Occitanie or Occitania is an administrative region of France, created on January 1, 2016 from the former French regions of Languedoc-Roussillon and Midi-Pyrénées. France's Conseil d'État approved Occitanie as the new name of the region on September 28, 2016, coming into effect on September 30, 2016; the modern administrative region is named after the cultural and historical region of Occitania, which covers a larger area. The region as it is today covers a territory similar to that ruled by the Counts of Toulouse in the 12th and 13th centuries; the banner of arms of the Counts of Toulouse, known colloquially as the Occitan cross, is used by the modern region and is a popular cultural symbol. The new region covers an area of more than 72,724 km2, has a population of 5,626,858, it borders Nouvelle-Aquitaine, Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur and Spain Enacted in 2014, the territorial reform of the French regions had been subject to debate for many years. The reform law used as the new region's provisional name the hyphenated names of its predecessors: Languedoc-Roussillon and Midi-Pyrénées, in alphabetical order.
As for most of the merged regions, a permanent name was proposed by the new regional council to replace that provisional name. On June 24, 2016, the regional assembly of Languedoc-Roussillon-Midi-Pyrénées adopted the name Occitanie after lengthy public consultation; the provisional name of the region was withdrawn on September 30, 2016, when the new name took effect. Occitanie, the new name, derives from the historical appellation of the broader region, refers to the historical use throughout that territory of the Occitan language and its various dialects, which are so named for the word òc, the equivalent of "yes"; the c. 450,000 French Catalans living in the region expressed dismay at the regional assembly resolution, regarding the new name as ignoring their presence. On September 10, 2016, some 10,000 people demonstrated in Perpignan, demanding that the merged region name contain the words Pays Catalan. Toulouse Montpellier Nîmes Perpignan Béziers Montauban Albi The new administrative region includes provinces and territories of diverse cultural and historical origin: Languedoc, Països Catalans, the County of Foix, the eastern parts of what was Gascony, Guiana.
During the Ancien Régime, most of these territories lay within the jurisdiction of the Parlement of Toulouse, founded in 1443. Occitania is a historical region of southwestern Europe in which Occitan was the main vernacular language; this territory was united, in Roman times first as the Diocese of Vienne and as the Seven Provinces ), in Aquitaine at the beginning of the Middle Ages, before the Frankish conquest. Occitania is characterized by "the Occitan culture", since the Middle Ages another expression of Romance culture in France and to a lesser extent in Italy and Monaco, it is presented and recognized on institutional sites of French communities, such as those of the Lot-et-Garonne County Council and the city of Agen. Most of the territory that came to be called Languedoc became attached to the Kingdom of France in the 13th century, following the Albigensian Crusade; this crusade aimed to put an end to what the Church considered the Cathar heresy, enabled the Capetian dynasty to extend its influence south of the Loire.
As part of this process, the former principalities of Trencavel were integrated into the Royal French Domain in 1224. The Counts of Toulouse followed them in 1271; the remaining feudal enclaves were absorbed progressively up to the beginning of the 16th century. The territory falling within the jurisdiction of the Estates of Languedoc, which convened for the first time in 1346, shrank progressively, becoming known during the Ancien Régime as the province of Languedoc; the year 1359 marked a turning point in the history of the province. The three bailiwicks of Bèucaire and Tolosa had the status of bonnes villes. In that year, the three entered into a perpetual union, after which their contribution of royal officers was summoned jointly rather than separately for each of the three sénéchaussées. Towards the end of 14th century, the term "country of the three seneschalties" to become known as Languedoc, designated the two bailiwicks of Bèucaire-Nimes and Carcassona, the eastern part of Tolosa, retained under the Treaty of Brétigny.
At that time, the County of Foix, which belonged to the seneschal of Carcassona until 1333 before passing to Toulouse, ceased to belong to Languedoc. In 1542, the province was divided into two généralités: Toulouse for Haut-Languedoc, Montpellier for Bas-Languedoc; this lasted until the French Revolution in 1789. From the 17th century onward, there was only one intendance for th
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Auterive is a commune in the Haute-Garonne department in southwestern France. Communes of the Haute-Garonne department INSEE
Auzielle is a commune in the Haute-Garonne department in southwestern France. Its inhabitants are called Auziellois. Communes of the Haute-Garonne department INSEE
Auriac-sur-Vendinelle is a commune in the Haute-Garonne department in southwestern France. Communes of the Haute-Garonne department INSEE