choice and treatment of matter that defines Realism as a movement in painting. The development of increasingly accurate representation of the appearances of things has a long history in art. It includes elements such as the depiction of the anatomy of humans and animals, of perspective and effects of distance. Ancient Greek art is recognised as having made great progress in the representation of anatomy. Pliny the Elders famous story of birds pecking at grapes painted by Zeuxis in the 5th century BC may well be a legend, roman portraiture, when not under too much Greek influence, shows a greater commitment to a truthful depiction of its subjects. The art of Late Antiquity famously rejected illusionism for expressive force, scientific methods of representing perspective were developed in Italy and gradually spread across Europe, and accuracy in anatomy rediscovered under the influence of classical art.
As in classical times, idealism remained the norm, having led the development of illusionic painting, still life was to be equally significant in its abandonment in Cubism. The depiction of ordinary, everyday subjects in art has a history, though it was often squeezed into the edges of compositions. However these objects are at least largely there because they carry layers of complex significance, pieter Bruegel the Elder pioneered large panoramic scenes of peasant life
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Herman Wilhelm Bissen
Herman Wilhelm Bissen was a Danish sculptor. Bissen first studied painting in Copenhagen, became a pupil of the sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen, in 1824, he travelled to Rome and met Christian Daniel Rauch in Berlin. Under the influence of Thorvaldsen, his style changed from romanticism to neo-classicism, back in Denmark, Bissen became professor at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Copenhagen in 1834, changing in style to realism. Among his works are the monumental Landsoldaten in Fredericia and the Isted Lion, media related to Herman Wilhelm Bissen at Wikimedia Commons Black & white photos of Bissens major works Bio of Bissen in Danish
It has been used with reference to late-19th-century composers such as Richard Wagner particularly by Carl Dahlhaus who describes his music as a late flowering of romanticism in a positivist age. He regards it as synonymous with the age of Wagner, from about 1850 until 1890—the start of the era of modernism, whose leading early representatives were Richard Strauss and Gustav Mahler. Neo-romanticism as well as Romanticism is considered in opposition to naturalism—indeed, so far as music is concerned, in the period following German unification in 1871, naturalism rejected Romantic literature as a misleading, idealistic distortion of reality. Naturalism in turn came to be regarded as incapable of filling the void of modern existence, neo-romanticism was proposed as an alternative label for the group of German composers identified with the short-lived Neue Einfachheit movement in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Along with other such as new tonality, this term has been criticised for lack of precision because of the diversity among these composers.
In British art history, the term neo-romanticism is applied to an affiliated school of landscape painting that emerged around 1930. It was first labeled in March 1942 by the critic Raymond Mortimer in the New Statesman and this movement was motivated in part as a response to the threat of invasion during World War II. Artists particularly associated with the initiation of this movement included Paul Nash, John Piper, Henry Moore, Ivon Hitchens, a younger generation included John Minton, Michael Ayrton, John Craxton, Keith Vaughan, Robert Colquhoun, and Robert MacBryde. The aesthetic philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer and Friedrich Nietzsche has contributed greatly to neo-romantic thinking, Dictionary of Art,34 volumes, edited by Jane Turner. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms and New York, Oxford University Press. Wie neu war die Neue Einfachheit, the Oxford Companion to Western Art, edited by Hugh Brigstocke. Oxford and New York, Oxford University Press, in The Cambridge Companion to German Romanticism, edited by Nicholas Saul, 257–80.
Cambridge and New York, Cambridge University Press, the People’s Library, The Spirit of Prose Literature Versus Fascism. In The Culture of Japanese Fascism, edited by Alan Tansman, the Origins of the English Imagination. The Geographies of Englishness and the National Past, 1880-1940, poets in the Landscape, The Romantic Spirit in British Art. Fantastic Illustration and Design in Great Britain, 1850–1930, paradise Lost, The Neo-Romantic Imagination in Britain, 1935–1955. Outcasts from Eden, Ideas of Landscape in British Poetry Since 1945, British Romantic Art and The Second World War. Civilisation and its Discontents, English Neo-Romanticism and the Transformation of Anti-Modernism in Twentieth-Century Western Culture and this Enchanted Isle, The Neo-Romantic Vision from William Blake to the New Visionaries
Carrara is a city and comune in the Province of Massa and Carrara, notable for the white or blue-grey marble quarried there. It is on the Carrione River, some 100 kilometres west-northwest of Florence and its motto is Fortitudo mea in rota. There were known settlements in the area as early as the 9th century BC, the current town originated from the borough built to house workers in the marble quarries created by the Romans after their conquest of Liguria in the early 2nd century BC. Carrara has been linked with the process of quarrying and carving marble since the Roman Age, Marble was exported from the nearby harbour of Luni at the mouth of river Magra. The Bishops acquired it again in 1230, their ending in 1313. Later it was acquired by Gian Galeazzo Visconti of Milan and Massa formed the Duchy of Massa and Carrara from the 15th to the 19th century. Under the last Malaspina, Maria Teresa, who had married Ercole III dEste, after the short Napoleonic rule of Elisa Bonaparte, it was given back to Modena.
During the unification of Italy age, Carrara was the seat of a revolt led by Domenico Cucchiari. At the end of the 19th century Carrara became the cradle of anarchism in Italy, the quarry workers, including the stone carvers, had radical beliefs that set them apart from others. Ideas from outside the city began to influence the Carrarese and general radicalism became part of the heritage of the stone carvers. According to a New York Times article of 1894 many violent revolutionists who had expelled from Belgium and Switzerland went to Carrara in 1885. Carrara has remained a hotbed of anarchism in Italy, with several organizations located openly in the city. The Anarchist marble workers were the force behind organising labour in the quarries. They were the protagonists of the Lunigiana revolt in January 1894. In 1929, the municipalities of Carrara and Montignoso were merged in a single municipality, in 1945 the previous situation was restored. Carrara is the birthplace of the International Federation of Anarchists, formed in 1968, as a titular Duke of Modena, the current holder of the title of Prince of Carrara would be Prince Lorenz of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este.
Ducal Palace, now the seat of the Fine Arts Academy, built over pre-existing Lombard fortification, it dates to the reign of Guglielmo Malaspina, becoming in 1448 the permanent seat of the dynasty. It includes two distinct edifices, the Castello Malaspiniano, dating to the 13th century, and the Renaissance palace, under the medieval loggia are exposed several ancient Roman findings
Nyboder is a historic row house district of former Naval barracks in Copenhagen, Denmark. It was planned and first built by Christian IV to accommodate a need for housing for the personnel of the rapidly growing Royal Danish Navy and their families during that time. Nyboder is today very much associated with their colour and Nyboder yellow is in Danish often used as a generic term to refer to their exact hue of yellow. However, the colour of the development was red and white. Under Christian IV the Royal Danish Navy grew rapidly and there was an urgent need for accommodation for its personnel. The new development was planned on land outside Copenhagen previously acquired by the king with the intention to expand the city northwards. This had still not happened but Saint Annes Post, to develop into Kastellet, had already constructed a little further north. Construction of Nyboder was commenced in 1631, the area was laid out around two main streets radiating from a planned square which was never established.
The rows were oriented perpendicularly to these streets. The architects assisting the King were Hans van Steenwinckel the Younger and Leonhard Blasius, Christian IVs Nyboder was completed around 1641. In 1647, one year before Christian IVs death, Nyboder was definitively absorbed by the city when the Eastern City Gate is moved. Just north of Nyboder lay a piece of undevelopped land known as Greenland, on 16 December 1658 a gunpowder magazine just north of Nyboder exploded, damaging or demolishing many houses and causing numerous casualties. In 1668 Copenhagens gallows were moved from its previous location, at the site where Kongens Nytorv would be out a few years later. In 1677, Nyboder saw another bleak neighbour when the Stocks House was built a little to the south, from its early days, the Nyboder area included a guardhouse which was replaced by a new building in the 1780s. It had a bell which was used to gather people in the event of a military attack or fire. The building houses the Nyboder barracks own guard and contained a jail, when the Frederiksholm islet is created by a series of Land reclamation, the intention is to use it for new naval barracks but again the plans are not carried out.
In the end it was decided to build new houses at Nyboder, in 175624 two-storey houses designed by Philip de Lange were built and while extensions would be directed by other architects, it continued to be to his initial design. In 1771 some of Christian IVs original rows were extended with an extra storey by Anthon, from 1781-96 another app.150 houses were built. A guard house and five houses were added to the area during the same period
Copenhagen City Hall
Copenhagen City Hall is the headquarters of the municipal council as well as the Lord mayor of the Copenhagen Municipality, Denmark. The building is situated on The City Hall Square in central Copenhagen, the current building was inaugurated in 1905. It was designed by the architect Martin Nyrop in the National Romantic style and it is dominated by its richly ornamented front, the gilded statue of Absalon just above the balcony and the tall, slim clock tower. The latter is at 105.6 metres one of the tallest buildings in the low city of Copenhagen. In addition to the clock, the City Hall houses Jens Olsens World Clock. The current city hall was designed by architect Martin Nyrop and the design for the building was inspired by the city hall of Siena, construction began in 1892 and the hall was opened on September 12,1905. Before the city moved to its present location, it was situated at Gammeltorv/Nytorv. The first city hall was in use from about 1479 until it burned down in the great Copenhagen fire of 1728, the second city hall was built in 1728 and was designed by J. C.
Ernst and J. C. Krieger. It burned down in the Copenhagen fire of 1795 and it was not until 1815 that a new city hall, designed by C. F. Hansen, was erected on Nytorv. It was intended to both the city hall and a court. Today it is still in use as the city court of Copenhagen, in 2007, the National Bank of Denmark issued a 20 DKK commemorative coin of the tower
Frederiks Church, popularly known as The Marble Church for its rococo architecture, is an Evangelical Lutheran church in Copenhagen, Denmark. The church forms the point of the Frederiksstaden district, it is located due west of Amalienborg Palace. Fredericks Church has the largest church dome in Scandinavia with a span of 31m, the dome rests on 12 columns. The inspiration was probably St. Peters Basilica in Rome, the foundation stone was set by king Frederick V on October 31,1749, but the construction was slowed by budget cuts and the death of Eigtved in 1754. In 1770, the plans for the church were abandoned by Johann Friedrich Struensee. The church was incomplete and, in spite of several initiatives to complete it. The deal was at the highly controversial. On 25 January 1877, a case was brought by the Folketing at the Court of Impeachment, tietgen got Ferdinand Meldahl to design the church in its final form and financed its construction. Due to financial restrictions, the plans for the church to be built almost entirely from marble were discarded.
The church was opened to the public on August 19,1894. Inscribed in gold lettering on the entablature of the front portico are the words, a series of statues of prominent theologians and ecclesiastical figures, including one of the eminent Danish philosopher Kierkegaard, encircles the grounds of the building
Danish art is the visual arts produced in Denmark or by Danish artists. It goes back thousands of years with significant artifacts from the 2nd millennium BC, for many early periods, it is usually considered as part of the wider Nordic art of Scandinavia. Art from what is today Denmark forms part of the art of the Nordic Bronze Age, Danish medieval painting is almost entirely known from church frescos such as those from the 16th-century artist known as the Elmelunde Master. The Reformation greatly disrupted Danish artistic traditions, and left the body of painters and sculptors without large markets. Thereafter for an extended period art in Denmark was either imported from Germany, from the late 18th century on, the situation changed radically and beginning with the Danish Golden Age, a distinct tradition of Danish art has continued to flourish until today. Due to generous art subsidies, contemporary Danish art has a big production per capita, lurs are a distinctive type of giant curving Bronze Age horn, of which 35 of the 53 known examples have been found in bogs in Denmark, very often in pairs.
They are normally made of bronze, and often decorated, a possibly alien find in Denmark is the Gundestrup cauldron, a richly decorated silver vessel, thought to date to the 1st century BC. It was found in 1891 in a bog near the hamlet of Gundestrup in north-eastern Jutland. The silversmithing of the plates is very skilled, the bowl,70 cm across, was beaten from a single ingot. Now in the National Museum of Denmark, it is the largest known example of European silver work from the period, the style and workmanship suggest Thracian origin, while the imagery seems Celtic, so it may not reflect local styles. Danish sites have given their names to two of the six main styles of Viking or Norse art, Jelling style and its successor Mammen style, only one Danish ship burial is known, from Ladbyskibet. The images on the runestones at Jelling are probably the best known Danish works of the period, church wall paintings are to be found in some 600 churches across Denmark, probably representing the highest concentration of surviving church murals anywhere in the world.
Most of them back to the Middle Ages. They lay hidden for centuries as after the Reformation in Denmark, of most interest to Danish art are the Gothic paintings from the 15th and 16th centuries as they were painted in a style typical of native Danish painters. Adopting the Biblia pauperum approach, they present many of the most popular stories from the Old, albrecht Dürers portrait of her father Christian II of Denmark, painted in Brussels in 1521, has not survived, though portraits of him by other foreign artists have. After a period of development its pupils were indeed to lead the creation of a distinct Danish style, leading Danish artists teaching at the Academy included Christian August Lorentzen and Jens Juel, later Director. Among his works are the series of statues of Christ. Motifs for his works were mostly from Greek mythology, but he created portraits of important personalities, as in his tomb monument for Pope Pius VII in St Peters Basilica
Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions. It is one of the plastic arts, a wide variety of materials may be worked by removal such as carving, assembled by welding or modelling, or molded, or cast. However, most ancient sculpture was painted, and this has been lost. Those cultures whose sculptures have survived in quantities include the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean and China, the Western tradition of sculpture began in ancient Greece, and Greece is widely seen as producing great masterpieces in the classical period. During the Middle Ages, Gothic sculpture represented the agonies and passions of the Christian faith, the revival of classical models in the Renaissance produced famous sculptures such as Michelangelos David. Relief is often classified by the degree of projection from the wall into low or bas-relief, high relief, sunk-relief is a technique restricted to ancient Egypt. Relief sculpture may decorate steles, upright slabs, usually of stone, techniques such as casting and moulding use an intermediate matrix containing the design to produce the work, many of these allow the production of several copies.
The term sculpture is used mainly to describe large works. The very large or colossal statue has had an enduring appeal since antiquity, another grand form of portrait sculpture is the equestrian statue of a rider on horse, which has become rare in recent decades. The smallest forms of life-size portrait sculpture are the head, showing just that, or the bust, small forms of sculpture include the figurine, normally a statue that is no more than 18 inches tall, and for reliefs the plaquette, medal or coin. Sculpture is an important form of public art, a collection of sculpture in a garden setting can be called a sculpture garden. One of the most common purposes of sculpture is in form of association with religion. Cult images are common in cultures, though they are often not the colossal statues of deities which characterized ancient Greek art. The actual cult images in the innermost sanctuaries of Egyptian temples, of which none have survived, were rather small. The same is true in Hinduism, where the very simple.
Some undoubtedly advanced cultures, such as the Indus Valley civilization, appear to have had no monumental sculpture at all, though producing very sophisticated figurines, the Mississippian culture seems to have been progressing towards its use, with small stone figures, when it collapsed. Other cultures, such as ancient Egypt and the Easter Island culture, from the 20th century the relatively restricted range of subjects found in large sculpture expanded greatly, with abstract subjects and the use or representation of any type of subject now common. Today much sculpture is made for intermittent display in galleries and museums, small sculpted fittings for furniture and other objects go well back into antiquity, as in the Nimrud ivories, Begram ivories and finds from the tomb of Tutankhamun