Spaniards, or the Spanish people, are a Romance ethnic group that are indigenous to Spain. They share a common Spanish culture, history and language. Within Spain, there are a number of nationalisms and regionalisms, reflecting the country's complex history and diverse culture. Although the official language of Spain is known as "Spanish", it is only one of the national languages of Spain, is less ambiguously known as Castilian, a standard language based on the medieval romance speech of the Kingdom of Castile in north and central Spain; the Spanish people's heritage includes the pre-Celts and Celts. There are several spoken regional languages, most notably Basque and Galician. There are many populations outside Spain with ancestors who emigrated from Spain and who share a Hispanic culture; the Roman Republic conquered Iberia during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. As a result of Roman colonization, the majority of local languages, with the exception of Basque, stem from the Vulgar Latin; the Germanic Vandals and Suebi, with part of the Iranian Alans under King Respendial conquered the peninsula in 409 AD.
In turn, the Visigoths established themselves in Spain. The Iberian Peninsula was conquered and brought under the rule of the Arab Umayyads in 711 and by the Berber North African dynasties the Almohads and the Almoravids in the 11th and 12th centuries. Following the eight century Christian Reconquista against the Moors, the modern Spanish state was formed with the union of the Kingdoms of Castille and Aragon, the conquest of the last Muslim Nasrid Kingdom of Granada and the Canary Islands in the late 15th century. In the early 16th century the Kingdom of Navarre was conquered; as Spain expanded its empire in the Americas, religious minorities in Spain such as Jews and Muslims were either converted or expelled and the Catholic church fiercely persecuted heresy during a period known as the Spanish Inquisition. A small number of Spaniards descend from converted Jewish and North Africans, as a result of the 800 years of Moorish occupation of the Iberian Peninsula. In parallel, a wave of emigration to the Americas began, with over 1.86 million Spaniards emigrating to the Spanish Americas during the colonial period and the population of the Spanish Empire had risen to 16.8 million by the end of the 18th century In the post-colonial period, a further 3.5 million Spanish left for the Americas Argentina, Mexico, Chile, Puerto Rico and Cuba.
Spain is home to one of the largest communities of Romani people. The Government's statistical agency CIS estimated in 2007 that the number of Gitanos present in Spain is around one million; the Spanish Roma, which belong to the Iberian Kale subgroup, are a formerly-nomadic community, which spread across Western Asia, North Africa, Europe, first reaching Spain in the 15th century. The population of Spain is becoming diverse due to recent immigration. From 2000 to 2010, Spain had among the highest per capita immigration rates in the world and the second highest absolute net migration in the World and immigrants now make up about 10% of the population; the prolonged economic crisis between 2008 and 2015 reduced both immigration rates and the total number of foreigners in the country, Spain becoming once more a net emigrant country. The earliest modern humans inhabiting Spain are believed to have been Neolithic peoples who may have arrived in the Iberian Peninsula as early as 35,000–40,000 years ago.
In more recent times the Iberians are believed to have arrived or developed in the region between the 4th millennium BC and the 3rd millennium BC settling along the Mediterranean coast. Celts settled in Spain during the Iron Age; some of those tribes in North-central Spain, which had cultural contact with the Iberians, are called Celtiberians. In addition, a group known as the Tartessians and Turdetanians inhabited southwestern Spain and who are believed to have developed a separate civilization of Phoenician influence; the seafaring Phoenicians and Carthaginians successively founded trading colonies along the Mediterranean coast over a period of several centuries. The Second Punic War between the Carthaginians and Romans was fought in what is now Spain and Portugal; the Roman Republic conquered Iberia during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC transformed most of the region into a series of Latin-speaking provinces. As a result of Roman colonization, the majority of local languages, with the exception of Basque, stem from the Vulgar Latin, spoken in Hispania, which evolved into the modern languages of the Iberian Peninsula, including Castilian, which became the main lingua franca of Spain, is now known in most countries as Spanish.
Hispania emerged as an important part of the Roman Empire and produced notable historical figures such as Trajan, Hadrian and Quintilian. The Germanic Vandals and Suebi, with part of the Iranian Alans under King Respendial, arrived in the peninsula in 409 AD. Part of the Vandals with the remaining Alans, now under Geiseric in personal union removed themselves to North Africa after a few conflicts with another Germanic tribe, the Visigoths, who established in Toulouse supported Roman campaigns against the Vandals and Alans in 415–19 AD and became the dominant power in Iberia for three centuries; the Visigoths were romanized in the eastern Empire and Christians, so their integration withi
The French are an ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France. This connection may be ethnic, historical, or cultural; the heritage of the French people is of Celtic and Germanic origin, descending from the ancient and medieval populations of Gauls, Ligures, Iberians, Franks and Norsemen. France has long been a patchwork of local customs and regional differences, while most French people still speak the French language as their mother tongue, languages like Norman, Catalan, Corsican, French Flemish, Lorraine Franconian and Breton remain spoken in their respective regions. Arabic is widely spoken, arguably the largest minority language in France as of the 21st century. Modern French society is a melting pot. From the middle of the 19th century, it experienced a high rate of inward migration consisting of Arab-Berbers, Sub-Saharan Africans and other peoples from Africa, the Middle East and East Asia, the government, defining France as an inclusive nation with universal values, advocated assimilation through which immigrants were expected to adhere to French values and cultural norms.
Nowadays, while the government has let newcomers retain their distinctive cultures since the mid-1980s and requires from them a mere integration, French citizens still equate their nationality with citizenship as does French law. In addition to mainland France, French people and people of French descent can be found internationally, in overseas departments and territories of France such as the French West Indies, in foreign countries with significant French-speaking population groups or not, such as Switzerland, the United States, Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. To be French, according to the first article of the French Constitution, is to be a citizen of France, regardless of one's origin, race, or religion. According to its principles, France has devoted itself to the destiny of a proposition nation, a generic territory where people are bounded only by the French language and the assumed willingness to live together, as defined by Ernest Renan's "plébiscite de tous les jours" on the willingness to live together, in Renan's 1882 essay "Qu'est-ce qu'une nation?").
The debate concerning the integration of this view with the principles underlying the European Community remains open. A large number of foreigners have traditionally been permitted to live in France and succeeded in doing so. Indeed, the country has long valued its openness and the quality of services available. Application for French citizenship is interpreted as a renunciation of previous state allegiance unless a dual citizenship agreement exists between the two countries; the European treaties have formally permitted movement and European citizens enjoy formal rights to employment in the state sector. Seeing itself as an inclusive nation with universal values, France has always valued and advocated assimilation. However, the success of such assimilation has been called into question. There is increasing dissatisfaction with, within, growing ethno-cultural enclaves; the 2005 French riots in some troubled and impoverished suburbs were an example of such tensions. However they should not be interpreted as ethnic conflicts but as social conflicts born out of socioeconomic problems endangering proper integration.
French people are the descendants of Gauls and Romans, western European Celtic and Italic peoples, as well as Bretons, Aquitanians and Germanic people arriving at the beginning of the Frankish Empire such as the Franks, the Visigoths, the Suebi, the Saxons, the Allemanni and the Burgundians, Germanic groups such as the Vikings, who settled in Normandy and to a lesser extent in Brittany in the 9th century. The name "France" etymologically derives from the territory of the Franks; the Franks were a Germanic tribe. In the pre-Roman era, all of Gaul was inhabited by a variety of peoples who were known collectively as the Gaulish tribes, their ancestors were Celts who came from Central Europe in the 7th century BCE, non-Celtic peoples including the Ligures, Aquitanians in Aquitaine. Some in the northern and eastern areas, may have had Germanic admixture. Gaul was militarily conquered in 58–51 BCE by the Roman legions under the command of General Julius Caesar. Over the next six centuries, the two cultures intermingled, creating a hybridized Gallo-Roman culture.
In the late Roman era, in addition to colonists from elsewhere in the Empire and Gaulish natives, Gallia became home to some in-migrating populations of Germanic and Scythian origin, such as Alans. The Gaulish language is thought to have survived into the 6th century in France, despite considerable Romanizat
Belgians are people identified with the Kingdom of Belgium, a federal state in Western Europe. As Belgium is a multinational state, this connection may be residential, historical, or cultural rather than ethnic; the majority of Belgians, belong to two distinct ethnic groups or communities native to the country, i.e. its historical regions: Flemings in Flanders, who speak Dutch and Walloons in Wallonia who speak French or Walloon. There is a substantial Belgian diaspora, which has settled in the United States, Canada and Netherlands; the 1830 revolution led to the establishment of an independent country under a provisional government and a national congress. The name "Belgium" was adopted for the country, the word being derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that, before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples; the Latin name was revived in 1790 by the short-lived United Belgian States, created after a revolution against Austrian rule took place in 1789.
Since no adjective equivalent to "Belgian" existed at the time, the French noun "Belgique" was adopted as both noun and adjective. From the sixteenth century, the Low Countries" or "Netherlands", were referred to as'Belgica' in Latin, as was the Dutch Republic. Belgians are a nationality or citizen group, by jus soli known as birthright citizenship, are not a homogeneous ethnic group. Belgians are made up of two main ethnic groups; these sometimes competing ethnic and linguistic priorities are governed by constitutionally designated "regions or communities", depending on the constitutional realm of the topic, a complex and uniquely Belgian political construct. Since many Belgians are at least bilingual, or trilingual, it is common for business and family networks to include members of the various ethnic groups composing Belgium; the Brussels-Capital Region occupies a unique political and cultural position since geographically and linguistically it is a bilingual enclave within the unilingual Flemish Region.
Since the founding of the Kingdom of Belgium in 1830, the city of Brussels has transformed from being entirely Dutch-speaking into a multilingual city with French as the majority language and lingua franca, a process, labelled the Frenchification of Brussels". Since the independence of Belgium in 1830, the constitutional title of the Belgian head of state is the "King of the Belgians" rather than the "King of Belgium". Within Belgium the Flemish, about 60% of the population, form a distinguishable group, set apart by their language and customs. However, when compared to the Netherlands most of these cultural and linguistic boundaries fade, as the Flemish share the same language, similar or identical customs and traditional religion with the Dutch. However, the popular perception of being a single polity varies depending on subject matter and personal background. Flemings will identify themselves as being Dutch and vice versa on a national level. Walloons are a French-speaking people. Walloons are a distinctive community within Belgium, important historical and anthropological criteria bind Walloons to the French people.
More the term refers to the inhabitants of the Walloon Region. They may speak regional languages such as Walloon. Though three-quarters of Belgium's French speakers live in Wallonia, it is important to note that French-speaking residents of Brussels tend not to identify as Walloons; the German-speaking Community of Belgium is one of the three constitutionally recognized federal communities of Belgium. Covering an area of less than 1,000 km2 within the province of Liège in Wallonia, it includes nine of the eleven municipalities of the so-called East Cantons and the local population numbers over 73,000 — less than 1% of the national total. Bordering the Netherlands and Luxembourg, the area has its own parliament and government at Eupen; the German-speaking community is composed of the German-speaking parts of the lands that were annexed in 1920 from Germany. In addition, in contemporary Belgium there are some other German-speaking areas that belonged to Belgium before 1920, but they are not considered part of the German-speaking community in Belgium: Bleiberg-Welkenraat-Baelen in Northeastern province of Liège and Arelerland.
However, in these localities, the German language is endangered due to the adoption of French. Roman Catholicism has traditionally been Belgium's majority religion, with 65% of the Belgians declaring themselves to be Catholics. However, by 2004, nationwide Sunday church attendance was only about 4 to 8%. A 2006 inquiry in Flanders, long considered more religious than the Brussels or Wallonia regions in Belgium, showed 55% of its inhabitants calling themselves religious, while 36% said that they believed that God created the world. Belgium had a population of 10,839,905 people on 1 January 2010, an increase of 601,000 in comparison to 2000 (10,239,085
Entre Ríos Province
Entre Ríos is a central province of Argentina, located in the Mesopotamia region. It borders the provinces of Buenos Aires and Santa Fe, Uruguay in the east, its capital is Paraná, which lies opposite the city of Santa Fe. Together with Córdoba and Santa Fe, since 1999, the province is part of the economic-political association known as the Center Region; the first inhabitants of the area, now Entre Ríos were the Charrúa and Chaná who each occupied separate parts of the region. Spaniards entered in 1520, when Rodríguez Serrano ventured up the Uruguay River searching for the Pacific Ocean; the first permanent Spanish settlement was erected in the current La Paz Department at the end of the 16th century. As governor of Asunción first and of Buenos Aires, Hernandarias conducted expeditions to Entre Ríos unexplored lands. Juan de Garay, after founding Santa Fe, explored this area. However, the region remained indigenous and uninhabited by Europeans until a group of colonists from neighbouring Santa Fe Province settled on the Bajada del Paraná in the late seventeenth century, now the site of the provincial capital.
At the same time towns appear, which we now know as Nogoyá, Gualeguay, Gualeguaychú, Concepción del Uruguay and Concordia. Tomás de Rocamora further explored the area in 1783 under the threat of a Portuguese invasion from Brazil, gave official status to many of the above-mentioned towns, he was the first to refer to the region as Entre Ríos. At this stage, European settlement was minimal, though during the May Revolution, the few colonists in the cities along the Paraná shore supported Manuel Belgrano and his army on his way to Paraguay. On September 29, 1820, the leader Francisco Ramírez declared the territory an autonomous entity, the Republic of Entre Ríos; this lasted until his assassination on July 10 of the next year. In 1853, in a meeting of all the provinces except Buenos Aires, Paraná was elected as the capital of the Argentine Confederation, the Governor of Entre Ríos and leader Urquiza as its first president; the provincial capital was moved to Concepción del Uruguay. Urquiza, who had first won against Buenos Aires at the Battle of Cepeda in 1859, let his troops move back in the Battle of Pavón in 1861, which allowed his rival Bartolomé Mitre from Buenos Aires to become president.
At the time he was fulfilling his third term as governor of the province from 1860 to 1864 and after a voluntary interruption was reelected in 1886, but he was assassinated in 1870 after altogether 16 years of governing before finishing his mandate, ordered by his supportor Ricardo López Jordán, not trusting him anymore. Urquiza encouraged immigration through "colonization contracts", setting up many agricultural colonies with European settlers. According to data of the 1903 census, of the 425,373 inhabitants of the province, 153,067 were immigrants. Entre Rios' economy is the sixth largest in Argentina, its output in 2006 was estimated at US$7.71 billion, or, US$6,710 per capita in 2006. In 2013, its output was estimated at $63.814 billon Pesos or, 48,327 pesos per capita at current market prices. This was 21% below the average GDP per capita of 69,678 pesos for Argentina in 2013 at current market prices, its economy has long been more agricultural than the median in Argentina, comprising about 15% of output.
Entre Rios' agricultural products include rice, wheat and citrus of which it is the second biggest producer, exporting 16% of the production to Europe. Livestock production focuses on cattle, in sheep production in a decreasing proportion, covering 60,000 km²; the dairy industry in expansion, produces 250 thousand tons per year of dairy products. Of the national production of chickens and eggs, Entre Ríos contributes 37% of the first and 25% percent of the second. Another emerging production is honey and its derivatives for export. Manufacturing has a sizable presence in Entre Rios, making up another 15% of output, its industries are linked to agriculture, as in food and drinks industry and flour and rice mills. Other industries include timber-wood, chemical and machinery; as part of the Mesopotamic region, the land is completely flat, with hills some 100 meters in height. There are two main systems of low hills, called lomadas or cuchillas: the Cuchilla de Montiel and the Cuchilla Grande, which are separated by the Gualeguay River.
The name of the province means "between rivers". Entre Ríos is limited and traversed by many rivers and streams: the Paraná River and its delta to the west and south. Two national parks are located within the province: El Palmar National Park and Predelta National Park. There are hot springs in several locations along the basin of the Uruguay River, located in cities like Federación, Villa Elisa, Colón, etc; the province is divided into 2 climatic regions: The first one is a humid, temperate climate that covers most of the central and southern parts of the province. Mean temperatures range from 10 °C in winter to 26 °C in summer while the mean annual precipitation in this region is 1,000 millimetres; the second climatic region is a subtropical climate located in the northern parts of the pr
The Gualeguay River is one of the major rivers of the Mesopotamic province of Entre Ríos, Argentina. Its source is in the north of the province, in the region between the cities of Federación and San José de Feliciano, meanders in a general south-southwestward direction across the center of the province for about 350 to 375 kilometres, receiving a large number of tributary streams, it passes by the cities of Villaguay, Rosario del Tala, Gualeguay, empties into the Río Paraná Ibicuy, a distributary of the Paraná River in the Paraná Delta. The Gualeguay's drainage basin covers an area of 22,716 square kilometres, along a depressed area between the systems of low hills of the west and east of Entre Ríos. Measurements taken in 1964–1968 place its average discharge at 210 cubic metres per second. List of rivers of Argentina Turismo Entre Ríos. Geografía, relieve y límites de Entre Ríos. Secretaría de Minería de la Nación. Provincia de Entre Ríos - Recursos hídricos Archived 10 November 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
CUENCAS HIDRICAS SUPERFICIALES DE LA REPUBLICA ARGENTINA
Paraná, Entre Ríos
Paraná is the capital city of the Argentine province Entre Ríos, located on the eastern shore of the Paraná River, opposite the city of Santa Fe, capital of the neighbouring Santa Fe Province. The city has a population of 247,863. Paraná is not only the head of the provincial government, but an important river port for the transshipment of cereals, cattle and lumber from the surrounding region; the principal industries installed are the manufacture of cement and ceramics. The centre of the city gathers colonial churches, European styles such as that of the 3 de Febrero Theatre or the Government House, the mixed styles of the city's Cathedral, modern towers like those near the Parque Urquiza park; the city is connected to the city of Santa Fe on the other side of the Entre Ríos by the Hernandarias Subfluvial Tunnel inaugurated in 1969. Paraná is served by General Justo José de Urquiza Airport, at coordinates 31°47′07″S 60°28′09″W, 7.5 kilometres from the city, with regular flights to Buenos Aires.
Another option is Sauce Viejo Airport in nearby Santa Fe. During the 16th century, inhabitants of the city of Santa Fe settled at the other shore of the Paraná river. Paraná has a Pampean climate, which under the Köppen climate classification, would be classified as a humid subtropical climate; the average annual temperature is 18 °C. Winters are characterized with mild temperatures during the day and cold nights; the average high is 18 °C while the average low is 5 °C. Temperatures fall below 1 °C, leading to frosts. Spring and Fall are transitional seasons with warm temperatures during the day with cool temperatures during the night; the last frost occurs on August 4 although frosts can occur as late as October 9. The first frost occurs on June 22. Summers are characterized by hot weather during the day with mild to warm nights; the average temperature during summer is around 23 °C although heat waves can push temperatures above 37 °C while cool Pampero winds can push temperatures below 10 °C. Most of the precipitation occurs during the summer.
The city, along with the entire province is located in an area of high risk of tornadoes in the country during spring and summer. Paraná receives 1,069.1 mm of precipitation per year, most of it concentrated in the summer months and there are 87 days with measurable precipitation. The average relative humidity is 73%. Wind speeds are moderate throughout the year, ranging from a low of 10.1 km/h in April to a high of 16.0 km/h in September. Paraná receives an average of 2713.3 hours of bright sunshine per year, ranging from a low of 51% in June to a high of 67% in January and February. The highest temperature recorded was 42.8 °C on January 2, 1963 while the lowest temperature recorded was −7.0 °C on July 10, 1976. The city is home to the basketball team Atlético Echagüe; as of 2017, it competes in the Liga Nacional de Básquet, Argentina's top professional basketball division. It plays its home games at the Estadio Luis Butta. Salvador Maciá, Governor of Entre Ríos Province Martin Castrogiovanni, Italy international rugby player born in the city Official website Municipal information: Municipal Affairs Federal Institute, Municipal Affairs Secretariat, Ministry of Interior, Argentina.
Universidad Nacional de Entre Ríos
The Volga Germans are ethnic Germans who colonized and lived along the Volga River in the region of southeastern European Russia around Saratov and to the south. Recruited as immigrants to Russia in the 18th century, they were allowed to maintain their German culture, language and churches. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, many Volga Germans emigrated to Kansas, the Dakotas, California and other states across the western United States, as well as to Canada and South America. After the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 during World War II, the Soviet government considered the Volga Germans potential collaborators, deported many of them eastwards, where thousands died. After the war, the Soviet Union expelled a moderate number of ethnic Germans to the West. In the late 1980s and 1990s, many of the remaining ethnic Germans moved from the Soviet Union to Germany. In 1762, Catherine II, born a German princess and a native of Stettin, deposed her husband Peter III, born a German prince in Kiel, took the Russian imperial throne.
Catherine the Great published manifestos in 1762 and 1763 inviting Europeans to immigrate and become Russian citizens and farm Russian lands while maintaining their language and culture. Although the first received little response, the second improved the benefits offered and was more successful in attracting colonists. People in other countries such as France and England were more inclined to migrate to the colonies in the Americas than to the Russian frontier. Other countries, such as Austria, forbade emigration; the settlers came from Bavaria, Hesse, the Palatinate, the Rhineland, over the years 1763 to 1767. They indeed helped modernize the backward agricultural sector by introducing numerous innovations regarding wheat production and flour milling, tobacco culture, sheep raising, small-scale manufacturing. Furthermore the Volga Germans helped to populate Russia's South adding a buffer against possible incursions by the Ottoman Empire; the early German settlements were attacked during the Pugachev uprising from 1773 through 1775, centred on the Volga area, but they survived the rebellion.
According to Darrel P. Kaiser, "Kazakh-Kirghiz tribesmen kidnapped 1573 settlers from colonies in 1774 alone and only half were ransomed; the rest were killed or enslaved." Despite rough relations between the local Russians and German immigrants, several Germans married into local Russian families. Most Russo-German marriages occurred in families that left their respective villages, despite mixing with the Slavs, their patriarchal nature would help preserve German language and culture; those who went to Russia had special rights under the terms of the manifesto. Some, such as being exempt from military service, were revoked in the latter part of the 19th century when the government needed more conscripts for the Russian army; the German Mennonite communities were opposed to military service because of their pacifist beliefs, so many Mennonites emigrated to the Americas instead. Following the Russian Revolution, the Volga German Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was established in 1924, it lasted until 1941.
Its capital was Engels, known as Pokrovsk before 1931. Of all the ethnic German communities in the Soviet Union, the Volga Germans represented the single largest group expelled from their historical homeland. Shortly after the German invasion, on June 22, 1941, Stalin sent Beria and Molotov to the Volga German Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic to determine a course of action for its German inhabitants. On return, they recommended the deportation of the entire German population; the Central Committee of the Communist Party issued a resolution on August 12, calling for the expulsion of the entire German population. With this authority, Beria on August 27 issued an order entitled "On Measures for Conducting the Operation of Resettling the Germans from the Volga German Republic and Stalingrad Oblasts," assigning the deputy head of the NKVD, Ivan Serov, to command this operation, he allocated NKVD and Red Army troops to carry out the transfer. The Germans were to be sent to various oblasts in Siberia and Kazakhstan, beginning on September 3, ending on September 20, 1941.
On September 7, 1941, the Volga German Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was abolished showing that the Soviets considered the expulsion of the Germans final. On August 28, 1941, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR approved and published a decree, the only official decree published by the Soviet Union concerning the deportation and exile of the German Russian community; the Soviet regime stated that the evacuation was a preventive measure—so that the German population would not be misled into collaborating with the German Army—rather than a punitive measure. Stalin gave the following "secret" order to the NKVD, produced in Nazi controlled Latvia on September 20, 1941: "After the house search, tell everyone, scheduled to be deported that, according to the government’s decision, they are being sent to other regions of the USSR. Transport the entire family in one car until the train station, but at the station, heads of families must be loaded into a separate train car prepared for them....
Their families are deported for special settlements in the far away regions of the Union. Mus