Parque Patricios is a barrio located on the southern side of Buenos Aires, Argentina belonging to the fourth comuna. Parque Patricios underwent a transformation during the beginning of the 1900s; the government moved the main slaughterhouse to Mataderos, removed refuse piles and the notorious trash incinerators and the cemetery used during the 1871 yellow fever epidemic, now Parque Ameghino. Parks, a zoo and hospitals were put in their place. Parque Patricios received its name from the park of the same name, designed by Carlos Thays, the French architect who designed many of the most distinctive parks in the north of the city including the Botanical Garden and Bosques de Palermo; this barrio features many hospitals which treat patients from all parts of Argentina, as well as the notorious former Caseros Prison. It is the home of Club Atlético Huracán, a First Division football team, their stadium Estadio Tomás Adolfo Ducó. Parque Patricios is bordered by the barrios of Nueva Pompeya to the south.
In more recent years, the area has received connections to Line H of the Buenos Aires Underground, in particular at Parque Patricios station, connecting it to the network for the first time. The headquarters of the Government of Buenos Aires were moved to Parque Patricios in 2015, as part of a strategy to drive economic growth in the south and lessen the economic divide with the north of the city; the building was designed by British architect Norman Foster. Parque Patricio´s blog
San Telmo, Buenos Aires
San Telmo is the oldest barrio of Buenos Aires, Argentina. It is a well-preserved area of the Argentine metropolis and is characterized by its colonial buildings. Cafes, tango parlors and antique shops line the cobblestone streets, which are filled with artists and dancers. A street named the "Illuminated Block" is where many of these important historical buildings can be found. San Telmo's attractions include old churches, antique stores and a semi-permanent antique fair in the main public square, Plaza Dorrego. Tango-related activities for both locals and tourists are in the area. Known as San Pedro Heights during the 17th century, the area was home to the city's growing contingent of dockworkers and brickmakers; the bulk of the city's exports of wool and leather were prepared and stored here in colonial times. Their presence led to the first residential settlements in this area: that of Africans and free, alike. Separated from Buenos Aires proper by a ravine, the area was formally incorporated into the city in 1708 as the "Ovens and Storehouses of San Pedro."
The neighborhood's poverty led the Jesuits to found a "Spiritual House" in the area, a charitable and educational mission referred to by San Pedro's indigent as "the Residence. The void left by the Jesuits' departure was addressed by the 1806 establishment of the Parish of San Pedro González Telmo, so named in honor of the Patron Saint of seafarers; this move failed to replace the lost social institutions and San Telmo languished well after Argentine independence in 1816. The Jesuit Residence, restored as a clinic by Guatemalan friars, was shuttered in 1821, San Telmo saw no public works for the next 30 years except a Black Infantrymen's Quarters and the construction of the dreaded Mazorca Dungeon by Governor Juan Manuel de Rosas. San Telmo began to improve despite these challenges after Rosas' removal from power in 1852; the establishment of new clinics, the installation of gas mains, sewers, running water and cobblestones and the opening of the city's main wholesale market led to increasing interest in the area on the part of the well-to-do and numerous imposing homes were built in the western half of San Telmo.
This promising era ended abruptly when an epidemic of yellow fever struck the area in 1871. The new clinics and the heroic efforts of physicians like Florentino Ameghino helped curb the northward spread of the epidemic. At first hundreds of properties became vacant. A few of the larger lots were converted into needed parks, the largest of, Lezama Park, designed by the renowned French-Argentine urban planner Charles Thays in 1891 as a complement to the new Argentine National Museum of History. Most large homes, became tenement housing during the wave of immigration into Argentina from Europe between 1875 and 1930. San Telmo became the most multicultural neighborhood in Buenos Aires, home to large communities of British, Galician and Russian-Argentines; the large numbers of Russians in San Telmo and elsewhere in Buenos Aires led to the consecration of Argentina's first Russian Orthodox Church in 1901. Expanding industry to the south led a German immigrant, Otto Krause, to open a technical school here in 1897.
San Telmo's bohemian air began attracting local artists after upwardly-mobile immigrants left the area. Increasing cultural activity resulted in the opening of the Buenos Aires Museum of Modern Art by critic Rafael Squirru in 1956, as well as in the 1960 advent of the "Republic of San Telmo," an artisan guild which organized art walks and other events. San Telmo's immigrant presence led to quick popularization of tango in the area: long after that genre's heyday, renowned vocalist Edmundo Rivero purchased an abandoned colonial-era grocery in 1969, christening it El Viejo Almacén; this soon became one of the city's best-known tango music halls, helping lead to a cultural and economic revival in San Telmo. The 1980 restoration of the former Ezeiza family mansion into the Pasaje de la Defensa, has led to the refurbishment of numerous such structures, many of, conventillos since the 1870s; as most of San Telmo's 19th century architecture and cobblestone streets remain, it has become an important tourist attraction.
A great number of contemporary art galleries, art spaces and museums are located in this area. In 2005 the gallery and artist-run space Appetite opened and the Argentine public and media noticed the crowds attending its openings and parties. Other art galleries began setting up in this neighborhood and it became a Mecca of contemporary art; the first to talk about it was Rolling Stone magazine which said in late 2006: "When all the movement seemed to be getting installed at Palermo, the Daniela Luna tornado opened the appetite with an art gallery in San Telmo and little by little is monopolizing the neighborhood and transferring the scene." A few months the New York Times said that "To find Appetite, an avant-garde gallery that everyone I met recommended, I had to return to one of San Telmo's less atmospheric blocks." Many media remarked the transformation of San Telmo into a destination for contemporary art lovers, such as the newspape
José Gervasio Artigas
José Gervasio Artigas Arnal was a national hero of Uruguay, sometimes called "the father of Uruguayan nationhood". Artigas was born in Montevideo on June 19, 1764, his grandparents were from Zaragoza, Buenos Tenerife. His grandparents fought in the War of the Spanish Succession and moved to the Americas to escape from poverty, settling in Buenos Aires in 1716. Artigas was the son of Martín José Artigas and Francisca Antonia Arnal, who came from a wealthy family, his parents enrolled him in the Colegio de San Bernardino, to pursue religious studies, but Artigas refused to submit to the school's strict discipline. Before he left the school, he developed a strong friendship with Fernando Otorgues, who would work with him in years. At the age of 12, he worked on his family's farms, his contact with the customs and perspectives of gauchos and Indians made a great impression on him. Once he had come of age, he distanced himself from his parents and became involved in cattle smuggling; this made him a wanted man with the government in Montevideo.
A reward was put out for his death. Things changed with the opening of the Anglo-Spanish War, the threat of a British attack upon the viceroyalty; the viceroy Antonio de Olaguer y Feliú negotiated a pardon with his family, on the condition that he joined the Corps of Blandengues with a hundred men, to form a battalion. Thus, he began his military career at age 33, with the rank of lieutenant; the attack came in 1806, when William Beresford invaded Buenos Aires, in the first British invasions of the Río de la Plata. Although Artigas's unit was tasked with patrolling the frontier with Brazil, he requested to take part in the military expedition that Santiago de Liniers launched from Montevideo to drive the British out of Buenos Aires, his request was granted, the British were defeated. After the liberation of Buenos Aires, he was tasked with returning to Montevideo and informing the governor Pascual Ruiz Huidobro of the result of the battle. A second British attack aimed to capture Montevideo, captured in the Battle of Montevideo.
Artigas was taken prisoner. He began a guerrilla war against the invaders; the British tried to capture Buenos Aires a second time, but were defeated by the local armies, returned Montevideo to Spanish control as part of the terms of capitulation. Artigas was promoted to captain in 1809; the ideas of the Age of Enlightenment and the outbreak of the Peninsular War in Spain, along with the capture of King Ferdinand VII, generated political turbulence all across the Spanish Empire. The absence of the king from the throne and the new ideas of the Enlightenment sparked the Spanish American wars of independence, between patriots and royalists. Artigas, who thought that the gauchos were not treated well, supported the new ideas. Buenos Aires deposed the viceroy in 1810, during the May Revolution, replacing him with the Primera Junta. Mariano Moreno, secretary of war, wrote at the Operations plan that Artigas would be a decisive ally against the royalists in Montevideo, called him for an interview. However, by the time Artigas arrived in Buenos Aires, Moreno had left the government.
He received little help. He was promoted to colonel and received some weapons, money and 150 men little to organize a rebellion at the Banda Oriental; this was the last time. Spain declared Buenos Aires a rogue city, appointed Montevideo as the new capital, with Francisco Javier de Elío as the new viceroy; the city had financial problems, the measures taken by Elío to maintain the royalist armies were unpopular in the countryside. This allowed Artigas to channel the popular discontent against the colonial authorities. A hundred men met near the Asencio stream and made the cry of Asencio, a pronunciamiento against the viceroy, they captured many villages in the Banda Oriental, such as Mercedes, Santo Domingo, Maldonado, Paso del Rey, Santa Teresa and San José. They captured Gualeguay, Gualeguaychú and Arroyo de la China, at the west of the Uruguay river. Elío sent some soldiers to kill Artigas, he sent Manuel Villagrán, a relative of Artigas, to offer him the pardon and appoint him general and military leader of the Banda Oriental if he gave up the rebellion.
Artigas considered the offer an insult, sent Villagrán prisoner to Buenos Aires. Montevideo was soon surrounded by Artigas's forces. A Montevidean army tried to stop the patriots at the Battle of Las Piedras, but they were defeated, the city was put to siege. José Rondeau, commanding forces from Buenos Aires, joined the siege. Artigas wanted to attack the city right away, but Rondeau thought that there would be less loss of lives by establishing a blockade and waiting for the city to surrender. However, the besiegers did not consider the naval forces of Montevideo, who kept the city supplied and enabled them to endure the blockade. On the verge of defeat, Elío allied himself with Brazilian forces, requesting their intervention in the conflict. Dom Diogo de Sousa entered into the Banda Oriental; this added to the Argentinian defeat of Manuel Belgrano at the Paraguay campaign, the defeat of Juan José Castelli at the First Upper Peru campaign and the Montevidean naval blockade of Buenos Aires. Fearing a complete defeat, Buenos Air
Retiro, Buenos Aires
Retiro is a barrio in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Located in the northeast end of the city, Retiro is bordered on the south by the Puerto Madero and San Nicolás barrios, on the west by the Recoleta barrio. Towards the end of the 17th century and the beginning of the 18th was installed in the area, a asiento of slaves belonging to the Compagnie de Guinée and South Sea Company, that operated until 1739. In 1800 began the construction of Plaza de Toros del Retiro, a stadium of bullfighting built by the architect Francisco Cañete, that worked until 1819. In the Plaza de Toros took place the battles between the troops of Santiago de Liniers and the British army, occurred during the English invasions of 1806 and 1807. In 1821 was installed the first dissident cemetery of Buenos Aires, located in the vicinity of Iglesia Nuestra Señora del Socorro; this cemetery was place were buried the people who professed the Protestant religion English. The dissident cemetery operated in the neighborhood of Retiro until 1833, was transferred that same year to the neighborhood of Balvanera.
In 1854, was established in the neighborhood the Compañía Primitiva de Gas de Buenos Aires Ltda. A British gas company, that worked until it was nationalized in 1944. In 1910 the British residents of Buenos Aires financed the construction of the Tower of the English, on the occasion of the centenary of the May Revolution; the work was entrusted to the English architect Ambrose Macdonald Poynter, being inaugurated by the president Victorino de la Plaza on May 24, 1916. Retiro is one of the largest hubs of transportation services in Argentina, is home to many high-end stores and residential areas popular among both local wealthy gentry and expatriate executives. About 26,000 of its people, including thousands of illegal immigrants, live in the "Villa 31" shantytown built along the Port of Buenos Aires from the 1930s onwards. Local and long distance rail service heading to the north originate from Estación Retiro a major long-distance bus terminal is located adjacent to the station, subte line C of the Buenos Aires Metro system and numerous local public bus services, this area is always teeming with commuters and traffic on weekdays.
A major thoroughfare is Avenida del Libertador, which becomes Avenida Leandro N. Alem past the Retiro train terminal. Avenida Leandro Alem runs north-to-south along the Buenos Aires Central Business District, which Retiro shares with the San Nicolás ward. Other principal streets and avenues in Retiro are Santa Fe, Córdoba, Libertador Avenues, pedestrian Florida Street, Avenida 9 de Julio; the Retiro section of Florida Street was the site of Harrods Buenos Aires the London department store's only overseas affiliate, from 1914 to 1998. Another Retiro landmark spared. Completed in 1912 as a private residence, it was acquired by the French Government for use as its Embassy in Argentina in 1939; when entire blocks of housing were razed to make way for an extension of the Avenida 9 de Julio in the late 1970s, the embassy was spared due to its landmark status, remains the lone building in the midst of intense traffic. The neighboring Pereda Palace, built in 1920, serves as the official residence of the Ambassador of Brazil.
Retiro is home to a number of five star hotels, including the Four Seasons, Marriott Plaza and Sofitel. The oldest of these, the Marriott Plaza, was opened in 1909 and faces Plaza San Martín, to the north of which lies the train terminal and the Plaza Fuerza Aérea Argentina, where the Torre Monumental is located. Nearby are the Basílica Santísimo Sacramento, the upscale Patio Bullrich shopping arcade, the Estrugamou Building, the Fernández Blanco Museum, the Peace Plaza - the site of the former Israeli Embassy, bombed on March 17, 1992, with a toll of 29 dead and 242 wounded, marking the first known South American incident of Middle East-related terrorism; the numerous government agencies headquartered in the district include the Ministry of Foreign Relations, the Air Force, the Navy, the National Mint, the Rail Transport Agency. Across the street opposite Retiro train terminal is the leafy Plaza San Martín, surrounded by great palaces and hotels; the Retiro lowlands were once the training grounds for General José de San Martín's Regiment of Mounted Grenadiers, the modern-day Plaza San Martín features an equestrian monument to the hero of the Argentine War of Independence, as well as a memorial to the dead in the Falklands War.
The most significant landmark opposite the plaza is the Kavanagh building, a reinforced concrete structure finished in 1936 that, at the time, was the tallest building in Latin America at 120 metres. Funded by a feisty Irish Argentine woman, the Kavanagh stands on the northern end of pedestrian Calle Florida, its construction followed the plaza's extensive redesign, which resulted in the demolition of a number of derelict buildings from the colonial era, though of the original National Museum of Fine Arts, an ornate pavilion used for the 1889 Paris Exp
Almagro, Buenos Aires
Almagro is a middle-class barrio of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The neighbourhood is delimited by La Plata avenue and Río de Janeiro street to the west, Independencia avenue to the south, Sánchez de Bustamante, Sánchez de Loria and Gallo streets to the east, Córdoba/Estado de Israel avenues to the north. Almagro features strong commercial activity along its avenues, has a high population density due to the many high-rise buildings erected along the railway line; the sectional government of the 6th circuit, which includes Almagro and Boedo, is located on Díaz Vélez avenue opposite Centenario park. In the 18th century, what is now the western part of Almagro belonged to Portuguese merchant Carlos de los Santos Valente and to his estate; the eastern and northern sections were in the possession of Spaniard Juan María de Almagro y de la Torre, a barrister. The Argentine revolutionary government confiscated Almagro's lands, only to return them to him in 1820. Both Santos Valente and Almagro managed agricultural establishments, did not favor any kind of urban development.
During the 19th century, most of the neighbourhood was occupied by dairy farms and brick factories. Almagro and Caballito were located on the city of Flores. In 1880, Almagro was incorporated into the Federal district; the neighbourhood came into its own around 1900, following the erection of the San Carlos parish church in 1878, the introduction of the tramway, the massive immigration. Rapid urbanization brought about the conventillos; the assimilation of immigrants into the local culture was quick, Almagro became the birthplace of many famous tangos. Due to its proximity to the Abasto market, singer Carlos Gardel was a frequent visitor, in 1930 he recorded a tango named Almagro. Many Almagro institutions became relevant in the Buenos Aires landscape: The Colégio Pio IX, whose alumni includes famous Tango singer Carlos Gardel, Blessed Ceferino Namuncurá, Argentine President Arturo Illia and distinguished engineers like Curiosity Rover, other Mars NASA missions, Chief Engineer for the Guidance and Control system Miguel San Martín.
The Las Violetas coffee house, opened in 1884, was a renowned meeting-place. Closed down in 1998 and reopened in 2001, it preserves the glamour of its golden days; the Argentine Boxing Federation hall on Castro Barros street was the venue of many important matches. The Mariano Moreno and Mariano Acosta schools were noted for their high educational standards In the 1950s, the Buenos Aires campus of the Universidad Tecnológica Nacional was built on Lavalle and Medrano streets. To accommodate the growing number of students, the faculty of Humanities of Buenos Aires University was relocated to Puán street during the 1980s. Hospital Italiano on Gascón street is one of the main private hospitals in the city; the city's Dentistry Hospital is located on Muñiz street. There is a Library for blind people on the intersection of Lezica and Medrano. Although many music and dance venues cater to all tastes, Almagro is a stronghold of tango. During his last years and bandleader Osvaldo Pugliese relocated to Almagro and oversaw the creation of the Casa del Tango complex on Guardia Vieja street.
Among Almagro's residents of note were boxer Luis Ángel Firpo, poet Alfonsina Storni, physician and politician Juan B. Justo. Instituto Privado Argentino-Japonés or Nichia Gakuin, a private elementary and middle school, is located at Yatay 261 and Pringles 268 in Almagro. Westbound traffic is served by Independencia, Córdoba/Estado de Israel avenues. Eastbound traffic is served by Corrientes, Díaz Vélez, Belgrano avenues. There are no major north-south avenues though Medrano and Boedo streets carry heavy traffic. Almagro has access to the along Corrientes; the westbound Sarmiento train line crosses Almagro but does not stop within the limits of the neighbourhood. Important bus lines are the 19, 128, 160, 168; the neighbourhood was the birthplace of San Lorenzo de Almagro. The remaining major institution, Club Almagro has its facilities on Medrano street, its football team was relegated from the first division in 2005. It is the headquarters of the Argentine Boxing Federation. Late 1800, yellow fever epidemics moved parts of the upper class from the center to their country houses in Almagro.
And from early 1900 the neighbourhood started to house the large immigrant waves from Italy and Basque. Many of the original houses like the casa chorizo are from this time and reflect Almagro's colorfull history. Nearby Plaza Almagro park on Sarmiento street features a popular playground and a book fair on Sundays. Parque Centenario, located a little beyond the western edge of Almagro, features an arts-and-crafts and antiques fair on Sundays, is used as a concert venue. September 28 is Almagro Day, marked by celebrations across the main points of the barrio. Almagro Barrio Guide and Map Almagro history and useful information Old Buenos Aires Argentine Boxing Federation
Italian Argentines are Argentine-born citizens of Italian descent or Italian-born people who reside in Argentina. Italian immigration is one of the largest and central ethnic origins of modern Argentinians, together with Spanish immigration as well as the colonial population that settled to the major migratory movements into Argentina, it is estimated up to 25 million Argentines have some degree of Italian descent. Italians began arriving in Argentina in great numbers from 1857 to 1940, totaling 44.9% of the entire post-colonial immigrant population. In 1996, the population of Argentines with partial or full Italian descent numbered 15.8 million when Argentina’s population was 34.5 million, meaning they consisted of 45.5% of the population. Today, the country has 25 million Italian Argentines in a total population of 40 million. Italian settlement in Argentina, along with Spanish settlement, formed the backbone of today's Argentine society. Argentine culture has significant connections to Italian culture in terms of language and traditions.
Small groups of Italians started to immigrate to Argentina as early as the second half of the 18th century. However, the stream of Italian immigration to Argentina became a mass phenomenon only in the years 1880–1920 during the Great European immigration wave to Argentina, peaking between 1900–1914. In 1914, the city of Buenos Aires alone had more than 300,000 Italian-born inhabitants, representing 25% of the total population; the Italian immigrants were male, aged between 14 and 50 and more than 50% literate. The outbreak of World War I and the rise of Fascism in Italy caused a rapid fall in immigration to Argentina, with a slight revival in 1923–1927, but stopped during the Great Depression and the Second World War. After the end of World War II, Italy occupied by foreign armies; the period 1946–1957 brought another massive wave of 380,000 Italians to Argentina. The substantial recovery allowed by the Italian economic miracle of the 1950s and 1960s caused the era of Italian diaspora abroad to finish, in the following decades Italy became a migration receiving country.
Today, there are still 527,570 Italian citizens living in the Argentine Republic. In the decades before 1900, Italian immigrants arrived from the northern regions of Piedmont and Lombardy. In Argentine slang, tano is still used for all people of Italian descent where it means inhabitant of the former independent state the Kingdom of Naples.. The assumption that emigration from cities was negligible has an important exception, and, the city of Naples; the city went from being the capital of its own kingdom in 1860 to being just another large city in Italy. The loss of bureaucratic jobs and the subsequently declining financial situation led to high unemployment. In the early 1880s epidemics of cholera struck the city, causing many people to leave. According to a study in 1990, considering the high proportion of returnees, a positive or negative correlation between region of origin and of destination can be proposed. Southern Italians indicate a more permanent settlement; the authors conclude that the Argentinian society in its Italian component is the result of Southern rather than Northern influences.
According to Ethnologue, Argentina has more than 1,500,000 Italian speakers, making it the third most spoken language in the nation. In spite of the great many Italian immigrants, the Italian language never took hold in Argentina, in part because at the time, the great majority of Italians spoke their regional languages and not many the national standard Italian language; this prevented any expansion of the use of the Italian language as a primary language in Argentina. The similarity of the Italian dialects with Spanish enabled the immigrants to assimilate, by using the Spanish language, with relative ease. Italian immigration from the second half of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century made a lasting and significant impact on the intonation of Argentina's vernacular Spanish. Preliminary research has shown that Rioplatense Spanish the speech of the city of Buenos Aires, has intonation patterns that resemble those of Italian dialects and differ markedly from the patterns of other forms of Spanish.
That correlates well with immigration patterns as Argentina, Buenos Aires, had huge numbers of Italian settlers since the 19th century. According to a study conducted by National Scientific and Technical Research Council of Argentina, published in Bilingualism: Language and Cognition The researchers note that this is a recent phenomenon, starting in the beginning of the 20th century with the main wave of Southern Italian immigration. Before that, the porteño accent was more similar to that of Spain Andalusia. Much of Lunfardo arrived with European immigrants, such as Italians, Greek and Poles, it should be noted that most Italian and Spanish immigrants spoke their regional languages