Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
Glen Ellyn, Illinois
Glen Ellyn is a village in DuPage County, United States. A suburb located 24 miles due west of downtown Chicago, the village had a population of 27,450 as of the 2010 Census; the first landowner in Glen Ellyn was Deacon Winslow Churchill. He and his family moved to Glen Ellyn from New York in 1834. Other newcomers to the area built town necessities such as school. Moses Stacy, a soldier in the War of 1812, arrived here in 1835, his inn, Stacy's Tavern, built in 1846 and his second home, was a halfway stop between Chicago and the Fox River Valley and a probable stop for Galena, Illinois stagecoaches on their way to Rockford, Illinois. Stacy's Tavern, now a historical monument, stands at what is now the intersection of Geneva Road and Main Street. In 1849, construction of the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad through Glen Ellyn was finished; the area around the railroad became the center of the town. At first, trains running through the town on the railway did not stop there. A local man named Lewey Q. Newton made an offer to the railroad company: Newton would build a depot and water tank out of his own pocket if the railroad would require trains to stop there.
The depot that Newton built became known as Newtown Station. The first church, a Congregational church, was built in 1862. Many Protestant churches were built in the village in the years to come, it wasn't until 60 years that the first Catholic church was built. The growing settlement went through several names, including Babcock's Grove, DuPage Center, Stacy's Corners, Newton's Station and Prospect Park; the current Glen Ellyn is based on the Welsh version of the name of the then–village president Thomas E. Hill's wife Ellen, preceded by glen, referring to the local geography; the name Glen Ellyn had been adopted by 1889, when village president Hill and businessman Philo Stacy spearheaded a project to create a new lake, called Lake Glen Ellyn, by having a dam built in a nearby stream. In 1890, residents discovered mineral springs near the village; this contributed to Glen Ellyn advertising itself as Chicago's newest suburb and health resort, soon followed by the Village of Glen Ellyn being incorporated on May 10, 1892.
The large Lake Glen Ellyn Hotel opened in 1892, the same year much of the business district was destroyed by fire. Fourteen years the hotel was struck by lightning and burned to the ground; the village's all-volunteer fire department was created in 1907. By the end of the 20th century, it was the last all-volunteer fire department in DuPage County. By World War I, Glen Oak Country Club served the Oak Park and Glen Ellyn communities, in 1922 the first Glenbard high school was built; the Village of Glen Ellyn is a suburb of Chicago, it lies about 24 miles due west of downtown Chicago. According to the 2010 census, Glen Ellyn has a total area of 6.773 square miles, of which 6.61 square miles is land and 0.163 square miles is water. As of the 2000 census, there were 26,999 people, 10,207 households, 7,195 families residing in the village; the population density was 4,080.6 people per square mile. There were 10,515 housing units at an average density of 1,589.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 89.50% White, 2.13% African American, 0.14% Native American, 4.74% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 1.83% from other races, 1.66% from two or more races.
Hispanic of any race composed 4.72% of the population. There were 10,207 households. Additionally, 61.0% of households were married couples living together, 6.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.5% were non-families. Individuals accounted for 25.2% of all households, 9.3% were people 65 years of age or older living alone. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.21. In the village, the population was spread out with 28.4% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 30.0% from 25 to 44, 24.1% from 45 to 64, 11.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.2 males. According to 2008-2012 estimates published by the U. S. Census Bureau, the median income for a household in the village was $90,640, the median income for a family was $123,455. Males had a median income of $68,630 versus $36,287 for females; the per capita income for the village was $39,783.
A total of 2.8% of the population, 1.3% of families, had incomes below the poverty line. By age, 2.4% of those under the age of 18, 2.0% of those 65 and older, were living below the poverty line. Glen Ellyn is served by the Metra Union Pacific/West Line; the Glen Ellyn station is located at 551 Crescent Blvd, near the heart of the downtown business district. The station is located 22.4 miles away from Ogilvie Transportation Center, the eastern terminus of the West Line. Glen Ellyn is served by Pace bus routes 714, 715, 301 passing through the village on Roosevelt Road; the Illinois Prairie Path bicycle trail bisects the village and the Great Western Trail passes through the northern edge. At the east end of the village, Roosevelt Road provides access onto Interstate 355. Glen Ellyn Park District was establish on November 3, 1919 as a government agency for the community of Glen Ellyn Illinois; this facility was made to provide recreational activities such as, dance and more. The park district provides more than 700 programs and it's open all year round, the park district's year is divided into three seasons: Fall, Winte
DuPage County, Illinois
DuPage County is a county in the U. S. state of Illinois, one of the collar counties of the Chicago metropolitan area. As of the 2010 census, the population was 916,924, its county seat is Wheaton. DuPage County has become developed and suburbanized, although some pockets of farmland remain in the county's western and northern parts; the county has a high socioeconomic profile and residents of Hinsdale and Oak Brook include some of the wealthiest people in the Midwest. On the whole, the county enjoys above average median household income levels and low overall poverty levels when compared to the national average. In 2018 Niche ranked two DuPage municipalities amongst the top 20 best places to live in America. DuPage County was formed on February 1839 out of Cook County; the county took its name from the DuPage River, which was, in turn, named after a French fur trapper, DuPage. The first written history to address the name, the 1882 History of DuPage County, Illinois, by Rufus Blanchard, relates: The DuPage River had, from time immemorial, been a stream well known.
It took its name from a French trader who settled on this stream below the fork previous to 1800. Hon. H. W. Blodgett, of Waukegan, informs the writer that J. B. Beaubien had spoken to him of the old Frenchman, Du Page, whose station was on the bank of the river, down toward its mouth, stated that the river took its name from him; the county name must have the same origin. Col Gurden S. Hubbard, who came into the country in 1818, informs the writer that the name DuPage, as applied to the river was universally known, but the trader for whom it was named lived there before his time. Mr. Beaubien says; this was in reply to Mr. Blodgett’s inquiry of him concerning the matter; the first white settler in DuPage County was Bailey Hobson, with Lewis Stewart, built a house in 1831 for the Hobson family at a site about 2 miles south of present-day downtown Naperville. Hobson built a mill to serve surrounding farmers. Today, the Hobson house still stands on Hobson Road in Naperville, the location of the mill is commemorated with a millstone and monument in today’s Pioneer Park.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 336 square miles, of which 327 square miles is land and 8.9 square miles is water. The DuPage River and the Salt Creek flow through DuPage County. According to the Forest Preserve District of DuPage County, the highest point in the county is located at the Mallard Lake Landfill, which at its highest point is 982 feet above mean sea level. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Wheaton have ranged from a low of 14 °F in January to a high of 87 °F in July, although a record low of −26 °F was recorded in January 1985 and a record high of 105 °F was recorded in July 1995. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.56 inches in February to 4.60 inches in August. Counties that are adjacent to DuPage include: Cook County Will County Kendall County Kane County I-55 I-88 I-290 I-294 I-355 US 20 US 34 IL 19 IL 38 IL 53 IL 56 IL 59 IL 64 IL 83 IL 390 DuPage County's population's distribution by race and ethnicity in the 2010 census was as follows: DuPage County has become more diverse.
The population of foreign-born residents increased from about 71,300 in 1990 to 171,000 by 2009 estimates. There were 325,601 households, out of which 37.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.90% were married couples living together, 7.90% had a female householder with no husband present and 28.00% were non-families. 22.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.27. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.70% under the age of 18, 8.20% from 18 to 24, 32.40% from 25 to 44, 22.80% from 45 to 64 and 9.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.20 males. For every 100 females, age 18 and over, there were 94.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $98,441 and the median income for a family was $113,086. Males had a median income of $60,909 versus $41,346 for females.
The mean or average income for a family in DuPage County is $121,009, according to the 2005 census. The per capita income for the county was $38,458. About 2.40% of families and 3.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.90% of those under age 18 and 4.30% of those age 65 or over. DuPage County has several hundred Christian churches. Well-known churches include Community Christian Church of Naperville, College Church of Wheaton, Wheaton Bible Church, First Baptist Church of Wheaton. There is a large Catholic contingency, part of the Diocese of Joliet, a Ukrainian Orthodox Church in Glendale Heights; the Theosophical Society in America in Wheaton, the North American headquarters of the Theosophical Society Adyar, provides lectures and classes on theosophy, yoga and New Age spirituality. Islamic mosques are located in Villa Park, Glendale Heights, Westmont, Bolingbrook, Woodale, West Chicago, unincorporated Glen Ellyn. There are Hindu temples in Bartlett, Bloomingdale, Carol Stream and Medinah, an Arya Samaj center in West Chicago.
There is a Nichiren Shōshū Zen Buddhist temple in West Chicago and a Theravada Buddhist Temple, called the Budd
St. Charles, Illinois
St. Charles is a city in DuPage and Kane counties in the U. S. state of Illinois. It lies 40 miles west of Chicago on Illinois Route 64; as of the 2010 census the population was 32,974, as of 2017 the population had dropped to an estimated 32,714. The official city slogan is "Pride of the Fox", after the Fox River that runs through the center of town. St. Charles is part of a tri-city area along with Geneva and Batavia, all western suburbs of similar size and relative socioeconomic condition. St. Charles was the location of the Native American community for the chief of the Pottawatomie that inhabited the area. A city park overlooking the river was dedicated to this Native American past. After the Black Hawk War in 1832, the entire area of the Fox Valley was opened to American settlement. Evan Shelby and William Franklin staked the first claim in what is now St. Charles in 1833, they came back in 1834 with their families from Indiana, were joined by over a dozen other families that year. The township was known as Charleston, but this name was taken by the downstate city of Charleston, Illinois so the name of St. Charles was adopted in 1839.
St. Charles became incorporated as a city February 9, 1839 and reincorporated October 17, 1874. Several "stations" of the slavery-era Underground Railroad were in St. Charles homes, complete with tunnels and false doorways. Most accounts lead back to a local blacksmith who set up shop in a building now known as 305 W Main St; this was most "the hub," This address is the easiest to visit from the dozen "stations" known. As of 2015 a fine dining establishment holds residence at that address bearing a name in honor of that Blacksmith. St. Charles was a isolated place early on in its existence; the village was located three days away from Chicago, the Fox River was not navigable for large boats. By the 1850s, St. Charles had begun construction of a plank road to Sycamore but turned down an offer by the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad to construct a line through the town, built in nearby Elgin. Lack of regional connections in the early years kept the town small. St. Charles was without a railroad until 1871 when a branch line from Geneva was constructed, was without a direct connection to Chicago until the 1880s with the coming of the Chicago Great Western Railway.
Streetcar lines along the Fox River between Elgin and Aurora were built through the city in 1896, operated by the Aurora and Fox River Electric company. A direct automobile route to Chicago, which became Route 64, was constructed in 1920. Four Illinois state routes, including Routes 38, 25 and 31 now run through the city. Two major Kane County roads cut through the city. St. Charles was the place of settlement for diverse groups of European immigrants, including those from Ireland and Sweden during the 1840s and 1950s, groups from Belgium and Lithuania. According to the 2010 census, St. Charles has a total area of 14.934 square miles, of which 14.61 square miles is land and 0.324 square miles is water. The Fox River runs though downtown. Potawatomie Park, which sits on the river is the largest park in St. Charles and a popular destination for both tourists and citizens tri-city area. According to the 2000 census, population density is 1,993.9 inhabitants per square mile. There are 11,072 housing units at an average density of 791.4 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city is 93.81% White, 1.66% African American, 0.14% Native American, 1.79% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 1.66% from other races, 0.94% from two or more races. 5.50 % of the population are Latino of any race. There are 10,351 households out of which 36.4% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.1% are married couples living together, 8.0% have a female householder with no husband present, 28.3% are non-families. 23.5% of all households are made up of individuals and 8.0% have someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.62 and the average family size is 3.13. In the city the population is spread out with 27.8% under the age of 18, 7.4% from 18 to 24, 29.6% from 25 to 44, 25.0% from 45 to 64, 10.2% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 37 years. For every 100 females, there are 99.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 94.2 males. The median income for a household in the city is $75,181, the median income for a family is $94,704.
Males have a median income of $55,864 versus $35,134 for females. The per capita income for the city is $33,969. 3.4% of the population and 2.1% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 3.4% of those under the age of 18 and 3.9% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line. The Illinois Youth Center St. Charles, a juvenile correctional facility of the Illinois Department of Juvenile Justice, is in St. Charles, it opened in December 1904. The public education system in St. Charles is operated by the Community Unit School District 303, which has thirteen elementary schools: Anderson, Bell-Graham, Davis, Ferson Creek, Fox Ridge, Munhall, Norton Creek and Wild Rose. Including Davis Primary, Richmond Intermediate split elementary schools. There are two middle schools: Wredling.
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
A golf course is the grounds where the game of golf is played. It comprises a series of holes, each consisting of a teeing ground, a fairway, the rough and other hazards, a green with a flagstick and hole. A standard round of golf consists of 18 holes. Most courses contain 18 holes. Par-3 courses consist of 18 holes all of which have a par of three strokes. Many older courses are links coastal. Courses are private and municipally owned, feature a pro shop. Many private courses are found at country clubs. Although a specialty within landscape design or landscape architecture, golf course architecture is considered a separate field of study; some golf course architects become celebrities in their own right, such as Robert Trent Jones, Jr.. The field is represented by the American Society of Golf Course Architects, the European Institute of Golf Course Architects, the Society of Australian Golf Course Architects, although many of the finest golf course architects in the world choose not to become members of any such group, as associations of architects are not government-sanctioned licensing bodies, but private groups.
While golf courses follow the original landscape, some modification is unavoidable. This is the case as new courses are more to be sited on less optimal land. Bunkers and sand traps are always artificial, although other hazards may be natural; the layout of a course follows certain traditional principles, such as the number of holes, their par values, the number of holes of each par value per course. It is preferable to arrange greens to be close to the tee box of the next playable hole, to minimize travel distance while playing a round, to vary the mix of shorter and longer holes. Combined with the need to package all the fairways within what is a compact square or rectangular plot of land, the fairways of a course tend to form an oppositional tiling pattern. In complex areas, two holes may share the same tee box, fairway, or green, it is common for separate tee-off points to be positioned for men and amateurs, each one lying closer to the green. Eighteen-hole courses are traditionally broken down into a "front 9" and a "back 9".
On older courses, the holes may be laid out in one long loop and ending at the clubhouse, thus the front 9 is referred to on the scorecard as "out" and the back 9 as "in". More recent courses tend to be designed with the front 9 and the back 9 each constituting a separate loop beginning and ending at the clubhouse; this is for the convenience of the players and the club, as it is easier to play just a 9-hole round, if preferred, or stop at the clubhouse for a snack between the front 9 and the back 9. A successful design is as visually pleasing. With golf being a form of outdoor recreation, the strong designer is an adept student of natural landscaping who understands the aesthetic cohesion of vegetation, water bodies, grasses and woodwork, among other elements. Most golf courses have only par-3, −4, −5 holes, although some courses include par-6 holes; the Ananti CC and the Satsuki golf course in Sano, Japan are the only courses with par 7 holes. Typical distances for the various holes from standard tees are as follows.
Men Par 3 – 250 yards and below Par 4 – 251–450 yards Par 5 – 451–690 yards Women Par 3 – 210 yards and below Par 4 – 211–400 yards Par 5 – 401–575 yards Harder or easier courses may have longer- or shorter-distance holes, respectively. Terrain can be a factor, so that a long downhill hole might be rated par 4, but a shorter uphill or treacherous hole might be rated par 5. Tournament players will play from a longer-distance tee box, behind the standard men's tee, which increases the typical distance of each par; this compensates for the longer distance pro players can put on tee and fairway shots as compared to the average "bogey golfer". The game of golf is played in what is called a "round"; this consists of playing a set number of holes in an order predetermined by the course. When playing on an 18-hole course, each hole is played once. To begin a hole, players start by striking the ball off a tee. Playing the ball off a tee can only be used on the first shot of every hole although it is not required to use a tee on the first shot.
Tees are a small wooden or plastic peg used to hold the ball up, so that when hit by the club the ball travels as far as possible. The first section of every hole consists of tee-box. There is more than one available box where a player places his ball, each one a different distance from the hole to provide differing difficulty; the teeing ground is as level as feasible, with mown grass similar to that of a putting green, most are raised from the surrounding fairway. Each tee box has
River Falls, Wisconsin
River Falls is a city in Pierce and St. Croix counties in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. It is adjacent to the Town of River Falls in Pierce County and the Town of Kinnickinnic in St. Croix County. River Falls is the most populous city in Pierce county; the population was 15,000 at the 2010 census, with 11,851 residing in Pierce County, 3,149 in St. Croix County, it is part of the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area and is about 30 miles east of the center of that region. River Falls is the home of the University of Wisconsin–River Falls; the city's first settlers were Joel Foster and his indentured servant, Dick, in the year 1848. The original village was started as the village of Kinnickinnic in 1854 by brothers Nathaniel N. and Oliver S. Powell who were from St. Lawrence County, New York. At the time, the town and village were known as "Greenwood" but this was changed, as another Greenwood, Wisconsin existed; the present name is for the rapids on the Kinnickinnic River. On June 23, 1893, a lightning bolt hit the center circus pole at a Ringling Brothers circus performance in River Falls, leading to the injuries of more than a dozen audience members and performers and the deaths of seven.
River Falls is located at 44°51′31″N 92°37′30″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.60 square miles, of which, 6.52 square miles is land and 0.08 square miles is water. River Falls lies on the banks of a class one trout stream; the South Fork of the Kinnickinnic River runs through the city, dividing the campus of the University of Wisconsin-River Falls into two sections. As of the census of 2000, there were 12,560 people, 4,269 households, 2,335 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,524.0 people per square mile. There were 4,346 housing units at an average density of 873.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.57% White, 0.53% Black or African American, 0.36% Native American, 1.02% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 0.32% from other races, 1.12% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.95% of the population. There were 4,269 households out of which 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.7% were married couples living together, 9.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 45.3% were non-families.
27.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.98. In the city, the population was spread out with 17.9% under the age of 18, 35.1% from 18 to 24, 23.8% from 25 to 44, 14.6% from 45 to 64, 8.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 24 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $41,184, the median income for a family was $60,253. Males had a median income of $36,275 versus $27,345 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,667. About 4.4% of families and 14.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.6% of those under age 18 and 11.1% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 15,000 people, 5,150 households, 2,812 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,300.6 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 5,449 housing units at an average density of 835.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.8% White, 1.2% African American, 0.4% Native American, 1.5% Asian, 0.5% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.8% of the population. There were 5,150 households of which 28.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.6% were married couples living together, 9.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.1% had a male householder with no wife present, 45.4% were non-families. 27.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.89. The median age in the city was 24.2 years. 17.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 46.8% male and 53.2% female. School District of River Falls operates public schools. River Falls High School is the district's public high school.
Meyer Middle School acts as the district's middle school. There are 5 public elementary schools in the school district. River Falls is home to the University of Wisconsin-River Falls and a branch of the Chippewa Valley Technical College; the Kinnickinnic River, which flows through the heart of the city and its downtown business district, is a popular recreational attraction in River Falls for fly fishers and kayakers. On the bluffs of the Kinnickinnic River is Glen Park, a 41-acre park established in 1898; the park has playgrounds, a swimming pool, soccer fields, a softball diamond, basketball courts, horseshoe pits, a gazebo, several miles of walking trails. The Glen Park Pool was built in 1937 and renovated for its 75th anniversary in 2012. Glen Park's Swinging Bridge offers a view of the South Fork rapids as it enters the Kinnickinnic River; the bridge, a replica of one designed by the Minneapolis Bridge Company and constructed in 1925, is a suspension bridge that spans the South Fork Rapids at the site of the former Cascade Mill and Dam.
Below the bridge are picnic spots. Hoffman Park, located northeast of downtown River Falls, is a 53-acre facility that contains baseball fields, a nine-hole disc golf course, a