An hôtel particulier is a townhouse of a grand sort, comparable to the British townhouse. Whereas an ordinary maison was built as part of a row, sharing party walls with the houses on either side and directly fronting on a street, an hôtel particulier was free-standing, by the 18th century it would always be located entre cour et jardin: between the cour d'honneur and the garden behind. There are hôtels particuliers in many large cities in France; the word hôtel represents the Old French hostel, particulier means "personal" or "private". The English word hotel developed a more specific meaning as a commercial building accommodating travellers, modern French uses hôtel for hotels in this sense. For example, the Hôtel de Crillon on the Place de la Concorde was built as an hôtel particulier and is today a public hotel. In French, an hôtel de ville or mairie is a town hall. Other official bodies might give their name to the structure in which they maintained a seat: aside from Paris, several other French cities have an Hôtel de Cluny, maintained by the abbey of Cluny.
The Hôtel de Sens was built as the Paris residence of the archbishop of Sens. Hôtel-Dieu is the old name given to the principal hospital in French towns, such as the Hôtel-Dieu de Beaune; the Hôtel des Invalides retains its early sense of a hospital for war wounded. In Aix-en-Provence: In Blois: In Paris: In Rennes: In Toulouse: In Vesoul: Château Mansion Single-family detached home Monographs have been published on some outstanding Parisian hôtels particuliers; the classic photographic survey, now a rare book found only in large art libraries, is the series Les Vieux Hotels de Paris by J. Vacquer, published in the teens and twenties of the 20th century, which takes Paris quarter by quarter and which illustrates many hôtels particuliers that were demolished during the 20th century. Blanc, Olivier, Hôtels particuliers de Paris Caylux, Odile et al. Les Hôtels particuliers d'Arles Coquery, Natacha, L’hôtel aristocratique. Le marché du luxe à Paris au XVIIIe siècle, Publications de la Sorbonne, 1998 Courtin, Nicolas, L'Art d'habiter à Paris au XVIIe siècle: L'ameublement des hôtels particuliers, Faton, 2011 Cros, Philippe,Hôtels particuliers de France Gady, Les Hôtels particuliers de Paris, du Moyen-Âge à la Belle époque, Parigramme, 2007 Naudin, Jean-Baptiste et al.
Hôtels particuliers de Paris: Visite privée. Papillault, Remi Les hôtels particuliers du XVIe siècle à Toulouse Les Vieux Hotels de Paris, Le Faubourg Saint-Germain Kenneth Franzheim II Rare Books Room, William R. Jenkins Architecture and Art Library, University of Houston Digital Library. Les Vieux Hotels de Paris, Le Faubourg Saint-Honoré Kenneth Franzheim II Rare Books Room, William R. Jenkins Architecture and Art Library, University of Houston Digital Library. Les Vieux Hotels de Paris, Le Ministère de la Marine Kenneth Franzheim II Rare Books Room, William R. Jenkins Architecture and Art Library, University of Houston Digital Library. Les Vieux Hotels de Paris, Le Quartier Saint-Paul Kenneth Franzheim II Rare Books Room, William R. Jenkins Architecture and Art Library, University of Houston Digital Library. Les Vieux Hotels de Paris, Le Temple et le Marais Kenneth Franzheim II Rare Books Room, William R. Jenkins Architecture and Art Library, University of Houston Digital Library
Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe
The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe is the parliamentary arm of the Council of Europe, a 47-nation international organisation dedicated to upholding human rights and the rule of law. The Council of Europe is an older and wider circle of nations than the 28-member European Union – it includes, for example and Turkey among its member states – and oversees the European Court of Human Rights; the Assembly is made up of 324 members drawn from the national parliaments of the Council of Europe's member states, meets four times a year for week-long plenary sessions in Strasbourg. It is one of the two statutory bodies of the Council of Europe, along with the Committee of Ministers, the executive body representing governments, with which it holds an ongoing dialogue. However, it is the Assembly, regarded as the "motor" of the organisation, holding governments to account on human rights issues, pressing states to maintain democratic standards, proposing fresh ideas and generating the momentum for reform.
The Assembly held its first session in Strasbourg on 10 August 1949, making it one of the oldest international assemblies in Europe. Among its main achievements are: ending the death penalty in Europe by requiring new member states to stop all executions making possible, shaping, the European Convention on Human Rights high-profile reports exposing violations of human rights in Council of Europe member states assisting former Soviet countries to embrace democracy after 1989 inspiring and helping to shape many progressive new national laws helping member states to overcome conflict or reach consensus on divisive political or social issues Unlike the European Parliament, the Assembly does not have the power to create binding laws. However, it speaks on behalf of 820 million Europeans and has the power to: demand action from the 47 Council of Europe governments, who – acting through the organisation's executive body – must jointly reply probe human rights violations in any of the member states question Prime Ministers and Heads of State on any subject send parliamentarians to observe elections and mediate over crises set the terms on which states may join the Council of Europe, through its power of veto inspire and help to shape new national laws request legal evaluations of the laws and constitutions of member states sanction a member state by recommending its exclusion or suspensionImportant statutory functions of PACE are the election of the judges of the European Court of Human Rights, the Council of Europe's Commissioner for Human Rights and its Secretary General, as well as the members of the Committee for the Prevention of Torture.
In general the Assembly meets four times per year in Strasbourg at the Palace of Europe for week-long plenary sessions. The nine permanent committees of the Assembly meet all year long to prepare reports and draft resolutions in their respective fields of expertise; the Assembly sets its own agenda, but its debates and reports are focused on the Council of Europe's three core statutory aims, defending human rights, promoting democracy and upholding the rule of law. Judges of the European Court of Human Rights are elected by PACE from a list of three candidates nominated by each member state which has ratified the European Convention on Human Rights. A 20-member committee made up of parliamentarians with legal experience – meeting in camera – interviews all candidates for judge on the Court and assesses their CVs before making recommendations to the full Assembly, which elects one judge from each shortlist in a secret vote. Judges may not be re-elected. Although the European Convention does not, in itself, require member states to present a multi-sex shortlist of potential appointees, in a 2004 resolution PACE decided that it "will not consider lists of candidates where the list does not include at least one candidate of each sex" unless there are exceptional circumstances.
As a result, around one third of the current bench of 47 judges are women, making the Court a leader among international courts on gender balance. At its first meeting, in the summer of 1949, the Parliamentary Assembly adopted the essential blueprint of what became the European Convention on Human Rights, selecting which rights should be protected and defining the outline of the judicial mechanism to enforce them, its detailed proposal, with some changes, was adopted by the Council of Europe's ministerial body, entered into force in 1953. Today, more than sixty years the European Court of Human Rights - given shape and form during the Assembly's historic post-war debates - is regarded as a global standard-bearer for justice, protecting the rights of citizens in 47 European nations and beyond, paving the way for the gradual convergence of human rights laws and practice across the continent; the Assembly continues to elect the judges of the Court. Over the decades, the Assembly has been at the forefront of supporting democratic change in successive waves of European nations at key moments in their history, negotiating their entry into the Council of Europe "club of democracies".
In the 1950s it led the way in embracing recently-defeated Germany, in the 1960s it took a strong stand during the Greek crisis, in the 1970s it welcomed post-Franco Spain and Portugal into the democratic fold. Above all, it played a key role after the fall of the Iron Curtain in 1989, creating a path towards membership for former Communist countries with its "Special Guest status", paving the way for the historic reconciliation of European nations un
56, Allée de la Robertsau
The House on 56, Allée de la Robertsau is an Art Nouveau building in the Neustadt district of Strasbourg, France. It is classified as a Monument historique by the French Ministry of Culture since 1975; the house was built from 1902 until 1903 by the architects Franz Lütke and Heinrich Backes for the master baker Georges Cromer. It is considered as one of the most representative buildings of the Strasbourg brand of Art Nouveau architecture, influenced both by German and by French stylistic tendencies. Lütke and Backes were professional partners from 1898 until 1907. A prolific duo, they built a number of other Art Nouveau houses in Strasbourg, of which several are classified as Monuments historiques as well. Villa Schutzenberger, in the same street
The Neustadt is a district of Strasbourg, Bas-Rhin, France. The Neustadt district was created by the Germans during the Reichsland period to serve as a new city center; as opposed to the old town on the Grande Île, which in 1871 had more narrow and crooked streets and less squares than today, the new town was conceived along monumental boulevards and broad, rectilinear streets that were seen as modern and easy to police. Many architectural styles were used on a grand scale: Baroque Revival, Renaissance Revival, Gothic Revival, Romanesque Revival a mixture of several or all of these styles. At the end of the 19th century, at the same time as a new building material, reinforced concrete, a new and better defined style appeared as well: Art Nouveau; the Neustadt comprises a number of public buildings and monuments that are today classified as Monuments historiques, such as: Palais du Rhin, former palace of the German Emperors University Palace National and University Library National Theatre of Strasbourg, the former Parliament building of Alsace-Lorraine Palais de Justice Palais des Fêtes St Paul's Church Strasbourg railway station Hôtel Brion Villa Schutzenberger 22, Rue du Général de Castelnau 56, Allée de la Robertsauand landmarks that are not classified as Monuments historiques, such as the Saint-Pierre-le-Jeune Catholic Church.
In 2015, the municipality of Strasbourg has submitted an official candidacy to UNESCO for the election of the Neustadt as a World Heritage Site. In 2017, the heart of the Neustadt district was confirmed as a World Heritage Site. Fritz Beblo Jean Geoffroy Conrath Hermann Eggert August Hartel Johann Eduard Jacobsthal Ludwig Levy Skjold Neckelmann August Orth Otto Warth La Neustadt: quartier impérial et université on strasbourg.eu La Neustadt on patrimoine-neustadt-strasbourg.fr Le quartier impérial allemand on otstrasbourg.fr Recht, Roland.
The Italianate style of architecture was a distinct 19th-century phase in the history of Classical architecture. In the Italianate style, the models and architectural vocabulary of 16th-century Italian Renaissance architecture, which had served as inspiration for both Palladianism and Neoclassicism, were synthesised with picturesque aesthetics; the style of architecture, thus created, though characterised as "Neo-Renaissance", was of its own time. "The backward look transforms its object," Siegfried Giedion wrote of historicist architectural styles. The Italianate style was first developed in Britain in about 1802 by John Nash, with the construction of Cronkhill in Shropshire; this small country house is accepted to be the first Italianate villa in England, from, derived the Italianate architecture of the late Regency and early Victorian eras. The Italianate style was further developed and popularised by the architect Sir Charles Barry in the 1830s. Barry's Italianate style drew for its motifs on the buildings of the Italian Renaissance, though sometimes at odds with Nash's semi-rustic Italianate villas.
The style was not confined to England and was employed in varying forms, long after its decline in popularity in Britain, throughout Northern Europe and the British Empire. From the late 1840s to 1890 it achieved huge popularity in the United States, where it was promoted by the architect Alexander Jackson Davis. Key visual components of this style include: In interior decoration there were direct parallels to "Italianate" architecture with free re-combinations of decorative features drawn from Italian 16th-century architecture and objects, which were applied to purely 19th century forms. Wardrobes and dressers could be dressed in Italianate detailing as well as row houses; the spur to such commercial designs can be found in the "free Renaissance" style, espoused by Charles Eastlake. In 1868 he published Hints on Household Taste in Furniture and other Details, influential in Britain and in the United States, where the book was published in 1872. Although the archaeology of Mr. Eastlake's volume was always careful, most of the principles in it are beyond question, can be stated in a few words.
The Italianate style would have no carving or molding or other ornament glued on—such work must be done in the solid. The furniture that he thus proposed has straight, squarely cut members equal to their intention, its ornament is painted panels, porcelain plaques and tiles, metal trimmings, conventionalized carvings in sunk relief, a part of the construction entering into the ornament in the shape of narrow striated strips of wood radiating in opposite lines, after a fashion not altogether unknown in the time of Henry III. It has the solidity, but not the attraction, of the Medieval. Today "Italianate" furnishings are called "Eastlake" by American collectors and dealers, but contemporary terms ranged imaginatively, included "Neo-Grec". A late intimation of Nash's development of the Italianate style was his 1805 design of Sandridge Park at Stoke Gabriel in Devon. Commissioned by the dowager Lady Ashburton as a country retreat, this small country house shows the transition between the picturesque of William Gilpin and Nash's yet to be evolved Italianism.
While this house can still be described as Regency, its informal asymmetrical plan together with its loggias and balconies of both stone and wrought iron. Examples of the Italianate style in England tend to take the form of Palladian-style building enhanced by a belvedere tower complete with Renaissance-type balustrading at the roof level; this is a more stylistic interpretation of what architects and patrons imagined to be the case in Italy, utilises more the Italian Renaissance motifs than those earlier examples of the Italianate style by Nash. Sir Charles Barry, most notable for his works on the Tudor and Gothic styles at the Houses of Parliament in London, was a great promoter of the style. Unlike Nash he found his inspiration in Italy itself. Barry drew on the designs of the original Renaissance villas of Rome, the Lazio and the Veneto or as he put it: "...the charming character of the irregular villas of Italy." His most defining work in this style was the large Neo-Renaissance mansion Cliveden.
Although it has been claimed that one third of early Victorian country houses in England used classical styles Italianate, by 1855 the style was falling from favour and Cliveden came to be regarded as "a declining essay in a declining fashion."Anthony Salvin designed in the Italianate style in Wales, at Hafod House and Penoyre House, described by Mark Girouard as "Salvin's most ambitious classical house."Thomas Cubitt, a London building contractor, incorporated simple classical lines of the Italianate style as defined by Sir Char
Bas-Rhin is a department in Alsace, a part of the Grand Est super-region of France. The name means "Lower Rhine", geographically speaking it belongs to the Upper Rhine region, it is the more populous and densely populated of the two departments of the traditional Alsace region, with 1,121,407 inhabitants in 2016. The prefecture and the General Council are based in Strasbourg; the INSEE and Post Code is 67. The inhabitants of the department are known as Bas-Rhinoises; the Rhine has always been of great historical and economic importance to the area, it forms the eastern border of Bas-Rhin. The area is home to some of the foothills of the Vosges Mountains. To the north of Bas-Rhin lies the Palatinate forest in the German State of Rhineland-Palatinate, the German State of Baden-Württemberg lies to the east. To the south lies the department of Haut-Rhin, the town of Colmar and southern Alsace, to the west the department of Moselle. On its south-western corner, Bas-Rhin joins the department of Vosges.
The Bas-Rhin has a continental-type climate, characterised by cold, dry winters and hot, stormy summers, due to the western protection provided by the Vosges. The average annual temperature is 7 °C on high ground; the annual maximum temperature is high. The average rainfall is 700 mm per year. Established according to data from the Infoclimat station at Strasbourg-Entzheim, over the period from 1961 to 1990; this is the last French department to have kept the term Bas meaning "Lower" in its name. Other departments using this prefix preferred to change their names - e.g.: Basses-Pyrenees in 1969 became Pyrénées-Atlantiques and Basses-Alpes in 1970 became the department of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence. The same phenomenon was observed for the inférieur departments such as Charente-Inférieure, Seine-Inférieure, Loire-Inférieure. Bas-Rhin is one of the original 83 departments created on 4 March 1790, during the French Revolution. On 14 January 1790 the National Constituent Assembly decreed: "- That Alsace be divided into two departments with Strasbourg and Colmar as their capitals.
In 1871 Bas-Rhin was annexed by Germany and became Bezirk Unterelsass in Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen. Strasbourg, the chef lieu of Bas-Rhin is the official seat of the European Parliament as well as of the Council of Europe; the demography of Bas-Rhin is characterized by high density and high population growth since the 1950s. In January 2014 Bas-Rhin had 1,112,815 inhabitants and was 18th by population at the national level. In fifteen years, from 1999 to 2014, its population grew by more than 86,000 people, or about 5,800 people per year, but this variation is differentiated among the 517 communes. The population density of Bas-Rhin is 234 inhabitants per square kilometre in 2014, more than twice the average in France, 112 in 2009; the first census was conducted in 1801 and this count, renewed every five years from 1821, provides precise information on the evolution of population in the department. With 540,213 inhabitants in 1831, the department represented 1.66% of the total French population, 32,569,000 inhabitants.
From 1831 to 1866, the department gained 48,757 people, an increase of 0.26% on average per year compared to the national average of 0.48% over the same period. Demographic change between the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 and the First World War was higher than the national average. Over this period, the population increased by 100,532 inhabitants, an increase of 16.74%, compared to 10% nationally. The population increased by 9.23% between the two world wars from 1921 to 1936 compared to a national growth of 6.9%. Like other French departments, Bas-Rhin experienced a population boom after the Second World War, higher than the national level; the rate of population growth between 1946 and 2007 was 83.83%
The Hôtel Brion known as Villa Brion, is a small Art Nouveau hôtel particulier on rue Sleidan in the Neustadt district of Strasbourg, in the French department of the Bas-Rhin. It has been classified as a Monument historique since 1975; the hôtel particulier was built by the architect, Auguste Brion, for himself in 1904. Brion, the scion of a family of artists directly related to the legendary Friederike Brion, was a prolific architect who built four other houses in the same street between 1903 and 1905; the hôtel is executed in a more exuberant style than most of Brion's other realizations. For the structure, the architect used timber framing and walls of reinforced concrete the surface of which he covered with stonemasonry. Between 1926 and 1972, the Hôtel Brion was used as an actual hotel, called Hôtel Marguerite, it is again in private hands since 1980. Media related to Hôtel Brion at Wikimedia Commons Villa Brion – 22 rue Sleidan on archi-wiki.org Recht, Roland.