Long Branch, New Jersey
Long Branch is a beachside city in Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population was 30,719, reflecting a decline of 621 from the 31,340 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 2,682 from the 28,658 counted in the 1990 Census. Long Branch was formed on April 11, 1867, as the Long Branch Commission, from portions of Ocean Township. Long Branch was incorporated as a city by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on April 8, 1903, based on the results of a referendum, replacing the Long Branch Commission. Long Branch was a beach resort town in the late 18th century, named for its location along a branch of the South Shrewsbury River. In the 19th century, theatrical performers of the day gathered and performed there, it was visited by presidents Chester A. Arthur, James A. Garfield, Ulysses S. Grant, Benjamin Harrison, Rutherford B. Hayes, William McKinley, Woodrow Wilson. Seven Presidents Park, a park near the beach, is named in honor of their visits.
The Church of the Presidents, where all seven worshiped, is the only structure left in Long Branch associated with them. President Garfield was brought to Long Branch in the hope that the fresh air and quiet might aid his recovery after being shot on July 2, 1881, an incident that left the assassin's bullet lodged in his spine, he died here on September 19, 1881 two months before his 50th birthday. The Garfield Tea House, constructed from railroad ties, laid to carry Garfield's train, is in Elberon; the famous Long Branch Saloon of the American Old West, located in Dodge City, was given its name by its first owner, William Harris, who had moved west from Long Branch, New Jersey, his hometown. A resort town with a few hotels and large estates and many farms in the early 20th century, Long Branch grew in population. Italian and Jewish immigrants settled in during this period. During the 1930s, the city used government policies to enforce racial segregation against Blacks at local beaches, assigning all black applicants for beach passes to a single, segregated beach.
By the 1950s, Long Branch like many other towns had developed new residential spots and housing to make room for the growing population. Many of the former farms of Long Branch were transformed into residential suburbs. Many of the estates and a few old historic resorts still remain. In the early 20th century, Long Branch lost much of its activity as a theater spot. In addition, the opening of the Garden State Parkway in the mid-1950s allowed shore visitors to access points further south, which added to Long Branch's decline; the civil unrest of the 1960s caused riots in neighboring Asbury Park, many fled the shore cities for the suburban towns west of the beach. Decades the older, more dilapidated parts of the resort town were condemned and redeveloped, in part by using eminent domain legislation. Long Branch still continues to be a popular resort area. Many people from New York City travel or settle into the area to escape the crowded city and enjoy Long Branch's beaches; the area attracts some tourists from the Philadelphia area as well.
On October 29, 2012, Long Branch was one of many shore communities that were devastated by Hurricane Sandy. Although Sandy's winds were powerful, Long Branch's position between Long Beach Island and Sea Bright gave Long Branch a much larger wall of security because it could not be engulfed by surrounding waters. Despite this mainland advantage, there were still several instances of flooding in Long Branch during the storm. Many residents went without electricity for as long as two weeks; the boardwalk was destroyed. Long Branch takes its name from south branch of the Shrewsbury River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 6.283 square miles, including 5.274 square miles of land and 1.009 square miles of water. The city borders the Monmouth County communities of Deal, Monmouth Beach, Ocean Township and West Long Branch. There are several distinct neighborhoods and areas in the City of Long Branch, each with its own character. Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the city include Branchport, East Long Branch, Hollywood, Kensington Park, North Long Branch, Pleasure Bay and West End.
Other areas include North End, Beachfront North and South and Uptown. As the city's redevelopment initiatives continue to expand, the lower Broadway area will become an Arts District. In years past, Long Branch was a major destination for beachgoers, along with Asbury Park, enjoyed an upscale connotation with tourists. Long Branch is home to Seven Presidents Oceanfront Park, named for the United States presidents who visited the fashionable resort town, including Ulysses S. Grant, Chester A. Arthur, Rutherford Hayes, Benjamin Harrison, William McKinley, Woodrow Wilson and James Garfield. Long Branch's fame as the Nation's First Seaside Resort waned in the years following World War II; the defining moment marking the end of this era occurred on June 8, 1987 when the largest fire in the history of the city destroyed the landmark amusement pier and adjoining Haunted Mansion, "Kid's World" Amusement Park and other businesses. Broadway Center is a planned entertainment and commercial hub of Long Branch, as envisioned by the City Government and Thompson Design Group, w
New Jersey General Assembly
The New Jersey General Assembly is the lower house of the New Jersey Legislature. Since the election of 1967, the Assembly has consisted of 80 members. Two members are elected from each of New Jersey's 40 legislative districts for a term of two years, each representing districts with average populations of 210,359. To be eligible to run, a potential candidate must be at least 21 years of age, must have lived in their district for at least one year prior to the election, have lived in the state of New Jersey for two years, they must be residents of their districts. Membership in the Assembly is considered a part-time job, many members have employment in addition to their legislative work. Assembly members serve two-year terms, elected every odd-numbered year in November. Several members of the Assembly hold other elective office, as they are grandfathered in under a New Jersey law that banned multiple office holding in 2007; the Assembly is led by the Speaker of the Assembly, elected by the membership of the chamber.
After the Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey and the President of the New Jersey Senate, the Speaker of the Assembly is third in the line of succession to replace the Governor of New Jersey in the event that he or she is unable to execute the duties of that office. The Speaker decides the schedule for the Assembly, which bills will be considered, appoints committee chairmen, runs the Assembly's agenda; the current Speaker is Craig Coughlin. Members of the NJ General Assembly receive an annual base salary of $49,000 with the Senate President and the Assembly Speaker earning more. Members receive $110,000 for staff salaries. In addition, they receive stationery and a telephone card, they receive other benefits. The total cost to the State of New Jersey for each member of the general assembly is $200,000 annually. See: New Jersey Legislature#Colonial period and New Jersey Legislative Council#Composition Committee chairs for the 2018-2019 Legislative Session are: Agriculture and Natural Resources - Asm.
Bob Andrzejczak Appropriations - Asm. John Burzichelli Budget - Aswm. Eliana Pintor Marin Commerce and Economic Development - Asm. Gordon M. Johnson Consumer Affairs - Asm. Paul Moriarty Education - Asw. Pamela R. Lampitt Environment and Solid Waste - Asw. Nancy Pinkin Financial Institutions and Insurance - Asm. John F. McKeon Health and Senior Services - Asm. Herb Conaway, MD Higher Education - Asw. Mila Jasey Homeland Security and State Preparedness - Asw. Valerie Vainieri Huttle Housing and Community Development - Asm. Jerry Green Human Services - Asw. Joann Downey Judiciary - Asw. Annette Quijano Labor - Asm. Joseph Egan Law and Public Safety - Asm. Adam Taliaferro Military and Veterans' Affairs - Asw. Cleopatra Tucker Oversight and Federal Relations - Asm. Joseph Danielsen Regulated Professions - Asm. Thomas Giblin Regulatory Oversight - Asm. Reed Gusciora Science and Technology - Asm. Andrew Zwicker State and Local Government - Asm. Vincent Mazzeo Telecommunications and Utilities - Asm. Wayne DeAngelo Tourism and the Arts - Asm.
Ralph Caputo Transportation and Independent Authorities - Asm. Daniel R. Benson Women and Children - Asw. Gabriela Mosquera Note: The first three subsections below end with a constitutional year: 1776, 1844 or 1947; the fourth subsection ends in 1966, the year of the U. S. Supreme Court decision that required legislative apportionment based on the principle of "one person, one vote"; the following is a list of Speakers of the Assembly since 1703. On December 6, 1775, Gov. William Franklin prorogued the New Jersey Legislature until January 3, 1776, but it never met again. On May 30, 1776, Franklin attempted to convene the legislature, but was met instead with an order by the New Jersey Provincial Congress for his arrest. On July 2, 1776, the Provincial Congress approved a new constitution; the Constitution of 1844 expanded the General Assembly to 60 members, elected annually and apportioned to the then-nineteen counties by population. Category:Members of the New Jersey General Assembly New Jersey State Constitution New Jersey Legislature official website Assembly Democrats official website Assembly Republicans official website New Jersey section of Project Vote Smart a national database of voting records and other information about legislators
Red Bank, New Jersey
Red Bank is a borough in Monmouth County, New Jersey, incorporated in 1908 and located on the Navesink River, the area's original transportation route to the ocean and other ports. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough had a population of 12,206, reflecting an increase of 362 from the 11,844 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 1,208 from the 10,636 counted in the 1990 Census. Red Bank was formed as a town on March 17, 1870, from portions of Shrewsbury Township. On February 14, 1879, Red Bank became Shrewsbury City, a portion of Shrewsbury Township, but this only lasted until May 15, 1879, when Red Bank regained its independence. On March 10, 1908, Red Bank was formed as a borough by an act of the New Jersey Legislature and was set off from Shrewsbury Township; the borough was named for the red soil along the Navesink River. Occupied by indigenous peoples for thousands of years, in historic times the area of modern-day Red Bank was the territory of the Algonquian-speaking Lenape Native Americans called the Delaware by the English.
The Lenape lived in the area between the Navesink River and the Shrewsbury River in an area that they called Navarumsunk. The Native Americans traded with European settlers from England and the Dutch Republic in the mid-17th century, who purchased land in the area. Part of "Shrewsbury Towne", Red Bank was named in 1736, when Thomas Morford sold Joseph French "a lot of over three acres on the west side of the highway that goes to the red bank." Red Bank was settled by English colonists beginning in the 17th century and became a center for shipbuilding. Its population grew after 1809, when scheduled passenger ships were established to serve the route to Manhattan. By 1844, Red Bank had become a commercial and manufacturing center, focused on textiles, tanning and other goods for sale in Manhattan. With the dredging of the Navesink River about 1845, Red Bank became a port from which steamboats transported commuters to work in Manhattan. Red Bank grew in size as a result of this, as well as the effects of construction of a railway in the town by the Raritan and Delaware Bay Railroad in 1860.
During the 20th century, Red Bank was a strong cultural and political center in Monmouth County, until it was hindered by the economic recession that began in 1987. During this time, Red Bank's economy, based on retail commerce, was in decline, due to a real estate scandal. Local pundits and urban planners referred to the town as "Dead Bank". Beginning in 1991, under the New Jersey Development and Redevelopment Law, the borough authorized the creation of the Red Bank RiverCenter to manage redevelopment in what was designated as a special improvement district. RiverCenter retains authority over the management and redevelopment of a defined central business district, which includes Broad Street from the post office to Marine Park and from Maple Avenue to one block east of Broad Street. A number of urban redevelopment projects have taken place, including improved signage and pedestrian-friendly sidewalks and lighting, a coherent design plan for Main Street and other major thoroughfares, improved condition of parking lots with landscaping, similar projects.
The district as proposed was larger, to include the commercial areas west of Maple Avenue, including the antique buildings, The Galleria, Shrewsbury Avenue. But, some property owners in this area were opposed to paying the special assessment. Plans for the larger district advanced; the proposed district was amended to exclude opponents, the district, adopted stops at Maple Avenue. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had a total area of 2.162 square miles, including 1.739 square miles of land and 0.423 square miles of water. Red Bank is located on the southern bank of the Navesink River, in northern Monmouth County, New Jersey, it is about 24 miles due south of the tip of Manhattan and about 25 nautical miles to the tip of Manhattan if traveling by water along the Navesink River and through Raritan Bay. Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the borough include Newmans Corner. Red Bank is bordered by the Monmouth County municipalities of Middletown Township and the boroughs of Tinton Falls, Fair Haven and Little Silver.
Red Bank has a humid subtropical climate, bordering a humid continental climate. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 12,206 people, 4,929 households, 2,469.429 families residing in the borough. The population density was 7,019.1 per square mile. There were 5,381 housing units at an average density of 3,094.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 63.20% White, 12.42% Black or African American, 0.97% Native American, 1.85% Asian, 0.11% Pacific Islander, 18.56% from other races, 2.90% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 34.39% of the population. There were 4,929 households out of which 23.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.8% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 49.9% were non-families. 40.1% of all households were made up of individuals, 12.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.29.
In the borough, the population was spread out with 20.4% under the age of 18, 9.3% from 18 to 24, 34.6% from 25 to 44, 23.0% from 45 to 64, 12.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.2 years. For every 100 females there were
Eric Houghtaling is an American Democratic politician representing the 11th Legislative District in the New Jersey General Assembly, which covers portions of Monmouth County. Prior to his election to the Assembly, Houghtaling served as an elected official in Neptune Township, New Jersey. Houghtaling was born in New Jersey, he is a resident of Neptune. Houghtaling works as an electrician and member of the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers. Houghtaling and his wife, have three children and seven grandchildren. Houghtaling served on the Neptune Township Committee from 2011 to 2015, became Mayor of Neptune Township, New Jersey in 2013. Houghtaling was elected to the General Assembly alongside running mate Joann Downey in November 2015, defeating Mary Pat Angelini and Caroline Casagrande. Houghtaling and Downey's victory was considered to be an unexpected upset. Houghtaling was sworn into office on January 12, 2016. Houghtaling has worked to increase public awareness of Pancreatic Cancer and introduced legislation, signed into law, designating November as Pancreatic Cancer Awareness Month in New Jersey.
In July 2018 Houghtaling and fellow Assemblywoman Joann Downey accused fellow Assemblywoman Serena DiMaso of violating the Truth-In-Caller ID while sending out robocalls. Agriculture and Natural Resources Oversight and Federal Relations Labor Telecommunications and Utilities Each of the 40 districts in the New Jersey Legislature has one representative in the New Jersey Senate and two members in the New Jersey General Assembly; the representatives from the 11th District for the 2018-2019 Legislative Session are: Senator Vin Gopal, Assemblyman Eric Houghtaling, Assemblywoman Joann Downey
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
Nia H. Gill is an American Democratic Party politician, serving in the New Jersey State Senate since 2002, where she represents the 34th Legislative District, she ran unsuccessfully as a candidate in the June 2012 primary election to fill the seat in Congress left vacant by the death of Donald M. Payne, the former U. S. Representative for New Jersey's 10th congressional district. Gill was the State Senate President pro Tempore from 2010 to 2018, succeeded by M. Teresa Ruiz. Gill received a B. A. in History/Political History from Upsala College and was awarded a J. D. from the Rutgers University School of Law. Before her legislative career, she served as a law clerk for Essex County Superior Court Judge Harry Hazelwood, Jr. and as a public defender in Essex and Passaic counties. She is an attorney with the firm of Gill & Cohen, P. C. together with former Assembly member Neil M. Cohen of the 20th Legislative District. Before her service as State Senator, Gill served in the lower house of the New Jersey Legislature, the General Assembly, from 1994 to 2001, where she was Minority Whip from 1996 to 2001.
She served in the Assembly on the Speaker's Education Funding Task Force and on several committees including, the Assembly Democratic Senior Citizen Task Force and the Assembly Advisory Committee on the Arts and Humanities. Gill became a candidate for State Senate in District 34 after some of the municipalities she had represented in the Assembly were shifted into the district. Most of the communities added to District 34, which at the time was a Republican stronghold and had been for nearly two decades prior, were Democratic and contributed to Gill's landslide victory over first-time incumbent Norman M. Robertson. In the 2003 primaries, LeRoy J. Jones, Jr. was given the party line opposing Gill. Despite being outspent by Jones in the Democratic district, Gill won with 55% of the vote. Senator Gill has been re-elected twice, winning elections in 2003 and 2007. Gill, along with the other 39 state senators, was required to run for her seat after two years due to the election cycle set forth in the New Jersey Constitution requiring a two-year Senate term after decennial redistricting.
Gill serves in the Senate on the Commerce Committee, the Legislative Oversight Committee, the Legislative Services Commission and the Judiciary Committee. She has served as the Senate President Pro-Tempore since January 12, 2010. Gill is a sponsor of the measure signed into law to criminalize the deprivation of civil rights by public officials, making racial profiling a state crime, she has sponsored the New Jersey Civil Rights Act, which would give individuals a remedy whenever one person deprives another person of any rights, privileges or immunities or interferes with another's civil rights. Additionally, she sponsored a resolution to formally rescind an 1868 effort by the New Jersey Legislature to withdraw New Jersey's support for the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution and its due process and equal protection provisions. Gill sponsored legislation that provides a $3,000 income tax deduction for certain families providing home care for an elderly relative, legislation that abolishes the death penalty in New Jersey, has sponsored legislation allowing PAAD recipients freedom of choice in selecting a pharmacy and prohibits the imposition of a mail order system.
The Senator sponsored legislation that establishes a central registry of domestic violence orders for use in evaluating firearm permit applications, sponsored legislation to upgrade crimes of the third degree. In addition, Senator Gill is the first African American and the first woman in the history of New Jersey named to serve on the powerful Senate Judiciary Committee. Gill is recognized as being one of the leading abortion rights advocates in New Jersey politics. One significant example is her opposition to the override of then-Governor Christie Whitman's veto of the New Jersey Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 1997 in the New Jersey Assembly. On June 4, 2007, Governor Corzine announced and filed his intent to nominate Stuart Rabner to be the next Chief Justice of the New Jersey Supreme Court, replacing James R. Zazzali, nearing mandatory retirement age. Prior to the formal nomination, two members of the New Jersey Senate from Essex County, where Rabner resides, were said to be blocking consideration of his confirmation by invoking "senatorial courtesy", a Senate tradition that allows home county legislators to intercede to prevent consideration of a local nominee.
On June 14, 2007, Governor Corzine nominated Rabner for the post. State Senator Ronald Rice withdrew his objections to Rabner's nomination on June 15, 2007, after a meeting with the governor. Fellow Senator Gill dropped her efforts to block Rabner's confirmation on June 19, 2007, after meeting with Rabner. While she did not respond to initial media requests to explain the nature of her concerns, anonymous lawmakers cited in The New York Times indicated that the objection was due to Rabner's lack of bench experience and Governor Corzine's failure to consider a minority candidate for the post. At the conclusion of confirmation hearings, the Senate voted on June 21, 2007, to confirm Rabner as Chief Justice by a 36-1 margin, with Gill casting the lone dissenting vote, citing Rabner's lack of judicial experience and the fact that he had never argued a case in New Jersey's courts. Anne Milgram was confirmed by a 37-1 Senate vote to succeed Rabner as Attorney General; each of the 40 districts in the New Jersey Legislature has one representative in the New Jersey Senate and two members in the New Jersey General Assembly.
The other representatives from the 34th District for the 2018-2019 Legislative Session are: Assemblyman Tho
Indian Americans or Indo-Americans are Americans whose ancestry belongs to any of the many ethnic groups of the Republic of India. The U. S. Census Bureau uses the term Asian Indian to avoid confusion with the indigenous peoples of the Americas referred to as American Indians. In the Americas the term "Indian" has been most used to refer to the indigenous people of the continents after European colonization in the 15th century. Qualifying terms such as "American Indian" and "East Indian" were and are used to avoid ambiguity; the U. S. government has since coined the term "Native American" to refer to the indigenous peoples of the United States, but terms such as "American Indian" remain popular among both indigenous and non-indigenous populations. Since the 1980s, Indian Americans have been categorized as "Asian Indian" by the United States Census Bureau. While "East Indian" remains in use, the term "South Asian" is chosen instead for academic and governmental purposes. Indian Americans are a subgroup of South Asian Americans, a census group that includes Bangladeshi Americans, Bhutanese Americans, Nepalese Americans, Pakistani Americans, Burmese Americans, Sri Lankan Americans, etc.
Beginning in the 1600's the East India Company begins bringing indentured Indian servants to American colonies. In 1680, due to anti-miscegenation laws, a mixed-race girl born to an Indian father and an Irish mother is classified as'mulatto' and sold into slavery; the Naturalization Act of 1790 made Asians ineligible for citizenship, with citizenship limited to whites only. First significant wave of Indian immigrants enter America, with more than two thousand Indian Sikhs living in the United States in California, by the end of the century, they find work on farms and on lumber mills in the states of California and Washington. Many Punjabi Sikhs settle in California, around the Yuba City area, forming close ties with Mexican Americans; the presence of Indian-Americans helped develop interest in Eastern religions in the US and would result in its influence on American philosophies such as Transcendentalism. Swami Vivekananda arriving in Chicago at the World's Fair led to the establishment of the Vedanta Society.
Bhicaji Balsara became the first known Indian-born person to gain naturalized U. S. citizenship. As a Parsi, he was considered a'pure member of the Persian sect' and therefore a free white person; the judge Emile Henry Lacombe, of the Southern District of New York, only gave Balsara citizenship on the hope that the United States attorney would indeed challenge his decision and appeal it to create “an authoritative interpretation” of the law. The U. S. attorney adhered to Lacombe’s wishes and took the matter to the Circuit Court of Appeals in 1910. The Circuit Court of Appeal agreed that Parsees belong to the white race and were "as distinct from Hindus as are the English who dwell in India”. Prior to 1965, Indian immigration to the U. S. was isolated, with fewer than fifty thousand Indian immigrants in the country. The Bellingham riots in Bellingham, Washington on September 5, 1907 epitomized the low tolerance in the U. S. for Indians and Sikhs who were called hindoos by locals. While anti-Asian racism was embedded in U.
S. politics and culture in the early 20th century, Indians were racialized for their anticolonialism, with U. S. officials, casting them as a "Hindu" menace, pushing for Western imperial expansion abroad. Although labeled Hindu, the majority of Indians were Sikh. In the 1923 case, United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind, the Supreme Court ruled that Punjabis were not "white persons" and were therefore racially ineligible for naturalized citizenship; the Court argued that the racial difference between Indians and whites was so great that the "great body of our people" would reject assimilation with Indians. After the Luce–Celler Act of 1946 a quota of 100 Indians per year were permitted to immigrate to the U. S. and become citizens. The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 opened entry to the U. S. to immigrants other than traditional Northern European groups, which would alter the demographic mix in the U. S. Not all Indian Americans came directly from India. S. via Indian communities in other countries, including the United Kingdom, the Asia-Pacific region, the Caribbean.
According to the 2010 United States Census, the Asian Indian population in the United States grew from 1,678,765 in 2000 to 2,843,391 in 2010, a growth rate of 69.37%, one of the fastest growing ethnic groups in the United States. The New York-Newark-Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA Combined Statistical Area, consisting of New York City, Long Island, adjacent areas within New York, as well as nearby areas within the states of New Jersey and including Pike County, was home to an estimated 711,174 uniracial Indian Americans as of the 2017 American Community Survey by the U. S. Census Bureau, comprising by far the largest Indian American population of any metropolitan area in the United States. Monroe Township, Middlesex County, in central New Jersey, the geographic heart of the Northeast megalopolis, has displayed one of the fastest growth rates of its Indian population in the Western Hemisphere, increasing from 25