Alcara li Fusi
Alcara li Fusi is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Messina in the Italian region Sicily, located about 120 kilometres east of Palermo and about 80 kilometres west of Messina. A Alcara li Fusi borders the following municipalities: Cesarò, Militello Rosmarino, San Fratello, San Marco d'Alunzio; the village is 398 metres above sea level on the slopes of the Nebrodi Mountains. They extend from the peaks of Mount Crasto, which lies to the northeast at about 1,300 metres above sea level, to the plateau of Miraglia and Mount Soro, which rises to 1,847 metres; the territory is rich in watercourses. The central habitation is found on the bank to the right of the river below magnificent rocky outcrops of calcareous origin; the left side of the Rosmarino is instead constituted by reliefs rich in vegetation which reach the ridge of the Nebrodi Mountains and the summit of Mount Soro. One alleged legend, reported by historical scholars in past centuries but without any references on the popular tradition, narrates about the foundation of the village by Patrone, a Greek from the city of Turio in Magna Graecia following Aeneas, who had reached the coast after having landed with some companions.
In reality there is no historical evidence which can link Alcara with Turio or rather identify Alcara with the Greco-Roman city of Turiano documented on fountains in the village, besides the denomination of the "Castle Turio," the remains of a fortification which dominates the village. Without any historical evidence is the identification of Alcara with the greco-Byzantine city of Demenna which in any case could reasonably be localized in the area of the Nebrodi, including the area between San Marco d'Alunzio and Longi. Controversial is the locality of the greco-sicanian city of Crasto which according to various local historians fluctuates from Western Sicily, Southern Sicily, Eastern Sicily, but that should not deviate too much from the area between Agrigento and Imera, despite the presence of rocky outcrops of "Crasto" just above the habitation of Alcara. According to local oral history, which takes as its source scholars of the 16th, 17th, 18th centuries, the habitation would have its origin following the destruction by the Saracens of Crasto and Démena in 855.
Following this, a part of the inhabitants transferred to an area more within the valley. The same version of the story is given, moving a little the position of the mythical cities for other centers within the Nebrodi Mountain region; the improbability of the identification with Krastos and the controversial localization of Demenna, does not exclude that the actual habitation was born by the progressive abandonment of the settlement located more towards the mountain, a common phenomenon in Apennine regions. To this conclusion could be brought for example the remains of human settlement present until a few years at Crasto; the settlement took the Arab name of Akaret during the Islamic domination in Sicily. It does not seem improbable that the Arabs after the difficult conquest of this area of the Nebrodi had called for a network of fortifications for control of the territory; the first real historic reference of the existence of Alcara is from a document from 1096, a certificate from Count Roger, written in Greek, which indicated Alcara as a possession of the bishop of Messina.
The oldest quarter of the village, rising at the foot of the Turio Castle took the name of Motta in this period, referring to the typical model of Norman fortifications which included a tower surrounded by a wall, named "motte". It is therefore probable that to give an urban structure to a settlement having had a spread out character, was the Norman period. However, it does not seem possible, at the moment, to determine the structure of the walls of the "Motta"of which there are only small tracts. In 1359, under the reign of Frederick IV of Sicily, the fortification and its property were assigned to Vinciguerra d'Aragona; the name of the village became "Alcara Valdemone", due to its belonging to the administrative subdivision of Val Demone though it was documented in time different versions of the name such as "L'Arcara", "Arcara", "L'Arcara". In the 15th century is attested a Jewish community older and consistent in this area of the Nebrodi, confirming that Alcara was a commercial and economic center.
The community would have disappeared by the 17th century with the expulsion of all Jews from Sicily not converted. In 1812, with the abolition of the constituencies which had up till divided Sicily, it took the name of Alcara "Li Fusi" since it was a center of production of spindles used for spinning. There are attested in the eighteen hundreds different variants such as "Alcare de fusa", "Alcara dei fusi", "Alcara de li fusi", Alcara delle Fusa"; such denominations were due to the necessity of distinguishing this inhabited center from another "Alcara" or "L'Alcara" which for the same reason took the name of Lercara Friddi. On May 17, 1860, at Alcara there was a peasant revolt which anticipated a similar and more famous one at Bronte. Laborers, enraged by desperate living conditions, feeding upon expectations of a ransom and s
Messina is the capital of the Italian Metropolitan City of Messina. It is the third largest city on the island of Sicily, the 13th largest city in Italy, with a population of more than 238,000 inhabitants in the city proper and about 650,000 in the Metropolitan City, it is located near the northeast corner of Sicily, at the Strait of Messina, opposite Villa San Giovanni on the mainland, has close ties with Reggio Calabria. According to Eurostat the FUA of the metropolitan area of Messina has, in 2014, 277,584 inhabitants; the city's main resources are its seaports, cruise tourism and agriculture. The city has been a Roman Catholic Archdiocese and Archimandrite seat since 1548 and is home to a locally important international fair; the city has the University of Messina, founded in 1548 by Ignatius of Loyola. Messina has a light rail system, Tranvia di Messina, opened on 3 April 2003; this line is 7.7 kilometres and links the city's central railway station with the city centre and harbour. The city is home to a significant Greek-speaking minority, rooted in its history and recognised.
Founded by Greek colonists in the 8th century BC, Messina was called Zancle, from the Greek ζάγκλον meaning "scythe" because of the shape of its natural harbour. A comune of its Metropolitan City, located at the southern entrance of the Strait of Messina, is to this day called'Scaletta Zanclea'. In the early 5th century BC, Anaxilas of Rhegium renamed it Messene in honour of the Greek city Messene; the city was sacked in 397 BC by the Carthaginians and reconquered by Dionysius I of Syracuse. In 288 BC the Mamertines seized the city by treachery, killing all the men and taking the women as their wives; the city became a base from which they ravaged the countryside, leading to a conflict with the expanding regional empire of Syracuse. Hiero II, tyrant of Syracuse, defeated the Mamertines near Mylae on the Longanus River and besieged Messina. Carthage assisted the Mamertines because of a long-standing conflict with Syracuse over dominance in Sicily; when Hiero attacked a second time in 264 BC, the Mamertines petitioned the Roman Republic for an alliance, hoping for more reliable protection.
Although reluctant to assist lest it encourage other mercenary groups to mutiny, Rome was unwilling to see Carthaginian power spread further over Sicily and encroach on Italy. Rome therefore entered into an alliance with the Mamertines. In 264 BC, Roman troops were deployed to Sicily, the first time a Roman army acted outside the Italian Peninsula. At the end of the First Punic War it was a free city. In Roman times Messina known as Messana, had an important pharos. Messana was the base of Sextus Pompeius, during his war against Octavian. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the city was successively ruled by Goths from 476 by the Byzantine Empire in 535, by the Arabs in 842, in 1061 by the Norman brothers Robert Guiscard and Roger Guiscard. In 1189 the English King Richard I stopped at Messina en route to the Holy Land for the Third Crusade and occupied the city after a dispute over the dowry of his sister, married to William the Good, King of Sicily. In 1345 Orlando d'Aragona, illegitimate son of Frederick II of Sicily was the strategos of Messina.
Messina may have been the harbour at which the Black Death entered Europe: the plague was brought by Genoese ships coming from Caffa in the Crimea. In 1548 St. Ignatius founded there the first Jesuit college in the world, which gave birth to the Studium Generale; the Christian ships that won the Battle of Lepanto left from Messina: the Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes, who took part in the battle, recovered for some time in the Grand Hospital. The city reached the peak of its splendour in the early 17th century, under Spanish domination: at the time it was one of the ten greatest cities in Europe. In 1674 the city rebelled against the foreign garrison, it managed to remain independent for some time, thanks to the help of the French king Louis XIV, but in 1678, with the Peace of Nijmegen, it was reconquered by the Spaniards and sacked: the university, the senate and all the privileges of autonomy it had enjoyed since the Roman times were abolished. A massive fortress was built by the occupants and Messina decayed steadily.
In 1743, 48,000 died of plague in the city. In 1783, an earthquake devastated much of the city, it took decades to rebuild and rekindle the cultural life of Messina. In 1847 it was one of the first cities in Italy. In 1848 it rebelled against the reigning Bourbons, but was suppressed again. Only in 1860, after the Battle of Milazzo, the Garibaldine troops occupied the city. One of the main figures of the unification of Italy, Giuseppe Mazzini, was elected deputy at Messina in the general elections of 1866. Another earthquake of less intensity damaged the city on 16 November 1894; the city was entirely destroyed by an earthquake and associated tsunami on the morning of 28 December 1908, killing about 100,000 people and destroying most of the ancient architecture. The city was rebuilt in the following year, it incurred further damage from the massive Allied air bombardments of 1943. The city was awarded a Gold Medal for Military Valour and one for Civil Valour in memory of the event and the subsequent effort
Capo d'Orlando is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Messina, southern Italy, one of the main centers of the mountain and coastal Nebrodi area. After the destruction of the Greek colony of Agathyrnum by the Roman Republican Army, the only settlement was a tiny fisherman's village. In 1925 Capo d'Orlando was elevated to the status of Comune, as before it was included in the territory of Naso. A railway station was made during the Fascist era in the early 20th century. During this century the population and tourist development grew. Tourism is one of the main resources of the local economy; the town has a small marina for both fishing and tourist boats alike that offers transportation to and from the Aeolian islands during the summer season and 14 km of beaches, rocky shores that face the deep blue Tyrrenian sea making it an ideal spot to enjoy the summertime, early fall and late springtime. The location of Capo d'Orlando is very peculiar because for a town that faces the sea, it is very close to Nebrodi Mountain Regional Environmental Park: a large extension of temperate woods, where is possible to hike to lakes, rivers and tiny historical villages where everyone can enjoy the best of traditional Sicilian food and wine.
There are banks and commercial business firms along with several fair sized factories located nearby such as "Porte IMIC", "irritec" and "siplast". Another economic factor is exploitation of the extensive presence of orange of lemon fields throughout the area. Capo d'Orlando is home to Orlandina Basket. Conversano, Italy Vittorio Sindoni Capo d'Orlando Lighthouse Capo d'Orlando's info
Saponara is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Messina in the Italian region Sicily, located about 180 kilometres east of Palermo and about 10 kilometres west of Messina. Saponara borders the following municipalities: Messina, Villafranca Tirrena
Cesarò is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Messina in the Italian region Sicily, located about 120 kilometres east of Palermo and about 80 kilometres southwest of Messina. It is included in the Parco dei Nebrodi
Fondachelli-Fantina is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Messina, southern Italy. Situated between Novara and Francavilla di Sicilia, in the southern Peloritani mountains, it rises on an inland area and is 604 metres above sea level, around the bed of the Patrì river, the mythical Longanus river of the ancient times that arises in the valley; the community borders the municipalities of Antillo and Rodì Milici. The main mountains of his valley are Montagna Grande, Rocca Salvatesta, Montagna di Vernà, Pizzo Russa, Rocche di Durante and Pizzo Vento that form an astronomic calendar where is possible to observe the equinox, it is composed by more than 15 little villages spread on the slopes of Peloritani mountains along the Patrì river whose the most populated are Rubino, Chiesa and Fantina. It is 81 km from Catania, 87 kilometres from Messina, 129 kilometres from Syracuse, 235 kilometres from Palermo. Developed from a number of rural hamlets in the territory of Novara di Sicilia, the collective community attained autonomous status in 1950 and called itself Fondachelli-Fantina, a name derived from Fondaci and Fantinia.
It is important as one of the last Sicilian municipalities where Gallo-Sicilian survives as a spoken dialect making the town a linguistic island. The area now known as Fondachelli-Fantina always has been quite isolated. Today, the long, winding road connecting the municipality to the Ionian coast can become impassable during the winter. However, this insularity has aided in preserving the Gallo-Sicilian language, a remnant of the period during the Swabian-Norman domination when people from Northern Italy migrated to the area; the town passed into the hands of the Palizzi family, who held it until 1353, when the Gioiemi of Novara took possession. Between 1720 and 1880, the territory endured heavy mining activity; the 26 scattered mines used a great quantity of lumber, destabilized the land and degraded the mountains. Additionally, continuous flooding had devastating consequences. Major floods in 1880, 1951, 1958 and 1973 continued the territorial degradation. However, administrative autonomy from Novara di Sicilia on 20 June 1950 gave Fondachelli-Fantina legislative powers and control of public works as well as financial means to begin reforestation efforts and build roads and aqueducts.
As of March 2009, the population of Fondachelli-Fantina was 1,234 with a density of 30 inhabitants per square kilometer. Its economy is based on livestock breeding and the cultivation of grains, dried fruit, wine grapes and wood, the Maiorchino is the cheese most famous produced in the zone. On 22 June and the second Friday of July each year, the town hosts cattle fairs which are attended by exhibitors from other communities; the town has four schools: one pre-school, two primary schools, one secondary school. Community churches include Santi Angeli Custodi ES Giuseppi; the community celebrates 3 unique feast days: the Feast of the Patron of the town Santissimi Angeli Custodi on the second Sunday of July, the feast of Saint Joseph the first Sunday after mid August and the Feast of Madonna della Provvidenza on 8 September. The War Memorial is in the town centre on the Piazza santissimi Angeli Custodi, where social and sporting events are held; the Monument to Padre Pio is on via XX Giugno 1950.
Italian National Institute of Statistics
The Italian National Institute of Statistics is the main producer of official statistics in Italy. Its activities include the census of population, economic censuses and a number of social and environmental surveys and analyses. Istat is by far the largest producer of statistical information in Italy, is an active member of the European Statistical System, coordinated by Eurostat, its publications are released under creative commons "Attribution" license. Istat was created in 1926 as "Central Institute of Statistics", to collect and organize essential data about the nation, it took its current denomination with the reform of 1989. This gave Istat statutory responsibility for the coordination and standardization of official statistics collected or published under the aegis of the national statistical system SISTAN, whose membership includes the statistical offices of ministries, national agencies, provinces, chambers of commerce, similar bodies. Since 4 August 2009, Enrico Giovannini, former Chief statistician of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, has been the President of the institute.
Istituto Centrale di Statistica: Alberto Canaletti Gaudenti Lanfranco Maroi Giuseppe De Meo Guido Maria Rey Istituto Nazionale di Statistica: Guido Maria Rey Alberto Zuliani Luigi Biggeri Enrico Giovannini Antonio Golini Giorgio Alleva Istat has 18 regional offices which host public access points named Centri di informazione statistica, in English Statistical information centers. The center in Rome offers data from Eurostat; the library, established in 1926, is open to the public and contains Istat publications and international works on statistical and socioeconomics subjects, journals from other national statistical institutes and international organizations. The library collection receives about 2800 periodical journals. There are 1500 volumes printed prior to 1900. Official Website SISTAN