A church hall or parish hall is a room or building associated with a church, general for community and charitable use. In smaller and village communities, it is a separate building near the church, while on more restricted urban sites it may be in the basement or a wing of the main church building. Activities in the hall are not religious, but are an important part of local community life; the hall may be used for other, non-Christian, functions. In certain Christian denominations the church itself is called the church hall. Chapter house Community centre Fellowship hall Hall church Rectory Refectory Village hall
La Grange, Illinois
The village of La Grange, a suburb of Chicago, is a village in Cook County, in the U. S. state of Illinois. The population was 15,550 at the 2010 census; the area around La Grange was first settled in the 1830s, when Chicago residents moved out to the west due to the rapid population increase in the city in the decade since its incorporation. The first settler, Robert Leitch, came to the area in 1830, seven years before the City of Chicago was incorporated. La Grange's location, at 13 miles from the Chicago Loop, is not considered far from the city by today's standards, but in that time the residents enjoyed the peace of rural life without much communication with urban residents; the village was incorporated on June 11, 1879. It was founded by Franklin Dwight Cossitt, born in Granby and raised in Tennessee, moved to Chicago in 1862 where he built a successful wholesale grocery business. In 1870, Cossitt purchased several hundred acres of farmland in Lyons Township, along the Chicago-Dixon Road, known today as Ogden Avenue.
Ogden Avenue, on the site of a defunct Native American trail, was referred to as the "Old Plank Road". Planks were stolen by settlers to be used as building material, which made traveling bumpy; when the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad came to town, La Grange was a milk stop called Hazel Glen. A few miles to the south, through present-day Willow Springs, the Illinois and Michigan Canal had emerged as a major shipping corridor, connecting Chicago and the Great Lakes with the Illinois and Mississippi rivers. Cossitt set out to build the ideal suburban village - laying out streets, planting trees, donating property for churches and schools, building quality homes for sale between $2,000-$8000 USD, he placed liquor restrictions in the land deeds he sold to prevent the village from becoming a saloon town. When Cossitt began his development, the area was served by a post office known as Kensington, but upon learning of another community with that name in Illinois, Cossitt decided to name his town in honor of La Grange, where he had been raised as a youth on an uncle's cotton farm.
To this day, Kensington remains the name of one of the village's major avenues. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871 destroyed much of that city, thousands of its citizens sought new homes and opportunities far from the city's ills but within a convenient commute. La Grange was ideally situated to accommodate them. Telephones were first set up by Dr. George Fox in the 1880s for quick communication between his home office and a drug store, enabling him to order prescriptions to be delivered by buggy in a moment's notice. Growing to 52 lines in 1894, it increased twofold to 120 by the next year, surged to 2,346 by 1921. There was a large spike in population around 1890 when the village was still young, while the population has been declining since the'70s. La Grange is located at 41°48′29″N 87°52′24″W, about 13 miles west of Chicago; the village is flat, only deviating from the elevation of 645 feet by at most ten feet. La Grange is surrounded by incorporated places of similar sizes on all sides except to the South West, where the generously-named La Grange Highlands are.
According to the 2010 census, La Grange has a total area of all land. Two major railroad tracks run through the village, including the Burlington Northern Santa Fe, the CSX/Indiana Harbor Belt lines; some 14,000 years ago, the land under La Grange sat on the western shore of Lake Chicago, predecessor to Lake Michigan. The prehistoric shoreline today is delineated by Bluff Avenue, a north-south street on the village's east side; as of the census of 2000, there were 15,608 people, 5,624 households, 4,049 families residing in the village. The population density was 6,220.7 people per square mile This is due to the Village Plan aiming to prevent overcrowding and to keep population density at a level consistent with the quality of life envisioined by Franklin Cossitt. There were 5,781 housing units at an average density of 2,304.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 91.02% White, 6.02% African American, 1% Asian, 0.09% Native American, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.99% from other races, 0.86% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino people of any race comprised 3.66% of the population. The top five ancestries reported in La Grange as of the 2000 census were Irish, Polish and English. There were 5,624 households out of which 37.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.3% were married couples living together, 9.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.0% were non-families. 24.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.23. In the village, the population was spread out with 28.5% under the age of 18, 4.8% from 18 to 24, 29.4% from 25 to 44, 23.8% from 45 to 64, 13.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.4 males. The median income for a household in the village was $80,342, the median income for a family was $95,554. Males had a median income of $62,030 versus $41,260 for females.
The per capita income for the village was $34,887. About 3.2% of families and 4.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.3% of those under age 18 and 4.4% of those age 65 or over. La Grange is the mailing address for the headquarters of El
A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town, with a population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand. Though villages are located in rural areas, the term urban village is applied to certain urban neighborhoods. Villages are permanent, with fixed dwellings. Further, the dwellings of a village are close to one another, not scattered broadly over the landscape, as a dispersed settlement. In the past, villages were a usual form of community for societies that practice subsistence agriculture, for some non-agricultural societies. In Great Britain, a hamlet earned the right to be called a village. In many cultures and cities were few, with only a small proportion of the population living in them; the Industrial Revolution attracted people in larger numbers to work in factories. This enabled specialization of labor and crafts, development of many trades; the trend of urbanization continues, though not always in connection with industrialization.
Although many patterns of village life have existed, the typical village is small, consisting of 5 to 30 families. Homes were situated together for sociability and defence, land surrounding the living quarters was farmed. Traditional fishing villages were located adjacent to fishing grounds. "The soul of India lives in its villages," declared M. K. Gandhi at the beginning of 20th century. According to the 2011 census of India, 68.84% of Indians live in 640,867 different villages. The size of these villages varies considerably. 236,004 Indian villages have a population of fewer than 500, while 3,976 villages have a population of 10,000+. Most of the villages have their own temple, mosque, or church, depending on the local religious following. In Afghanistan, the village, or deh is the mid-size settlement type in Afghan society, trumping the hamlet or qala, though smaller than the town, or shār. In contrast to the qala, the deh is a bigger settlement which includes a commercial area, while the yet larger shār includes governmental buildings and services such as schools of higher education, basic health care, police stations etc.
Auyl is a Kazakh word meaning "village" in Kazakhstan. According to the 2009 census of Kazakhstan, 42.7% of Kazakhs live in 8172 different villages. To refer to this concept along with the word "auyl" used the Slavic word "selo" in Northern Kazakhstan. People's Republic of China In mainland China, villages 村 are divisions under township Zh:乡 or town Zh:镇. Republic of China In the Republic of China, villages are divisions under townships or county-controlled cities; the village is called a tsuen or cūn under a rural township and a li under an urban township or a county-controlled city. See Li. Japan South Korea In Brunei, villages are the third- and lowest-level subdivisions of Brunei below districts and mukims. A village is locally known by the Malay word kampung, they may be villages in the traditional or anthropological sense but may comprise delineated residential settlements, both rural and urban. The community of a village is headed by a village head. Communal infrastructure for the villagers may include a primary school, a religious school providing ugama or Islamic religious primary education, compulsory for the Muslim pupils in the country, a mosque, a community centre.
In Indonesia, depending on the principles they are administered, villages are called Kampung or Desa. A "Desa" is administered according to traditions and customary law, while a kelurahan is administered along more "modern" principles. Desa are located in rural areas while kelurahan are urban subdivisions. A village head is called kepala desa or lurah. Both are elected by the local community. A desa or kelurahan is the subdivision of a kecamatan, in turn the subdivision of a kabupaten or kota; the same general concept applies all over Indonesia. However, there is some variation among the vast numbers of Austronesian ethnic groups. For instance, in Bali villages have been created by grouping traditional hamlets or banjar, which constitute the basis of Balinese social life. In the Minangkabau area in West Sumatra province, traditional villages are called nagari. In some areas such as Tanah Toraja, elders take; as a general rule and kelurahan are groupings of hamlets. A kampung is defined today as a village in Indonesia.
Kampung is a term used in Malaysia, for "a Malay hamlet or village in a Malay-speaking country". In Malaysia, a kampung is determined as a locality with 10,000 or fewer people. Since historical times, every Malay village came under the leadership of a penghulu, who has the power to hear civil matters in his village. A Malay village contains a "masjid" or "surau", paddy fields and Malay houses on st
A jumble sale and buy sale or rummage sale is an event at which second hand goods are sold by an institution such as a local Boys' Brigade Company, Scout group, or church, as a fundraising or charitable effort. A rummage sale by a church is called a church sale or white elephant sale as part of a church bazaar. Organisers will ask local people to donate goods, which are set out on tables in the same manner as at car boot sales, sold to members of the general public, who may have to pay a fee to enter the sale. In the UK the entry fee is a few pence or pounds. Jumble sales may be becoming less popular in the UK, as car boot sales and the World Wide Web enable people to sell their unwanted goods rather than donate them to charity. Rummage sales in the United States as a rule do not charge any entrance fee, but sometimes charge a fee, or reserve for paid members or donors access to "preview sales" before the general public is admitted. Sometimes the sponsoring organization excludes donations of certain items, such as furniture or exercise equipment, or have a sale restricted to a single type of goods, such as book sales or sports-equipment sales.
Some larger churches or charities have permanent "thrift stores" where donated goods are offered either daily, weekly, or monthly, etc. The Salvation Army and Goodwill Industries are known for their daily-operated thrift stores located in donated space in major retail locations. Other "thrift stores" are either for-profit, or operated by corporations which are a charity in name only, as only a small fraction of profits are used charitably. In the U. S. the term "flea market" refers to many commercial venues where informal sales are conducted, of both second-hand and new goods by different private sellers. The sellers pay a fee to participate. Churches and other groups sponsor flea-markets where the organization collects seller fees, may sell food and have its own "white elephant" or "rummage" tables or booths. Yard sale, garage sale, tag sale, moving sale, etc. are terms in the U. S. for informal sales by private parties. In Australia and the United States, the phrase'white elephant sale' is sometimes used as a synonym for jumble sale.
In Canada the term'rummage sale' is used by the public, the name "bazaar" or'white elephant sale' is sometimes used by churches or other social organizations. Bazaar Charity shop Flea market Garage sale Give-away shop The Freecycle Network Garage and Estate Sales at Curlie
Community centres or community centers are public locations where members of a community tend to gather for group activities, social support, public information, other purposes. They may sometimes be open for the whole community or for a specialized group within the greater community. Community centres can be religious in nature, such as Christian, Islamic, or Jewish community centres, or can be secular, such as youth clubs. Community centres perform many the following functions in its community; as the place for all-community celebrations at various occasions and traditions. As the place for public meetings of the citizens on various issues; as the place where politicians or other official leaders come to meet the citizens and ask for their opinions, support or votes. As a place where community members meet each other socially; as a place housing local clubs and volunteer activities. As a place that community members, can rent cheaply when a private family function or party is too big for their own home.
For instance the non-religious parts of weddings, funerals etc. As a place that retells local history; as a place where local non-government activities are organised. As a place where indoor circuses can entertain the paying public; as a place of relief in instances of community tragedies. Around the world there appear to be four common ways in which the operation of the kind of community centre are owned and organised. In the following description "Government" may refer to the ordinary secular government or to a dominant religious organisation such as the Roman Catholic Church. Community owned: The centre is directly owned and run by the local community through an organization separate from the official governmental institutions of the area, but with the full knowledge and sometimes funding from government institutions. Example:. Government owned: The centre is a public government facility, though it is used for non-government community activities and may have some kind of local leadership elected from its community.
Example:. Kominkan Sponsored: A rich citizen or commercial corporation owns the place and donates its use to the community for reasons of charity or public relations. Example:; each individual community centre has its own peculiar origin and history, though some variants seem to be common. Built as such. Buildings have been erected to function as community centres at least as far back as the 1880 even earlier. Disused public building; when an official government building is no longer needed for its original purpose, it is sometimes offered to the community as gift, loan or sale. Disused commercial building; when a commercial building of some local importance is no longer used, it is sometimes sold or donated to the community. Building that served many of the community centre purposes in addition to a different primary use, acquired so it could continue these functions after its primary use subsided. Early forms of community centres in the United States were based in schools providing facilities to inner city communities out of school hours.
An early celebrated example of this is to be found in Rochester, New York from 1907. Edward J. Ward, a Presbyterian minister, joined the Extension Department at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, organizing the Wisconsin Bureau of Civic and Social Development. By 1911 they organized a country-wide conference on schools as social centres. Despite concerns expressed by politicians and public officials that they might provide a focus for alternative political and social activity, the idea was successful. In 1916, with the foundation of the National Community Center Association, the term Community Center was used in the US. By 1918 there were community centres in 107 US cities, in 240 cities by 1924. By 1930 there were nearly 500 centres with more than four million people attending; the first of these was Public School 63, located in the Lower East Side. Clinton Child's, one of the organizers, described it as "A Community organized about some centre for its own political and social welfare and expression.
In the UK many villages and towns have their own Community Centre, although nearby schools may offer their assembly or dining hall after school for Community Centre activities. For example, local schools near Ouston may host dance, or sporting activities provided by a local community centre. Parks are considered community centres. Another pioneer of community centres was Mary Parker Follett, who saw community centres as playing a major part in her concept of community development and democracy seen through individuals organizing themselves into neighbourhood groups, attending to people's needs and aspirations; this can include parks. In the United Kingdom, the oldest community centre is that, established in 1901 in Thringstone, Leiceste
International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language; the IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, speech-language pathologists, actors, constructed language creators and translators. The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones, phonemes and the separation of words and syllables. To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate, an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet, may be used. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a single letter, or with a letter plus diacritics, depending on how precise one wishes to be.
Slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription. Letters or diacritics are added, removed or modified by the International Phonetic Association; as of the most recent change in 2005, there are 107 letters, 52 diacritics and four prosodic marks in the IPA. These are shown in the current IPA chart, posted below in this article and at the website of the IPA. In 1886, a group of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, formed what would come to be known from 1897 onwards as the International Phonetic Association, their original alphabet was based on a spelling reform for English known as the Romic alphabet, but in order to make it usable for other languages, the values of the symbols were allowed to vary from language to language. For example, the sound was represented with the letter ⟨c⟩ in English, but with the digraph ⟨ch⟩ in French. However, in 1888, the alphabet was revised so as to be uniform across languages, thus providing the base for all future revisions.
The idea of making the IPA was first suggested by Otto Jespersen in a letter to Paul Passy. It was developed by Alexander John Ellis, Henry Sweet, Daniel Jones, Passy. Since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After revisions and expansions from the 1890s to the 1940s, the IPA remained unchanged until the Kiel Convention in 1989. A minor revision took place in 1993 with the addition of four letters for mid central vowels and the removal of letters for voiceless implosives; the alphabet was last revised in May 2005 with the addition of a letter for a labiodental flap. Apart from the addition and removal of symbols, changes to the IPA have consisted of renaming symbols and categories and in modifying typefaces. Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for speech pathology were created in 1990 and adopted by the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association in 1994; the general principle of the IPA is to provide one letter for each distinctive sound, although this practice is not followed if the sound itself is complex.
This means that: It does not use combinations of letters to represent single sounds, the way English does with ⟨sh⟩, ⟨th⟩ and ⟨ng⟩, or single letters to represent multiple sounds the way ⟨x⟩ represents /ks/ or /ɡz/ in English. There are no letters that have context-dependent sound values, as do "hard" and "soft" ⟨c⟩ or ⟨g⟩ in several European languages; the IPA does not have separate letters for two sounds if no known language makes a distinction between them, a property known as "selectiveness". Among the symbols of the IPA, 107 letters represent consonants and vowels, 31 diacritics are used to modify these, 19 additional signs indicate suprasegmental qualities such as length, tone and intonation; these are organized into a chart. The letters chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet. For this reason, most letters modifications thereof; some letters are neither: for example, the letter denoting the glottal stop, ⟨ʔ⟩, has the form of a dotless question mark, derives from an apostrophe.
A few letters, such as that of the voiced pharyngeal fricative, ⟨ʕ⟩, were inspired by other writing systems. Despite its preference for harmonizing with the Latin script, the International Phonetic Association has admitted other letters. For example, before 1989, the IPA letters for click consonants were ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ʇ⟩, ⟨ʗ⟩, ⟨ʖ⟩, all of which were derived either from existing IPA letters, or from Latin and Greek letters. However, except for ⟨ʘ⟩, none of these letters were used among Khoisanists or Bantuists, as a result they were replaced by the more widespread symbols ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ǀ⟩, ⟨ǃ⟩, ⟨ǂ⟩, ⟨ǁ⟩ at the IPA Kiel Convention in 1989. Although the IPA diacritics are featural, there is little systemicity in the letter forms. A retroflex articulation is indicated with a right-swinging tail, as in ⟨ɖ ʂ ɳ⟩, implosion by a top hook, ⟨ɓ ɗ ɠ⟩, but other pseudo-featural elements are due to haphazard derivation and coincidence. For example, all nasal consonants but uvular ⟨ɴ⟩ are based on the form ⟨n⟩: ⟨m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ⟩.
However, the similarity between ⟨m⟩ and ⟨n⟩ is a historical accident. Some of the new letters were ordinary Latin letters tu
Bedhampton is a former village, now suburb, located in the Borough of Havant, England. It is located at the northern end of Langstone Harbour and at the foot of the eastern end of Portsdown Hill. Early mentions of Bedhampton are recorded in the ninth century, the village was mentioned in the Domesday Book. Modern Bedhampton has a railway station, with regular services to Portsmouth and London, less frequent services to Southampton and South Wales; the A27 and the A3 pass through the south-west part of Bedhampton. Bedhampton has a thriving community centre which caters for all ages in Bedhampton village, has two coffee mornings per week to address potential community isolation. Bedhampton has a mixture of older houses; the first school in Bedhampton was built on the corner of Bedhampton King's Croft Lane. Miss Dust was the original mistress, serving at the school until 1876; the first page in her log book notes that she had to "reprove a boy for fighting". Scrutiny of the logbook suggests that Miss Dust was visited by the squire, Mr Stone, the rector, Rev Daubiney.
The next occupant of the school house, Mrs Dugdale, was to forge an association with the school which would last 46 years. Mrs Dugdale and her daughter, Miss Dugdale were the first two in a long line of long serving head teachers, continued by Mrs Smith, Mrs Carrick, Mrs Rowley and now Mrs Jones. After World War Two, school places were at a premium and extra places were created by turning the former HMS Daedalus III Naval Camp into Stockheath Primary School. Stockheath Naval Camp was two miles north. In 1974 Hampshire County Council decided to split the primary intake, a new school for the older children was built on land south of Hooks Lane Recreation Ground, named Bidbury Middle School. A long campaign began to move the newly created Bedhampton First School to the new site too; this happened in February 1985 when Bedhampton and Stockheath First schools amalgamated to become Bidbury First School, renamed Bidbury Infant School in 1994. Just across the recreation ground is a Roman Catholic Primary School, St Thomas More's.
Bedhampton is well served with open spaces. The Hermitage Stream Walk runs to the north of the parish, from New Road in the east to Purbrook Way in the west. Havant Borough Council have prioritised the environmental well-being of the habitat, erected distinctive signs and information panels to highlight its importance. In the centre of Bedhampton is a large open space bounded by Hooks Lane, part of, home to Havant RFC. To the south of Bedhampton Road is Bidbury Mead, a large tree-ringed recreation ground – home to Bedhampton Mariners Cricket Club and Bedhampton Bowling Club; the locality borders onto the area around St Thomas the Apostle parish church. The fourth, least known, space in Bedhampton is Scratchface Recreation Ground, situated to the west of the village; some include St Josephs R. C. Church here but most do not. There has been a church in Bedhampton since 1086; the present parish church, St Thomas The Apostle, situated in Old Bedhampton, dates from the 12th century. In 1953 a church centre was built, dedicated to St Nicholas.
There are a Methodist church, a modern building in Hulbert Road replacing an earlier primitive chapel by the station, a Gospel Hall, built between 1901 and 1922 with funds provided by local benefactress Miss Meiklam, within the parish boundary. Botanist Anne Brewis has commented on the different kinds of flowers in the area; the author of Jane's Fighting Ships, Fred T. Jane, lived in Bedhampton and founded the first Bedhampton Scout troop. Smith,M 1968 Bedhampton School Centenary History Hind,R. W. 2003 The Naval Camps of Bedhampton,Havant and Leigh Park ISBN 0-9546160-0-6 Media related to Bedhampton at Wikimedia Commons