Osaka is a designated city in the Kansai region of Japan. It is the capital city of Osaka Prefecture and the largest component of the Keihanshin Metropolitan Area, the second largest metropolitan area in Japan and among the largest in the world with over 19 million inhabitants. Osaka will host Expo 2025; the current mayor of Osaka is Ichiro Matsui. Some of the earliest signs of human habitation in the Osaka area at the Morinomiya ruins comprise shell mounds, sea oysters and buried human skeletons from the 6th–5th centuries BC, it is believed that what is today the Uehonmachi area consisted of a peninsular land with an inland sea in the east. During the Yayoi period, permanent habitation on the plains grew. By the Kofun period, Osaka developed into a hub port connecting the region to the western part of Japan; the large numbers of larger tomb mounds found in the plains of Osaka are seen as evidence of political-power concentration, leading to the formation of a state. The Kojiki records that during 390–430 AD there was an imperial palace located at Osumi, in what is present day Higashiyodogawa ward, but it may have been a secondary imperial residence rather than a capital.
In 645, Emperor Kōtoku built his Naniwa Nagara-Toyosaki Palace in what is now Osaka, making it the capital of Japan. The city now known as Osaka was at this time referred to as Naniwa, this name and derivations of it are still in use for districts in central Osaka such as Naniwa and Namba. Although the capital was moved to Asuka in 655, Naniwa remained a vital connection, by land and sea, between Yamato and China. Naniwa was declared the capital again in 744 by order of Emperor Shōmu, remained so until 745, when the Imperial Court moved back to Heijō-kyō. By the end of the Nara period, Naniwa's seaport roles had been taken over by neighboring areas, but it remained a lively center of river and land transportation between Heian-kyō and other destinations. In 1496, Jōdo Shinshū Buddhists established their headquarters in the fortified Ishiyama Hongan-ji, located directly on the site of the old Naniwa Imperial Palace. Oda Nobunaga began a decade-long siege campaign on the temple in 1570 which resulted in the surrender of the monks and subsequent razing of the temple.
Toyotomi Hideyoshi constructed Osaka Castle in its place in 1583. Osaka was long considered Japan's primary economic center, with a large percentage of the population belonging to the merchant class. Over the course of the Edo period, Osaka grew into one of Japan's major cities and returned to its ancient role as a lively and important port, its popular culture was related to ukiyo-e depictions of life in Edo. By 1780, Osaka had cultivated a vibrant arts culture, as typified by its famous Kabuki and Bunraku theaters. In 1837, Ōshio Heihachirō, a low-ranking samurai, led a peasant insurrection in response to the city's unwillingness to support the many poor and suffering families in the area. One-quarter of the city was razed before shogunal officials put down the rebellion, after which Ōshio killed himself. Osaka was opened to foreign trade by the government of the Bakufu at the same time as Hyōgo on 1 January 1868, just before the advent of the Boshin War and the Meiji Restoration. Osaka residents were stereotyped in Edo literature from at least the 18th century.
Jippensha Ikku in 1802 depicted Osakans as stingy beyond belief. In 1809, the derogatory term "Kamigata zeeroku" was used by Edo residents to characterize inhabitants of the Osaka region in terms of calculation, lack of civic spirit, the vulgarity of Osaka dialect. Edo writers aspired to samurai culture, saw themselves as poor but generous and public spirited. Edo writers by contrast saw "zeeroku" as obsequious apprentices, greedy and lewd. To some degree, Osaka residents are still stigmatized by Tokyo observers in the same way today in terms of gluttony, evidenced in the phrase, "Residents of Osaka devour their food until they collapse"; the modern municipality was established in 1889 by government ordinance, with an initial area of 15 square kilometres, overlapping today's Chūō and Nishi wards. The city went through three major expansions to reach its current size of 223 square kilometres. Osaka was the industrial center most defined in the development of capitalism in Japan, it became known as the "Manchester of the Orient."The rapid industrialization attracted many Korean immigrants, who set up a life apart for themselves.
The political system was pluralistic, with a strong emphasis on promoting industrialization and modernization. Literacy was high and the educational system expanded producing a middle class with a taste for literature and a willingness to support the arts. In 1927, General Motors operated a factory called Osaka Assembly until 1941, manufacturing Chevrolet, Pontiac and Buick vehicles and staffed by Japanese workers and managers. In the nearby city of Ikeda in Osaka Prefecture is the headquarters office of Daihatsu, one of Japan's oldest automobile manufacturers. Like its European and American counterparts, Osaka displayed slums and poverty. In Japan it was here that municipal government first introduced a comprehensive system of poverty relief, copied in part from British models. Osaka policymakers stressed the importance of family formation and mutual assistance as the best way to combat poverty; this minimized
Christopher Morgan Klucsarits was an American professional wrestler. He was best known for his appearances with the professional wrestling promotions World Championship Wrestling and the World Wrestling Federation from 1995 to 2004 under the ring names Chris Kanyon and Mortis. After college, he began training under Pete McKay Gonzalez, Ismael Gerena and Bobby Bold Eagle at the Lower East Side Wrestling Gym in Manhattan at some point between December 1991 and January 1992, he wrestled his first match on April 5, 1992, in Levittown, New York at the Island Trees Junior High School, wrestled one match as Chris Morgan before adopting the ring name Chris Canyon and changed it to Chris Kanyon. Kanyon worked as a physical therapist for the next three years, wrestling on weekends and in the evenings, before deciding to become a full-time professional wrestler in 1995. Early in his career, Kanyon formed a tag team with Billy Kidman which saw both men wrestle in hockey uniforms. In late 1994, he made several appearances with the World Wrestling Federation as a jobber, facing wrestlers such as Shawn Michaels, Diesel and Bob Holly.
His friend and future manager James Mitchell saw potential in him and sent him for training with The Fabulous Moolah in South Carolina and with Afa at Wild Samoan wrestling School. Kanyon debuted in World Championship Wrestling as a jobber. After several months he was placed with Mark Starr in a tag team called "Men at Work", their gimmick was that they were two construction workers turned wrestlers who wore jeans to the ring, that Kanyon would cause the team to suffer losses by taking measurements with his tape measure at inopportune times. Kanyon was replaced with Mike Winner before the team disbanded altogether. In 1997, Kanyon was repackaged as Mortis, a Latin word meaning death. Managed by James Vandenberg, Kanyon feuded with Glacier. Kanyon faced Glacier at Uncensored on March 16 in his pay-per-view debut but lost to the undefeated Glacier. Following the match, Wrath debuted, assaulting Glacier. Glacier defeated Kanyon in a second match at Slamboree on May 18. After the match and Mortis once again attacked Glacier.
However, Glacier was spared a post-match beating. The four men fought one another over the following weeks, culminating in a match at Bash at the Beach on July 13, won by Kanyon and Wrath. Kanyon and Wrath continued to team together until the angle was dropped in early 1998. In February 1998, Kanyon asked Raven if he could join Raven's stable The Flock but was told that he could only become a member if he defeated Diamond Dallas Page for the United States Heavyweight Championship. Mortis failed to defeat Page for the title on the February 12 episode of Thunder, he was DDT'ed on the entrance ramp by Raven as a result; this event led to Kanyon discarding the "Mortis" persona and beginning a feud with Raven, in the course of which he was dubbed "The Innovator of Offense" by play-by-play commentator Mike Tenay due to his unique wrestling technique, which included multiple moves performed from a fireman's carry position. His matches always began with him asking the rhetorical question "Who Better than Kanyon' as the crowd would respond "everybody" He formed an uneasy alliance with Perry Saturn in order to fight against The Flock, but turned on Saturn and joined forces with Raven.
After Saturn forced The Flock to disband by defeating Raven at Fall Brawl and Raven continued to team together until Raven, in storyline, was sidelined with depression and Kanyon took time away from his wrestling career to work as stunt coordinator and stuntman on The Jesse Ventura Story. Kanyon returned in 1999, helping Raven and Saturn win the World Tag Team Championship, but soon abandoned them and formed a stable with Bam Bam Bigelow and Diamond Dallas Page known as the Jersey Triad; the Triad feuded with Saturn and Chris Benoit over the Tag Team Championship, defeating them for the title on June 13 in the Baltimore Arena at The Great American Bash pay-per-view. During their reign, they were given special dispensation by WCW President Ric Flair to defend the title as a three-man unit, granting them a numerical advantage over their opponents. However, the ruling was overturned by Flair's replacement Sting, Kanyon and Bigelow lost the title to Harlem Heat at Road Wild on August 14, 1999.
The Triad disbanded shortly thereafter, with Kanyon once again placing his wrestling career on hiatus to work on the WCW produced film Ready to Rumble, where he served as stunt coordinator and as the stunt double of lead actor Oliver Platt. Kanyon returned to WCW in late 1999 as Chris "Champagne" Kanyon, abbreviated to C. C. K. Accompanied by J. Biggs, his "agent", two former Nitro Girls and Chameleon, he claimed that he had become acclimatised to the glamor of Hollywood and thus began indulging in luxuries such as champagne and expensive cars. He feuded with Bigelow and Page before being removed from WCW by interim booker Kevin Sullivan. Kanyon returned to WCW once more on April 2000, when Vince Russo replaced Sullivan, he teamed with Page for several months, which climaxed at Slamboree with him attempting to save DDP from being powerbombed by Mike Awesome on top of the triple cage, used in the Ready to Rumble movie. Kanyon saved Page, but Awesome turned his attention to Kanyon, throwing him off the triple cage onto the ramp below, ending the pay-per-view in dramatic fashion.
Kanyon, after a storyline which saw him in a halo brace in a hospital and in a wheelchair, stepped out of the wheelchair and turned on Page at The Great American Bash costing him his Ambu
Tag team wrestling is a type of professional wrestling in which matches are contested between teams of multiple wrestlers. A tag team may be made up of wrestlers who wrestle in singles competition, but more are made of established teams who wrestle as a unit and have a team name and identity. In most team matches, only one competitor per team is allowed in the ring at a time; this status as the active or legal wrestler may be transferred by physical contact, most a palm-to-palm tag which resembles a high five. The team-based match has been a mainstay of professional wrestling since the mid-twentieth century, most promotions have sanctioned a championship division for tag teams. In 1901 the first tag team match was held in San Francisco. While tag team wrestling is now traditional in American professional wrestling, the innovation didn't become popular outside San Francisco until the 1930s; the first "World" tag team championship was crowned in San Francisco in the early 1950s. Tag matches with three-man teams were developed, in some territories, a championship division was instituted for these teams, but the concept failed to become popular.
A tag team championship is awarded to and defended by a team of two. However, during the 1970s and 1980s, a dominant trio in the NWA known as The Fabulous Freebirds won several regional tag team championship and were allowed to employ any combination of the group's members in their title defenses. In kayfabe, this made it difficult for challengers to prepare for their upcoming title fights since the challengers didn't know who they were facing; this is still utilized by other wrestling companies. The stipulation has become traditionally known as the "freebird rule". A common storyline is former tag team partners turning on each other, which will invariably ignite a feud; this can be used. The basic tag team match has two teams of two wrestlers facing off against each other. All standard rules for singles wrestling apply to a team match. However, only one wrestler from each team, called the "legal man" is allowed in the ring at a time. All other members of the team wait outside the ropes in the team's specified corner.
Only an active/legal wrestler have a fall scored against him/her. But any wrestler, legal or outside, may face disqualification for himself or his team for violating rules. Once a tag is made, the wrestler tagging out has a grace period to leave the ring before risking disqualification. Offensive cooperation from a team member is allowed during this time window; the wrestler outside the ring must be touching the tag rope tied in the corner. Tags are legal as long as the two team members touch; the referee has to see and/or hear the contact between the two wrestlers in order for the tag to be legal. As the ultimate authority over the match, a referee may overlook any of these at his discretion, during the frenzied action will be more lenient with them. In some multi-man tag matches in lucha libre, a wrestler can make himself the team's legal man by setting foot in the ring, his partner leaves; this allows for action to become nearly continuous. Two referees, one stationed inside the ring and one on the floor, are employed to maintain order for this type of match.
In independent discussion and analysis of matches, certain terms are used to describe specific scenarios involving tag team matches. These are timed to inject drama into a match. One spot common to many tag team match is the hot tag. One member of one team is in the ring, too weakened to move or otherwise impaired, while his partner watches helplessly, struggling to reach him for a tag; the tension builds as the legal man is unable to tag out until something happens that allows the first team to tag and reverse the momentum of the match in their favor. When done well, this results in a large audience reaction, was the typical climax of tag matches for decades. WWE employs this tactic in nearly every tag team match to the point that they fired a referee in 2008 after a botched finish that, while the match produced the intended finish, didn't feature a hot tag. A common variation on the hot tag sees both wrestlers from the heel team attacking a face, while his partner protests to the referee about this bending of the rules.
The weakened face wrestler does make the tag to his partner, who comes in as the fresh man and is able to take on both opponents quite easily. A blind tag is a legal tag made without the legal opponent's knowledge while his back is turned; this allows the team who uses it an opportunity to confuse the legal opponent, who turns to face what he assumes to be his opponent only to be attacked by the true legal man from behind. A tag team match involving more than two wrestlers per team is referred to by the total number of people involved, whil
Scott Levy is an American semi-retired professional wrestler and podcaster better known by his ring name, Raven. A journeyman, he is known for his appearances with professional wrestling promotions including Extreme Championship Wrestling, World Championship Wrestling, World Wrestling Federation/Entertainment and Total Nonstop Action Wrestling. Recognized as "one of the best talkers in wrestling", Raven is known for his "psychological heel tactics" and grunge-inspired gimmick, his feud with The Sandman in the mid-1990s has been described as "one of the most emotional rivalries in professional wrestling's history". Championships held by Raven over the course of his career include the ECW World Heavyweight Championship, ECW World Tag Team Championship, NWA World Heavyweight Championship, WCW Light Heavyweight Championship, WCW United States Heavyweight Championship, WCW World Tag Team Championship and WWF/E Hardcore Championship, he is recognized as the most decorated wrestler in the history of WWE with 36 separate title reigns under the WWE, WCW and ECW banners, including a record 27 reigns as WWF/E Hardcore Champion.
After graduating from the University of Delaware with a degree in criminal justice, Levy trained as a professional wrestler under Larry Sharpe at the Monster Factory in New Jersey, making his debut on February 20, 1988 against Jimmy Jack Funk. Early in his career, Levy competed for the World Wrestling Council in Puerto Rico as well as the Memphis, Tennessee-based promotion Continental Wrestling Association under the ring name "Scotty the Body", where he was given the gimmick of being the "boy toy" of Missy Hyatt, who used him to her and Eddie Gilbert's advantage. After leaving Memphis, Levy wrestled in Florida. Levy next traveled to Canada, where he competed for the Vancouver, British Columbia-based promotion All Star Wrestling before leaving due to differences with owner Al Tomko. From there, he returned to the United States, joining Pacific Northwest Wrestling in Portland, Oregon. Over the next three years, he was positioned as one of the main heels, winning all of the titles and feuding with Steve Doll.
His manager in PNW was Taylor Made. After taking a brief break from competing, he returned to PNW as a face and began a feud with The Grappler. In the summer of 1989, Levy made a number of appearances under a mask as "Matman", a Batman-inspired character who teamed with Beetlejuice. Wrestling as Scotty the Body, Levy made a one-off appearance on WWF Prime Time Wrestling in a losing effort against Koko B. Ware in October 1990. After leaving PNW, Levy joined the Dallas, Texas-based Global Wrestling Federation, where he adopted the ring name "Scott Anthony". Levy was part of the stable known as "The Cartel", along with Cactus Jack, Makhan Singh, Rip Rogers and Max Andrews. Levy served as a color commentator for GWF's televised broadcasts on ESPN alongside play-by-play commentators Craig Johnson and Scott Hudson. In 1992, Levy joined World Championship Wrestling, he was given the ring name "Scotty Flamingo" and the gimmick of a surfer from Florida carrying a surfboard to the ring. He was managed by J.
T. Southern. Levy competed in the WCW light heavyweight division, winning the WCW Light Heavyweight Championship from Brian Pillman on June 20, 1992 at Beach Blast, he held the title until July 1992, when he was defeated by Brad Armstrong. Levy went on to align himself with Diamond Dallas Page and Vinnie Vegas as a member of "The Diamond Mine". Levy would continue to feud with Pillman and Armstrong, before feuding with Johnny B. Badd. At Clash of the Champions XXI on November 18, 1992, Levy defeated Badd in a boxing match via knockout after Jeremy and Vegas surreptitiously weighted his boxing glove by soaking it in water. Levy left WCW in February 1993 after disagreements with booker Bill Watts. After leaving WCW, Levy wrestled for the United States Wrestling Association before joining the World Wrestling Federation as manager "Johnny Polo", a spoiled, rich preppy kid, he was placed with Adam Bomb, appearing for the first time on May 24 episode of WWF Raw. He managed Bomb for four months, he became the manager of The Quebecers in September, whom he led to three reigns as WWF Tag Team Champions.
In addition to managing, Polo occasionally appeared in tag-team and singles competition, facing Jim Powers, Rick Steiner, Marty Jannetty, Doink the Clown, 1-2-3 Kid, Owen Hart, Pierre Oullette. Polo worked as a color commentator and co-host of Radio WWF, behind the scenes worked as the associate producer for Monday Night Raw. Levy left the company in October 1994, his final match coming against Adam Bomb on October 2 in Auburn Hills, Michigan, his last appearance was at a house show in Montreal, Quebec on October 21 when he managed Pierre Oullette in a match against Jacques Rougeau. After leaving the WWF, Levy began developing a new character, "Raven". Inspired by the poem by Edgar Allan Poe and by Patrick Swayze's manipulative Zen master of crime in the film Point Break, the Raven character was a depressed, stoical, nihilistic misanthrope who would deliver eloquent, philosophical promos peppered with literary allusions and ending with the catchphrase, "Quoth the Raven'Nevermore'". Levy altered his appearance, bulking-up to 235 lbs, adding nose and eyebrow piercings and began wrestling in ragged jean shorts, a leather jacket, rock band or comic book t-shirts, combat boots and a flannel tied around his waist.
After unsuccessfully pitching the character to Jim Cornette, the owner of Smoky Mountain Wrestling, Raven approached Paul Heyman, the booker of the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania-based promotion Extreme Championship Wrestling
Battle royal (professional wrestling)
In professional wrestling, a battle royal is a multi-competitor match type in which wrestlers are eliminated until one is left and declared winner. Typical battle royals begin with a number of participants in the ring, who are eliminated by going over the top rope and having both feet touch the venue floor. A two-ring variation on a battle royal, the wrestlers start in one ring and try to throw wrestlers into the second ring, after which they can be eliminated by being thrown out of that ring; the last remaining wrestler in the first ring can rest until only one wrestler was left in the second ring, after which they fight in both rings until one is eliminated and a winner is declared, in similar fashion to a double elimination tournament. This was held by World Championship Wrestling at the 1991 Starrcade event, but future Battlebowl matches were contested under normal battle royal rules. Any number of men: One ring- Over the top rope elimination. Typical battle royal, except this one features tables covered with barbed wire and light bulbs on the outside of the ring, which may catch wrestlers as they are thrown out of the ring.
The National Wrestling Alliance's Bunkhouse Stampede involved wrestlers wearing what was described as "bunkhouse gear"—cowboy boots, jeans, T-shirts—instead of their normal wrestling tights and not only allowed but encouraged the bringing of weapons. In 1988 the NWA named a pay-per-view after the Bunkhouse Stampede, headlined by a Bunkhouse Stampede match held inside a cage. A WWE women's battle royal with the addition of fetish outfits, such as french maid, schoolgirl, etc; the type of outfit is chosen by an audience poll. A battle royal with hardcore rules involving several competitors in the ring at the same time; the match could last for either 20 minutes. All participants are not eliminated by being thrown out of the ring both feet touching the floor. Pinning or forcing to submit whomever was current Hardcore champion would result in the victorious participant becoming the interim champion. Whoever the person held the title at end of time limit would be declared the winner of the match and the official champion.
A Last Blood battle royal is a multi-competitor First Blood match. The winner is the last wrestler in the match not bleeding. Used in Total Nonstop Action Wrestling, a reverse battle royal begins with wrestlers surrounding the ring instead of inside it. At the start of the match they battle for half of them to get into the ring, at which point a standard last person standing wins the battle royal. Square Go! is Insane Championship Wrestling's own hybrid of WWE's Royal Rumble and Money in the Bank matches. The competitors will compete in a 30-man over-the-top-rope battle royal, the Square Go!, with the winner earning the Square Go Briefcase. It has the same rules apply as Royal Rumble, two competitors who draw the numbers 1 and 2; the remaining participants which will enter the ring one-by-one at every 2 minute intervals. 5 people have drawn entry numbers. Participants were eliminated; the winner will win a briefcase that will entitle him to a match for the ICW World Championship at any time and anywhere of their choosing for 1 year.
A variation of Battlebowl involves. The only way to be eliminated is to be thrown over the ropes. No matter how and where you hit, whether its apron, floor or barricade you are eliminated; when 25 wrestlers are left in each ring stage 2 begins. This 2nd stage is when all 25 wrestlers get into one ring and there is no elimination. After a 5-minute period, the match turns into a Battle Royal where elimination is gained by throwing your opponent over the ropes and to the floor; when 5 wrestlers remain stage 3 begins. This 3rd stage turns into a 5-Way match where pinfall and submission will eliminate an opponent; when 2 wrestlers are left, the match turns into a last man standing. Match will begin as the multi-women over-the-top elimination battle royal, they are eliminated from the match if they being thrown over the top ropes and both feet landing the floor until final two competitors are left. The final two competitors will face each other in a ladder match, where the winner will receive a TNA Knockout Championship match, while the runner-up will have her head and hair shaved.
A women's battle royal is one. This variant may allow women to be eliminated by being thrown through or under the ropes as well as over the top rope, although WWE's first official women's Royal Rumble match in 2018 used the same rules as the men's version. Created by World Championship Wrestling in 1995, the World War 3 battle royal involved a three-ring setup and 60 competitors. 20 wrestlers started in each of the 3 rings in which they would wrestle under regular battle royal rules. Once there were 30 competitors remaining, all competitors would enter the center ring and continue under regular rules until only one wrestler was left standing. In this version - unlike traditional battle royals where all the wrestlers begin the match in the ring - the competitors enter at timed intervals in accordance with the number that they have drawn until the entire field has entered. WWE's Royal Rumble is the original battle royal to use this format, it begins with two wrestlers in the ring, with the remaining participants introduced one by one at a set time period 90 seconds or two minutes.
Elimination occurs in the normal wa
Gilbert Cosme is a Puerto Rican professional wrestler, better known by his ring names El Mesías, Mil Muertes, Ricky Banderas. He began his career in the International Wrestling Association based in Puerto Rico. While performing in the company, he won the IWA World Heavyweight Championship on five instances and held minor championships on fifteen separate occasions, before leaving the company in 2006. On March 12, 2006, he debuted in Lucha Libre AAA Worldwide, a promotion based in Mexico, as a character named Muerte Cibernetica and was involved in an angle where this character was "killed". In November 2006, Cosme was involved in the tapings of the Wrestling Society X television series, where he was the second and last wrestler to win the WSX Championship. Following a month of performing in the International Wrestling Association, Cosme returned to AAA in a special event presented by the company, this time under the ring name of El Mesías. In September 2007, the company organized a unification tournament where all of the champions and first contenders participated.
Over the course of the tournament, he won the GPCW Super-X Monster Championship and IWC World Heavyweight Championship, on the tournament's finale, he became the first wrestler to win the AAA Mega Championship. While working in Mexico, Cosme signed a contract with Total Nonstop Action Wrestling where he debuted as Judas Mesias on September 13, 2007. In March 2008 his association with TNA came to an end and he focused most of his time on AAA. In 2010 Cosme debuted for Puerto Rican World Wrestling Council, where he won the Universal Heavyweight Championship, he wrestles in Lucha Underground under the ring name Mil Muertes. Outside of his work within these promotions, Cosme has represented Puerto Rico as a member of Team Rest of the World in the 2015 Lucha Libre World Cup and as the captain of Team International in the 2013 World Cup of Wrestling. Cosme began wrestling training in 1996. During this time he was enrolled in the Interamerican University of Puerto Rico located in Bayamón, his major concentration was in computer technology, after completing two years of study, he decided to begin wrestling as a profession after meeting Victor Quiñones in the gym.
In 1997, after working in the independent circuit he moved to Mexico and performed there, became involved in a project to develop Hispanic talent organized by the World Wrestling Federation. Cosme subsequently debuted in the International Wrestling Association in 1999, he was given the gimmick of "El Patriota" Ricky Banderas, a name that, according to Cosme, was created by fusing the artistic names of Latin musician Ricky Martín and actor Antonio Banderas. He debuted in Extreme Championship Wrestling on that year. Following a period of teaming with Los Boricuas, his character was teamed with Germán Figueroa who wrestled as Gran Apolo, formed a tag team dubbed La Nueva Generacion, which won the IWA Tag Team Championship three times. On August 21, 2000, in a show in Levittown, Puerto Rico, Cosme's character turned on Gran Apolo. Following this, he joined the company's dominant heel stable, Los Intocables, along with Miguel Pérez and Jesús Castillo. After the stable's dissolution, he was involved in another stable named Starr Corporation, where after Cosme's insistence his character became darker and was renamed "El Mesías" Ricky Banderas.
Following this, he was teamed up with Shane Sewell in a stable known as Los Hermanos en Dolor. In 2001, Cosme performed in a tryout match for the World Wrestling Federation and Frontier Martial-Arts Wrestling's 12th Anniversary Show pay-per-view event, he won the IWA heavyweight title for a third time on June 15, 2002, remained champion until Ray González debuted with the company as "Rey Fénix", in a match that he describes as the best match he had wrestled at the moment. Cosme's gimmick underwent another change when it joined then-dominant heel stable "La Compañía" led by Savio Vega; this was followed by his fourth title run after he defeated Gran Apolo on January 6, 2003. He was booked as a heel until October 2003, when Vega's group turned on him. Following this, he feuded with Christopher Kindred under his "Slash Venom" gimmick, which peaked when Vampiro was brought by the company to form a stable which feuded with Gran Apolo and Venom. In 2004, he feuded with Kasey James, El Diamante and Bison.
In 2005, he turned heel again, this time leading a stable known as La Cruz del Diablo which feuded with other groups led by Savio Vega and Ray Gonzalez. Following an angle where he feuded over a number one contender spot, Cosme departed from the company and signed a contract to wrestle in Mexico. Subsequently, he continued making sporadic appearances for the company, including a brief stay in 2007. On July 19, 2009, Cosme was booked to defeat Dennis Rivera in the promotion's tenth anniversary event. Following the culmination of his contract with the International Wrestling Association, Cosme signed a contract with Lucha Libre AAA Worldwide, he debuted on March 12, 2006, as "Muerte Cibernética" a rudo enforcer brought to the company by Cibernético to feud with "La Parka". This gimmick consisted of Cosme wearing a traditional Mexican wrestling mask a modified version of the one used by La Parka; this character was placed in a feud with La Parka. This angle came to a conclusion at Triplemania XIV, where Cosme's character was booked to lose a Mask vs. Mask match.
Following a legitimate injury suffered by Cibernético, Cosme's gimmick was changed, launching into an angle where he pursued the leadership of Cibernético's stable, which went by the name of La Secta Cibernetica. The character was booked to be the leader of
Lucha libre is the term used in Mexico for professional wrestling. Since its introduction to Mexico in the early 20th century, it has developed into a unique form of the genre, characterized by colorful masks, rapid sequences of holds and maneuvers, as well as "high-flying" maneuvers, some of which have been adopted in the United States and elsewhere; the wearing of masks has developed special significance, matches are sometimes contested in which the loser must permanently remove his mask, a wager with a high degree of weight attached. Tag team wrestling is prevalent in lucha libre matches with three-member teams, called trios. Although the term today refers to professional wrestling, it was used in the same style as the American and English term "freestyle wrestling", referring to an amateur wrestling style without the restrictions of Greco-Roman wrestling. Lucha libre wrestlers are known as luchadores, they come from extended wrestling families who form their own stables. One such line integrated to the United States professional wrestling scene is Los Guerreros.
Lucha libre has become a loanword in English, as evidenced by works such as Los Luchadores, ¡Mucha Lucha!, Lucha Mexico and Nacho Libre. Lucha libre appears in other pop culture such as mainstream advertising: in Canada, Telus' Koodo Mobile Post Paid cell service uses a cartoon lucha libre wrestler as its spokesperson/mascot; the rules of lucha libre are similar to American singles matches. Matches can be won by pinning the opponent to the mat for the count of three, making him submit, knocking him out of the ring for a predetermined count or by disqualification. Using the ropes for leverage is illegal, once a luchador is on the ropes, his opponent must release any holds and he will not be able to pin him. Disqualifications occur when an opponent uses an illegal hold, move, or weapon, hits his opponent in the groin, uses outside interference, attacks the referee, or rips his opponent's mask off. Most matches are two out of three falls, abandoned for title bouts in North America and Japan in the 1970s.
A rule unique to lucha libre applies during tag team matches, when the legal wrestler of a team touches the floor outside the ring, a teammate may enter the ring to take his place as the legal competitor. As the legal wrestler can step to the floor willingly, there is no need for an actual tag to a teammate to bring him into a match; this allows for much more frenetic action to take place in the ring than would otherwise be possible under standard tag rules. The history of Mexican wrestling dates back to 1863, during the French Intervention in Mexico, Enrique Ugartechea, the first Mexican wrestler and invented the Mexican lucha libre from the Greco-Roman wrestling. In the early 1900s, professional wrestling was a regional phenomenon in Mexico until Salvador Lutteroth founded the Empresa Mexicana de Lucha Libre in 1933, giving the sport a national foothold for the first time; the promotion company flourished and became the premier spot for wrestlers. As television surfaced as a viable entertainment medium during the 1950s, Lutteroth was able to broadcast his wrestling across the nation, subsequently yielding a popularity explosion for the sport.
Moreover, it was the emergence of television that allowed Lutteroth to promote lucha libre’s first breakout superstar into a national pop-culture phenomenon. In 1942, lucha libre would be forever changed when a silver-masked wrestler, known as El Santo, first stepped into the ring, he made his debut in Mexico City by winning an 8-man battle royal. The public became enamored by the mystique and secrecy of Santo's personality, he became the most popular luchador in Mexico, his wrestling career spanned nearly five decades, during which he became a folk hero and a symbol of justice for the common man through his appearances in comic books and movies, while the sport received an unparalleled degree of mainstream attention. Other legendary luchadores who helped popularize the sport include Gory Guerrero, credited with developing moves and holds which are now commonplace in professional wrestling, he achieved international fame as one of the first high-flyers, something he was not considered in Mexico, where he fell under the mat-power category.
Luchadores are traditionally more agile and perform more aerial maneuvers than professional wrestlers in the United States, who more rely on power and hard strikes to subdue their opponents. The difference in styles is due to the independent evolution of the sport in Mexico beginning in the 1930s and the fact that luchadores in the cruiserweight division are the most popular wrestlers in Mexican lucha libre. Luchadores execute characteristic high flying attacks by using the wrestling ring's ropes to catapult themselves towards their opponents, using intricate combinations in rapid-fire succession, applying complex submission holds. Rings used in lucha libre lack the spring supports added to U. S. and Japanese rings.