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Denis Auguste DuchĂȘne

Denis Auguste Duchene was a French World War I general. He was born on 23 September 1862 at Juzennecourt, Haute-Marne and died on 9 June 1950 at Bihorel, Seine-Inférieure, he was promoted General de Brigade on 27 October 1914 acting General de Division on 12 March 1915 with the rank confirmed on 28 September 1916. He commanded the French Tenth Army between December 1916 and December 1917. Duchêne is best known for his command of the French Sixth Army from December 1917 to June 1918. During the Third Battle of the Aisne, Duchêne's group held the high ground of the Chemin des Dames. However, he was contemptuous of General Philippe Petain's order to maintain a defence in depth, preferring instead to consolidate his troops in the front line; when the Germans attacked in late May 1918, his line crossed the river Aisne. The German armies poured through, taking 19 kilometres in three days, putting Paris within their reach. Duchêne was relieved of his command by French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau on 9 June 1918.

He remained in the army however and was made a Grand Officer of the Légion d'honneur on 16 June 1920. He retired in 1924 as head of the III Corps. Marching Regiment of the Foreign Legion First World War Retrieved: 8 November 1918


Synthalin was an oral anti-diabetic drug. Discovered in 1926 it was marketed in Europe by Schering AG of Berlin as a synthetic drug with insulin-like properties that could be taken orally. However, it was withdrawn from the market in the early 1940s; the folk remedy French lilac, was used to treat the symptoms of diabetes, towards the end of the nineteenth century it was discovered to contain guanidine. This had a hypoglycaemic effect but was toxic to the liver. Karl Slotta at the Chemistry Institute of the University of Vienna synthesized derived compounds that had a polymethylene chain with a guanidine group at each end; these diguanides were more potent than guanidine. In 1926, E. Frank, working in Oskar Minkowski's clinic in Wroclaw performed a clinical trial on one of these agents, it was subsequently marketed as Synthalin by Schering AG for treating mild cases of diabetes. Adverse reports on the toxicity of Synthalin prompted the development of Synthalin B and the former product was re-branded Synthalin A.

However liver toxicity continued to be a problem, leading to discontinuation in the 1930s, though Synthalin B continued to be used in Germany until the mid-1940s. After it was discovered that trypanosomes require a plentiful supply of glucose in order to reproduce, researchers tested Synthalin and related compounds to see if they could be effective treatments. Synthalin was effective, at doses lower than would interfere with blood sugar in the patient. Further modifications to the chemical structure led to the diamidine class of drugs, of which pentamidine is still used against trypanosomiasis. Pentamidine is effective against a range of protozoa such as Pneumocystis jirovecii, which causes pneumocystis pneumonia in AIDS patients. Bailey CJ. "Metformin: its botanical background". Practical Diabetes International. 21: 115–7. Doi:10.1002/pdi.606. Archived from the original on 2012-12-17. W Sneader. Drug Discovery: A History. Wiley Blackwell. Pp. 206–7. ISBN 0-471-89979-8. GP Ellis. Progress in Medicinal Chemistry 1.

Butterworth & Co. pp. 210–211. ISBN 0-444-53320-6

Livingston Village

Livingston Village is a village in West Lothian it dates back to the 12th century. A farming village in West Lothian it is now in the heart of the town of Livingston. Before 1962 Livingston Village was known as Livingston and has a history dating back to the 12th century, it is first mentioned in an early 12th-century charter as Villa Levingi. In 1128 David I granted the newly founded Abbey of Holyrood control of the church at Livingston and its income in a charter, witnessed by Turstani filii Levingi, he built a fortified tower, long since gone. The settlement that grew up around it became known as Levingstoun and fixed at Livingston; the name derives from the family name Leving who controlled the area until dying out in 1512. The home of the family was Livingston Peel. From 1512 until 1671 the house was occupied by The Murrays of Elibank. In the late 17th century the Peel was demolished and replaced by a house called Livingston Place and it passed from the Murray family to the Cunningham family.

It was acquired by the Earl of Rosebery in 1828 and demolished in 1840. The Earls of Callendar and the Earls of Linlithgow bear the family name Livingston, trace their lineage back through Thurstan of Levingston to his father Leving of Levingstoun. One genealogy traces it further back to a Baron de Leving, believed to have accompanied St. Margaret from her birthplace in Hungary, her presence in Edward the Confessor's court in England and her exile in Scotland. Other sources regard Leving as a Flemish entrepreneur. Livingston Old Kirk, in its current form, dates from 1732 and is a fine example of plain Presbetryrian architecture of the period, it stands on the site of a pre-Reformation church which appears to have stood on the site from c.1350 to 1650. In 1898 Livingston had several houses, a Church of Scotland Church, a United Free church and a School. Charlesfield House was a major country house standing just south-west of the village on the banks of the River Almond, it was completed in 1798 as the home of a Rev. Thomas Hardy.

However it was sold immediately, to Henry Raeburn, son of the renowned Scottish portrait artist, Sir Henry Raeburn. The house contained a large number of his father’s works. To the north-east of the village stands Howden House built in 1795, its grounds form a substantial park for the town. The following year it was used for the marriage of Dr James Gregory to Isabella Macleod. Gregory was famed for his children’s cough medicine: “Gregory’s Mixture”. Latterly it was occupied by the Department of Fisheries. In 1964 it was converted into a community centre and its gardens given to use as a public park, with the help of a £12000 grant from the Carnegie Trust. In recent years the community facilities have condensed down to occupy the former stable block to the west and a new-build structure; the original building was converted to flats in 2013. The estate was purchased by the Kinloch family in 1556 and the current house built as a typical Scottish L-plan tower-house in 1626 by the advocate Patrick Kinloch.

The grounds contain a large stone doo’cote of similar age in the grounds. The new town of Livingston was built and was given the name Livingston so the old Livingston was renamed Livingston Village to distinguish it from the New Town. Since the village has expanded and now contains a large amount of New Town architecture. Livingston Village is in the West Lothian County, before 1975 the village was part of Linlithgowshire. There was a Quango called the Livingston Development Corporation that existed from 1962 to March 22, 1997 to build and promote the New Town which included Livingston Village. Livingston Village is covered by the Livngston North Ward in West Lothian Council and the Livingston North Local Area Committee; the Councillors are John Cochrane, Robert De Bold and Bruce Ferrie. Livingston Village is part of the Almond Valley Constituency since 1999 and is represented by the Scottish National Party Angela Constance who has held the seat since 2007 when the constituency was called Livingston.

Livingston Village is part of the Livingston UK Parliament constituency since 1983 for which the SNP's Hannah Bardell was elected MP in May 2015, unseating the incumbent Labour MP Graeme Morrice. Livingston Village is part of the Scotland European Parliament constituency. Almondvale Stadium the home of Livingston F. C. who play in the Scottish Football League First Division is on the edge of the village. Livingston Village was served by Livingston Station on the Edinburgh to Bathgate Line which opened in 1849 and closed in 1948; the area around this station is now known as Deans. A new station opened in 1986 about 1 km east of the original site and is called Livingston North railway station. Another station to the south: Newpark railway station served the village; this has been replaced by Livingston South railway station about 2 km east. The M8 Motorway is nearby and the A705 run parallel to the village; the nearest airport is Edinburgh Airport. Cumbernauld Village Milton Keynes Village Pictures of Livingston Village - Livingston Alive - Livingston Village

Brigid Hogan-O'Higgins

Brigid Hogan-O'Higgins is a former Irish Fine Gael politician, who served for twenty years as a member of Dáil Éireann for constituencies in County Galway. She was first elected as a Fine Gael Teachta Dála for the Galway South constituency at the 1957 general election, she was re-elected at the 1961 general election for the Galway East constituency and again at the 1965 general election. After boundary changes, she was elected at the 1969 general election for Clare–Galway South, where she was returned for a fifth and final term at the 1973 general election. Hogan-O'Higgins' years as a deputy were spent in opposition: Fianna Fáil was in power continuously from 1957 to 1973, it was only in her last term that Fine Gael formed a government, she was defeated at the 1977 general election, when Jack Lynch led Fianna Fáil's return to government with a large majority. Her father, Patrick Hogan was a TD for Galway from 1921 until his death in 1936, her husband, Michael O'Higgins, was a TD, as were his father and brother.

She married in one year after her first election to the Dáil. Brigid and Michael had nine children, including son Cahir O'Higgins, they were the first married couple to sit in the same Dáil. Families in the Oireachtas

Juniperus procera

Juniperus procera is a coniferous tree native to mountainous areas in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. It is a characteristic tree of the Afromontane flora. Juniperus procera is a medium-sized tree reaching 20–25 m tall, with a trunk up to 1.5–2 m diameter and a broadly conical to rounded or irregular crown. The leaves are of two forms, juvenile needle-like leaves 8–15 mm long on seedlings, adult scale-leaves 0.5–3 mm long on older plants, arranged in decussate pairs or whorls of three. It is dioecious with separate male and female plants, but some individual plants produce both sexes; the cones are berry-like, 4–8 mm in diameter, blue-black with a whitish waxy bloom, contain 2–5 seeds. The male cones are 3–5 mm long, shed their pollen in early spring. Juniperus procera is native to the Arabian Peninsula, northeastern, west-central, south tropical Africa, it is the only juniper to occur south of the equator, is thought to be a recent colonist of Africa. It is related to Juniperus excelsa from southwestern Asia deriving from a common ancestor with that species in southwestern Asia.

According to Tropicos, Juniperus procera was described and published in Synopsis Coniferarum 1847. The type specimen was collected from Ethiopia, by "Schimper", it is an important timber tree, used for poles, for furniture. Adams, R. P.. Junipers of the World: The genus Juniperus. Victoria: Trafford. ISBN 1-4120-4250-X Media related to Juniperus procera at Wikimedia Commons