Sagarmāthā was one of the fourteen zones of Nepal until the restructuring of zones into provinces. Sagarmāthā is a Nepali word derived from सगर् meaning "sky" and माथा meaning "head", it includes mountain districts of the Himalayas in the north, hill districts in the center, valley districts of the Terai in the south. It is bordered by China to the north, India to the south, the Koshi Zone to the east and the Janakpur Zone to the west. Sagarmāthā is divided into six districts: The main city of the Sagarmāthā Zone was Rajbiraj, the headquarters. Other towns of the Sagarmāthā hill area were Katari, Diktel and Namche Bazaar. Triyuga is an emerging city in the zone. Sagarmāthā Zone took its name from the Nepalese name for Mount Everest, located in the north of the zone within the Sagarmatha National Park in the Solu Khumbu district. Sagarmāthā means "the Head in the Great Blue Sky". Development Regions of Nepal List of zones of Nepal List of districts of Nepal Sagarmatha National Park List of districts of Nepal
Karnali Pradesh is one of the seven federal provinces of Nepal formed by the new constitution, adopted on 20 September 2015. The total area of the province is 24,453 square kilometres. According to the 2011 Nepal census, the population of the province was 1,570,418, making it the least populous province in Nepal, it borders the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north, Gandaki Pradesh to the east, Sudurpashchim Pradesh to the west, Province No. 5 to the south. Birendranagar with a population of 100,458 is both largest city; the province's name is derived from the Karnali River. Karnali is an old civilization of Nepal and it is connected with Karnali River The archaeological sites found in Jumla and Dailekh refers that this area was part of Khasa kingdom, established during 11th century; the capital of the Khas Kingdom was Sinja. The kingdom was expanded to a great extent in 14th century; this kingdom was expanded to Garhwal in the west and Guge regions of Tibet in the north, Gorkha-Nuwakot regions in the east and with Kapilvastu with large areas Terai in the South.
After late 14th century the Khas empire collapsed and divided into Baise Rajya in Karnali-Bheri region. Before unification of modern Nepal, the part of Karnali was an Sanghiya Baise Rajya; the Baise were sovereign, but intermittently allied among themselves until they were annexed during the unification of modern Nepal from 1744 to 1810. Karnali is the largest province of Nepal with an area of 24,453 km2; the province is surrounded by Gandaki Pradesh in east, Province No. 5 in south-east and south, Sudurpaschim Pradesh in the west and Tibet Autonomous Region of China in north. The province has occupied higher mountains land of north and mid-hills of Nepal, it contains Kubi Gangri and Kanjiroba mountains in north. The Shey Phoksundo National Park with Phoksundo lake is the largest national park of Nepal and Rara lake is the largest lake of Nepal which are located in Karnali Pradesh. Karnali River is the biggest river of the province, thought to be longest river of Nepal. Seti River and Bheri River are tributaries of Karnali.
The Governor acts as the head of the province while the Chief Minister is the head of the provincial government. The Chief Judge of the Surkhet High Court is the head of the judiciary; the present Governor, Chief Minister and Chief Judge are Durga Keshar Khanal, Mahendra Bahadur Shahi and Hari Kumar Pokharel respectively. The province has 40 provincial assembly constituencies,12 House of Representative constituencies and eight National Assembly seats. Karnali has a unicameral legislature, like all of the other provinces in Nepal; the term length of provincial assembly is five years. The Provincial Assembly of Karnali is temporarily housed at the Irrigation Division Office in Birendranagar. Karnali is divided into ten districts. Dailekh District Dolpa District Humla District Jajarkot District Jumla District Kalikot District Mugu District Salyan District Surkhet District Western Rukum DistrictA district is administrated by the head of the District Coordination Committee and the District Administration Officer.
The districts are further dived to municipalities or rural municipalities which are further divided into wards. There are 54 rural municipalities in the province; the capital and largest city of the province is Birendranagar. It is only city in the province with a population of over 50,000. List of provinces of Nepal List of districts of Nepal
Nepal the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas but includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. With an estimated population of 26.4 million, it is 48th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area. It borders China in the north and India in the south and west while Bangladesh is located within only 27 km of its southeastern tip and Bhutan is separated from it by the Indian state of Sikkim. Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Kathmandu is largest city. Nepal is a multiethnic nation with Nepali as the official language; the name "Nepal" is first recorded in texts from the Vedic period of the Indian subcontinent, the era in ancient India when Hinduism was founded, the predominant religion of the country. In the middle of the first millennium BCE, Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, was born in Lumbini in southern Nepal.
Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet. The centrally located Kathmandu Valley is intertwined with the culture of Indo-Aryans, was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala; the Himalayan branch of the ancient Silk Road was dominated by the valley's traders. The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional architecture. By the 18th century, the Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal; the Shah dynasty established the Kingdom of Nepal and formed an alliance with the British Empire, under its Rajput Rana dynasty of premiers. The country was never colonized but served as a buffer state between Imperial China and British India. Parliamentary democracy was introduced in 1951, but was twice suspended by Nepalese monarchs, in 1960 and 2005; the Nepalese Civil War in the 1990s and early 2000s resulted in the proclamation of a secular republic in 2008, ending the world's last Hindu monarchy. The Constitution of Nepal, adopted in 2015, establishes Nepal as a federal secular parliamentary republic divided into seven provinces.
Nepal was admitted to the United Nations in 1955, friendship treaties were signed with India in 1950 and the People's Republic of China in 1960. Nepal hosts the permanent secretariat of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, of which it is a founding member. Nepal is a member of the Non Aligned Movement and the Bay of Bengal Initiative; the military of Nepal is the fifth largest in South Asia. Local legends have it that a Hindu sage named "Ne" established himself in the valley of Kathmandu in prehistoric times, that the word "Nepal" came into existence as the place was protected by the sage "Nemi", it is mentioned in Vedic texts. According to the Skanda Purana, a rishi called. In the Pashupati Purana, he is mentioned as a protector, he is said to have taught there. The name of the country is identical in origin to the name of the Newar people; the terms "Nepāl", "Newār", "Newāl" and "Nepār" are phonetically different forms of the same word, instances of the various forms appear in texts in different times in history.
Nepal is the learned Sanskrit form and Newar is the colloquial Prakrit form. A Sanskrit inscription dated 512 CE found in Tistung, a valley to the west of Kathmandu, contains the phrase "greetings to the Nepals" indicating that the term "Nepal" was used to refer to both the country and the people, it has been suggested that "Nepal" may be a Sanskritization of "Newar", or "Newar" may be a form of "Nepal". According to another explanation, the words "Newar" and "Newari" are vulgarisms arising from the mutation of P to V, L to R. Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least eleven thousand years. Nepal is first mentioned in the late Vedic Atharvaveda Pariśiṣṭa as a place exporting blankets, in the post-Vedic Atharvashirsha Upanishad. In Samudragupta's Allahabad Pillar it is mentioned as a border country; the Skanda Purana has a separate chapter, known as "Nepal Mahatmya", with more details. Nepal is mentioned in Hindu texts such as the Narayana Puja.
Legends and ancient texts that mention the region now known as Nepal reach back to the 30th century BC. The Gopal Bansa were one of the earliest inhabitants of Kathmandu valley; the earliest rulers of Nepal were the Kiratas, peoples mentioned in Hindu texts, who ruled Nepal for many centuries. Various sources mention up to 32 Kirati kings. Around 500 BCE, small kingdoms and confederations of clans arose in the southern regions of Nepal. From one of these, the Shakya polity, arose a prince who renounced his status to lead an ascetic life, founded Buddhism, came to be known as Gautama Buddha. By 250 BCE, the southern regions had come under the influence of the Maurya Empire of North India and became a vassal state under the Gupta Empire in the 4th century CE. There is a quite detailed description of the kingdom of Nepal in the account of the renowned Chinese Buddhist pilgrim monk Xuanzang, dating from about 645 CE. Stone inscriptions in the Kathmandu Valley are important sources for the history of Nepal.
The kings of the Lichhavi dynasty have been found to have r
Province No. 2
Province No. 2 is a province in the southeastern region of Nepal, formed after the adoption of the Constitution of Nepal. It is Nepal's second most populous province, smallest province by area, it borders Province No. 1 to the east, Province No. 3 to the north, India to the south. It has an area of 9,661 km2 with a population of 5,404,145 per the 2011 Census of Nepal, making it most densely populated province of Nepal; the Koshi River and Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve acts as provincial demarcation border between Province 2 and Province 1 in the east. And the demarcation line between Chitwan National Park and Parsa National Park acts as provincial demarcation border between Province 2 and Province 3 in the west; the province includes eight districts from Saptari District in the east to Parsa District in the west. The majority of the province's population speaks Maithili, Bhojpuri and Nepali; the Capital city, a sub-metropolitan city of Janakpur known as Janakpurdham, is a centre for religious and cultural tourism.
It is thought to have been the capital of the Videha dynasty that ruled Mithila region in ancient times. The first urban planned municipality of Nepal, Rajbiraj, is the oldest municipality of the Terai belt of Nepal; the town is believed to have been named after the ancient Rajdevi temple, which dates back to the 1700s. The metropolitan city of Birgunj is an economically important industrial centre and the only metropolitan city in the province; as per a 17 January 2018 cabinet meeting, Janakpur has been declared as the interim capital of Province No. 2. Mohammad Lalbabu Raut Gaddhi is the current Chief Minister; the region is surrounded by: The Sunsari District of Province No. 1 to the East. The Chitwan District of Province No. 3 to the West. The Makwanpur District and Sindhuli District of Province No. 3 and Udayapur District of Province No. 1 to the North. India to the South; as per Central Bureau of Statistics the province covers about 9,661 km2. of Nepal's total area of 147,181 km2. With total number of 5,404,145 inhabitants, it is the second most populous province in Nepal.
The province is located on flat plains of Terai, Chure or the Shiwalik Hills are the natural border of the province which falls in northern side. The southern side has an international border with the India. Koshi River on its eastern side acting as a natural border with Province No. 1. Province No. 2 has eight districts in a series. Koshi River, Bagmati River, Kamla River, Lakhandei River and Bishnumati River are the main rivers of the province; the Governor acts as the head of the province while the Chief Minister is the head of the provincial government. The Chief Judge of the Janakpur High Court is the head of the judiciary; the present Governor, Chief Minister and Chief Judge are Ratneshwar Lal Kayastha, Mohammad Lalbabu Raut and Udaya Prakash Chapagain. The province has 107 provincial assembly constituencies and 32 House of Representative constituencies. Province No. 2 has a unicameral legislature, like all of the other provinces in Nepal. The term length of provincial assembly is five years.
The Provincial Assembly of Province No. 2 is temporarily housed at the District Education Office in Janakpur. Province No. 2 is divided into eight districts. A district is administrated by the head of the District Coordination Committee and the District Administration Officer; the districts are further dived to rural municipalities. The municipalities include one metropolitan city, three sub-metropolitan cities and 73 municipalities. There are 59 rural municipalities in the province. Province No. 2 has no difficult terrains still the transportation has not been well developed in the region due to lack of investments and negligence. The major connecting link for the province is the Mahendra Highway which runs longitudinally across the province. All major cities of the province remain disconnected from this highway. Janakpurdham, Birgunj AND Gaur lie 25,10,24 and 42 kilometres south of the Mahendra Highway, respectively; the Tribhuvan Highway does not cross as much of the province as the Mahendra Highway, but it is most important link as it connects the province to Kathmandu and to the India.
The starting point of Tribhuvan Highway i.e. Birgunj is the most important International Gateway and trade way for this province and entire country and hence known as "The Gateway of Nepal". In terms of revenue generation, Birjung custom point is the largest. Birendra highway whhich is connected to Mahendra highway from Headquarter of Rautahat district Gaur to the Chandranigahpur. Which is 42km in length. Mahendra Highway - Part Postal Highway - Part Tribhuvan Highway - Part Birendra Highway - part A few other railway projects are under progress in the province no. 2. All these projects are of Nepal Railways. Government of Nepal has proposed Janakpur as a Main Station for 1024 km east-west Metro Railway project and further be extended to India and China for connecting Nepal Railways with Indian Railways and China Railway for business and tourism promotion. Janakpur to Lhasa Bardibas, Janakpur to Jainagar, Bihar Janakpur to Kathmandu Janakpur to Biratnagar Janakpur to Nepalgunj Janakpur to Birgunj Province No. 2 has 3 airports: Rajbiraj Airport, in Rajbiraj Janakpur Airport in Janakpur.
Simara Airport in Pipara Simara close to Birganj. Nijgadh International Airport in Bara district. List of provinces of Nepal List of districts of Nepal
Gandaki Pradesh is one of the seven federal provinces established by the current constitution of Nepal, promulgated on 20 September 2015. Pokhara is the province's capital city, it borders the Tibet of China to the north, Province No. 3 to the east, Karnali Pradesh to the west, Province No. 5 and Uttar Pradesh of India to the south. The total area of the province is 21,504 km². According to the latest census, the population of the province was 2,403,757; the newly elected Provincial Assembly adopted Gandaki Pradesh as the permanent name by replacing its initial name Province no. 4 for in July 2018. The Gandaki Pradesh got its name from River Gandaki. All of the districts of Gandaki Pradesh are irrigated by one of the branches of Gandaki River. Gandaki Pradesh is formed by combining former two Zones of Nepal, they are Gandaki and Dhaulagiri, Nawalpur region of former Nawalparasi District of Lumbini Zone; the name, Gandaki Pradesh is related to Gandaki River Civilization. The province has an area of 21,773 km2, about 14.66% of the total area of Nepal.
The state is extends between 27°-20' N ~ 29°-20' N latitude and 82° 52' E ~ 85°-12' E longitude. In terms of terrain, the province is spread over the Himalayan and Terai region of Nepal; the Governor acts as the head of the province while the Chief Minister is the head of the provincial government. The Chief Judge of the Pokhara High Court is the head of the judiciary; the present Governor, Chief Minister and Chief Judge are Baburam Kunwar, Prithvi Subba Gurung and Purushottam Bhandari. The province has 60 provincial assembly constituencies and 18 federal House of Representative constituencies. Gandaki Pradesh has a unicameral legislature, like that of the other provinces in Nepal; the tenure of provincial assembly is of five years. The Provincial Assembly of Gandaki is temporarily housed at the Town Development Training Centre in Pokhara. Gandaki province is divided into 11 districts. A district is administrated by the head of the District Coordination Committee and the District Administration Officer.
The districts are further dived to rural municipalities. The municipalities include one metropolitan city and 26 municipalities. There are 58 rural municipalities in the province. Baglung District Gorkha District Kaski District Lamjung District Manang District Mustang District Myagdi District Nawalpur District Parbat District Syangja District Tanahun District The province has a population of 2,403,016, just about 9.06% of the total population of Nepal. The population density is about 110 persons per square kilometre; the province has a population growth rate of -0.33%. The sex ratio is 89 males for 100 females, with a total of 948,028 males and 1,144,124 females recorded in 2011; the urban population of the region is 1,452,186 and the rural population is 943,652. About 50.1% of the population in the province are independent population. According to the 2011 Nepal census there are total 88 languages spoken in Gandaki Pradesh. Nepali, Tharu, Kumal, Ghale, Thakali etc are main languages, spoken by communities in Gankldaki Pradesh.
Spoken language is Nepali, spoken by 68.885 percent people of Gandaki Pradesh. Magar is secondly most spoken language with percentage of 9.025 and Gurung is third spoken language with percentage of 7.855. List of provinces of Nepal List of districts of Nepal
Gaunpalika or gaupalika is the newly formed lower administrative division in Nepal. The Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development dissolved the existing village development committees and announced the establishment of this new local body. There are 460 rural municipalities; the main purpose of a gaunpalika is similar to that of a village development committee. Besides this, this division has the authority to collect various taxes like entertainment tax, business tax and residential tax at the local level; the Village Development Committee was dissolved on 10 March 2017. Panchayat was dissolved and turned into VDC by the Constitution of Nepal 1990. According to the English translation of the Constitution of Nepal, the term "gaunpalika" has been used as "village body". However, the Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development explained that the term "rural municipality" was coined after opinions from experts and diverse sources; the chief is the head of a rural municipality. A total of 744 chiefs were selected by the government in 10 March 2017.
The rural municipalities will have an annual budget of at least Rs 10 million. Village development committees of Nepal topics
Province No. 1
Province No. 1 is one of the seven provinces established by the new constitution of Nepal, adopted on 20 September 2015. As per a CDC report, Province No. 1 has 28 parliamentary seats and 56 provincial seats under the first-past-the-post voting system. As per a 17 January 2018 cabinet meeting, the city of Biratnagar has been declared the interim capital of Province No. 1. It borders the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north, the Indian states of Sikkim and West Bengal to the east, Province No. 3 and Province No. 2 to the west, Bihar of India to the south. According to the 2011 census, there are around 4.5 million people in the province, with a population density of 175.6 per square kilometer. The Kiratas were the aborigines of the north-eastern Himalayas. According to Baburam Acharya, they ruled over it, they were short and had robust bodies, broad cheeks, flat noses, thin whiskers, dark eyes. They were well trained in the art of warfare, were skillful archers, they were the ancestors of the present day Kiratas.
Yalamber the king of the Kiratas defeated Bhuvan Singh, the last king of the Ahir dynasty and established Kirat rule in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal. He extended his kingdom as far as the Trishuli River in the west. Kirata's Kingdom was divided into many principalities and chiefs ruled in eastern Nepal. Limbuwan, Morang Kingdom belonged to them. King of Gorkha unified all the kirati kingdoms or Principalities in Nepal from 1771 to 1789. Before establishment of new constitution on 20 September 2015, the area of Province No. 1 was one of the five Development Regions of Nepal, named Eastern Development Region. It had 16 districts, 14 existing districts of Province No. 1 and 2 districts Siraha and Saptari of Province No. 2. The Eastern Development Region was divided into 3 zones; the zones were: Kosi Zone and Sagarmatha Zone. Mechi included 4 districts, Kosi included Sagarmatha included 6 districts; the total area of The region was 28,456 km². Province No. 1 covers an area of 25,905 km2. The Province has three-fold geographical division: Himalayan in the north, Hilly in the middle and Terai in the southern part of Nepal, varying between an altitude of 60 m and 8,848 m.
Terai, extended from east to west, is made up of alluvial soil. To the west of Koshi River, in between Mahabharat Range and Churia Range, there elongates a valley called Inner Terai. Churai Range, Mahabharat Range and other hills of various height, basins and valleys form the hilly region; some parts of this region are favorable for agriculture but some other parts are not. Himalayan region, in the north, consists of many mountains ranges. Mahalangur, Umvek, Lumba Sumba and Janak being some of them; the highest mountain in the world, Mount Everest. Nepal's lowest point, Kechana Kawal at 58 m, is located in Jhapa district of this Province. There are gentle slopes as well. Chure, many basins and valleys form the Terai region. Between the Churia and Mahabharat a low land of inner Terai exists; the Koshi river flows through the region with its seven tributaries. Tundra vegetables, coniferous forest, deciduous monsoon forests and sub-tropical evergreen woods are vegetations found here. Sub-tropical, sub-temperate, alpine and tundra types of climates are found here.
Province No. 1 includes the snow fall capped peaks including Mt. Everest, Makalu with Solukhumbu and Taplejung districts towards the north, the jungle clad hill tracts of Okhaldhunga, Bhojpur, Tehrathum and Panchthar in the middle and the alluvial fertile plains of Udayapur, Sunsari and Jhapa. Province 1 includes places like Haleshi Mahadev Temple, Pathivara Temple and Barahachhetra, which are the famous religious shrines for Hindus. Climatic conditions of Nepal vary from one place to another in accordance with their geographical features. Province no. 1 has three geographical folds: The low-land of Terai, the hilly region and the highlands of the Himalayas. The low land altitude is 59 m. Whereas the highest point is 8848 m. In the north summers are cool and winters severe, while in the south summers are tropical and winters are mild. Climatically, the southern belt of Province, the Terai, experiences warm and humid climate. Eastern Nepal receives 2,500 millimeters of rain annually. Province no. 1 has five seasons: spring, monsoon and winter.
Northern part of Province No. 1 has the highest mountain of the world and there are many peaks that are higher. Here is a list of mountains in Province No. 1. There are many rivers in the region which flow towards south from the Himalayas which are tributaries of other large rivers which joins Ganga River. Sapt Koshi or the Koshi is the main river of the region. Seven tributaries join the Koshi; the major rivers in the province are: Mechi River Kankai River Koshi River Below given names are tributaries: Tamor Arun River Sun Koshi Dudh Koshi Likhu Khola Bhote Koshi Indrawati River Sagarmatha National Park – 1,148 km2 Makalu Barun National Park – 1,500 km2 Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve – 175 km2 Kanchenjunga Conservation Area – 2,035 km2 Gokyo Lake Complex – 7,770 ha Kosi