Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
The Vindhya Range is a complex, discontinuous chain of mountain ridges, hill ranges and plateau escarpments in west-central India. Technically, the Vindhyas do not form a single mountain range in the geological sense; the exact extent of the Vindhyas is loosely defined, the term covered a number of distinct hill systems in central India, including the one, now known as the Satpura Range. Today, the term principally refers to the escarpment that runs north of and parallel to the Narmada River in Madhya Pradesh, its hilly extensions. Depending on the definition, the range extends up to Gujarat in the west, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar in the north and Chhattisgarh in the east; the Vindhyas have a great significance in Indian history. Several ancient texts mention the Vindhyas as the southern boundary of the Āryāvarta, the territory of the ancient Indo-Aryan peoples. Although today Indo-Aryan languages are spoken south of the Vindhyas, the range continues to be considered as the traditional boundary between north and south India.
The former Vindhya Pradesh was named after the Vindhya Range. According to the author of a commentary on Amarakosha, the word Vindhya derives from the Sanskrit word vaindh. A mythological story states that the Vindhyas once obstructed the path of the sun, resulting in this name. Ramayana from Valmiki states that the great mountain Vindhya, growing incessantly and obstructing the path of the Sun stopped growing any more in obedience to Agastya's words. According to another theory, the name "Vindhya" means "hunter" in Sanskrit, may refer to the tribal hunter-gatherers inhabiting the region; the Vindhya range is known as "Vindhyachala" or "Vindhyachal". In the Mahabharata, the range is referred to as Vindhyapadaparvata; the Greek geographer Ptolemy called the range Vindius or Ouindion, describing it as the source of Namados and Nanagouna rivers. The "Daksinaparvata" mentioned in the Kaushitaki Upanishad is identified with the Vindhyas; the Vindhyas do not form a single range in the proper geological sense: the hills collectively known as the Vindhyas do not lie along an anticlinal or synclinal ridge.
The Vindhya range is a group of discontinuous chain of mountain ridges, hill ranges and plateau escarpments. The term "Vindhyas" is defined by convention, therefore, the exact definition of the Vindhya range has varied at different times in history. Earlier, the term "Vindhyas" was used in a wider sense, included a number of hill ranges between the Indo-Gangetic plain and the Deccan Plateau. According to the various definitions mentioned in the older texts, the Vindhyas extend up to Godavari in the south and Ganges in the north. In certain Puranas, the term Vindhya covers the mountain range located between the Narmada and the Tapti rivers; the Varaha Purana uses the name "Vindhya-pada" for the Satpura range. Several ancient Indian texts and inscriptions mention three mountain ranges in Central India: Vindhya and Pariyatra; the three ranges are included in the seven Kula Parvatas of Bharatavarsha i.e. India; the exact identification of these three ranges is difficult due to contrasting descriptions in the various texts.
For example, the Kurma and Brahmanda Puranas mention Vindhya as the source of Tapti. Some texts use. In one passage, Valmiki's Ramayana describes Vindhya as being situated to the south of Kishkindha, identified with a part of the present-day Karnataka, it further implies that the sea was located just to the south of the Vindhyas, Lanka was located across this sea. Many scholars have attempted to explain this anamoly in different ways. According to one theory, the term "Vindhyas" covered a number of mountains to the south of the Indo-Aryan territories at the time Ramayana was written. Others, such as Frederick Eden Pargiter, believe that there was another mountain in South India, with the same name. Madhav Vinayak Kibe placed the location of Lanka in Central India; the Barabar Cave inscription of Maukhari Anantavarman mentions the Nagarjuni hill of Bihar as a part of the Vindhyas. Today, the definition of the Vindhyas is restricted to the Central Indian escarpments and highlands located to the north of the Narmada River.
Some of these are distinct hill systems. The western end of the Vindhya range is located in the state of Gujarat, near the state's border with Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh, at the eastern side of the Gujarat peninsula. A series of hills connects the Vindhya extension to the Aravalli Range near Champaner; the Vindhya range rises in height east of Chhota Udaipur. The principal Vindhya range forms the southern escarpment of the Central Indian upland, it runs parallel to the Naramada river in the east-west direction, forming the southern wall of the Malwa plateau in Madhya Pradesh. The eastern portion of the Vindhyas comprises multiple chains, as the range divides into branches east of Malwa. A southern chain of Vindhyas runs between the upper reaches of the Son and Narmada rivers to meet the Satpura Range in the Maikal Hills near Amarkantak. A northern chain of the Vindhyas continues eastwards as Bhander Plateau and Kaimur Range, which runs north of the Son River; this extended range runs through what was once Vindhya Pradesh, re
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Central India Agency
The Central India Agency was created in 1854, by amalgamating the Western Malwa Agency with other smaller political offices which reported to the Governor-General of India. The agency was overseen by a political agent who maintained British relations with the princely states and influence over them on behalf of the Governor-General; the headquarters of the agent were at Indore. British hegemony over the states of Central India began in 1802, when several states in the Bundelkhand and Bagelkhand regions came under British control at the conclusion of the Treaty of Bassein between the British and the Maratha - Peshwa Bajirao II. British control of Bundelkhand expanded at the conclusion of the Second Anglo-Maratha War in 1805; the remaining states, including Gwalior, Bhopal and a number of smaller states in the regions of Malwa and Bundelkhand, came under British control with the end of the Third Anglo-Maratha War in 1818. The estate of Chanderi was ceded to the Sindhia ruler of Gwalior in 1844 by the British, Jhansi State was seized by the British in 1853 under the doctrine of lapse was added to the United Provinces.
In 1921 Gwalior Residency was separated from the Central India Agency, in 1933 the state of Makrai transferred to Central India from the Central Provinces and Berar. The princely states in the area of the Agency, 148 in all, varied in status and in size. Eleven states held treaty relations directly with the British Government, were known as the treaty states: Gwalior State, Indore State, Bhopal State, Dhar State, Dewas Senior and Dewas Junior, Orchha, Datia and Rewa; the 31 sanad states had direct relations with the British Government, but not by treaty. These states, in Bundelkhand and Bagelkhand, were granted deeds confirming rulers in possession of their states, in return for the rulers signing a written bond of allegiance to the British; the remaining smaller states and estates were known as mediatized or guaranteed states. Mediatized states were under the authority of a larger state, with the relationship between the states arranged through British mediation. Guaranteed states, found only in Malwa, were states under the authority of larger states, in which the British guaranteed whatever rights existed at the time of British occupation of the region at the conclusion of the Pindari War.
The princely states were related to one of several political officers, which were rearranged a number of times in the history of the Agency. Upon the British withdrawal from India in 1947, the political offices consisted of Indore Residency and the Bundelkhand and Malwa Agencies. Bundelkhand Agency was bounded by Bagelkhand to the east, the United Provinces to the north, Lalitpur District to the west, the Central Provinces to the south. Bagelkhand Agency was separated from Bundelkhand in 1871. In 1900 it included 9 states, the most important of which were Orchha, Samthar, Chhatarpur, Datia and Ajaigarh; the agency included 13 estates and the pargana of Alampur, the latter belonging to Indore State. In 1931, all of the states under the Baghelkhand Agency apart from Rewa were transferred back to Bundelkhand. Salute states, by precedence: Datia, title Maharaja, Hereditary salute of 15-guns Orchha, title raja, Hereditary salute of 15-guns Ajaigarh, title Maharaja, Hereditary salute of 11-guns Baoni, title Nawab, Hereditary salute of 11-guns Bijawar, title Maharaja, Hereditary salute of 11-guns Charkhari, title Maharaja, Hereditary salute of 11-guns Panna, title Maharaja, Hereditary salute of 11-guns Samthar, title Raja, Hereditary salute of 11-gunsNon-salute states, alphabetically: Alipura, title Rao Beri, title Rao/Raja Bihat Chhatarpur, title Raja Garrauli Gaurihar, title Sardar Sawai.
In 1900, it covered the area of twelve states, including: Salute states, by precedence: Rewa, the largest state in Bagelkhand, title Maharaja, Hereditary salute of 17-guns Baraundha, title Raja, Hereditary salute of 9-guns Maihar, title Raja, Hereditary salute of 9-gunsNon-salute states: Bhaisaunda Jaso Kamta-Rajaula Kothi Nagode Pahra Paldeo Sohawal TaraonIn 1931, all of the states but Rewa were transferred back to Bundelkhand, in 1933 Rewa was transferred to the Indore Residency. Gwalior Residency was placed under the Central India Agency in 1854, separated from Central India Agency in 1921, it included the following, among other smaller states, plus Chhabra pargana of Tonk State: Salute states: Gwalior, title Maharaja Scindia.
States and union territories of India
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions; the Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region. During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was kept, India was divided into provinces that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held de facto sovereignty over the princely states. Between 1947 and 1950 the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces.
The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was declared to be a "Union of States"; the constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states: Part A states, which were the former governors' provinces of British India, were ruled by an elected governor and state legislature. The nine Part A states were Assam, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; the eight Part B states were former princely states or groups of princely states, governed by a rajpramukh, the ruler of a constituent state, an elected legislature. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India; the Part B states were Hyderabad and Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Mysore and East Punjab States Union, Rajasthan and Travancore-Cochin. The ten Part C states included both the former chief commissioners' provinces and some princely states, each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India.
The Part C states were Ajmer, Bilaspur, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur and Vindhya Pradesh. The only Part D state was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which were administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government; the Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karaikal and Mahé. Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State; the States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states. As a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to form Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organized with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, North Canara and Dharwad from Bombay State, the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar and Gulbarga from Hyderabad State and the province of Coorg.
The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep. Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State, the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State. Rajasthan and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab States Union and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal. Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963; the Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh. The act designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana. Madras state was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. North-eastern states of Manipur and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972.
Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished. In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli became separate union territories. In November 2000, three new states were created. Orissa was renamed as Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on 2 June 2014 as ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh. ^Note 1 Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014. Hyderabad, located within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as the capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years; the Go
Orchha State was a princely state of the Bundelkhand region of British India. It was located within; the Chaturbhuj Temple was built, during the time of Akbar, by the Queen of Orchha, while the Raj Mandir was built by Madhukar Shah during his reign, 1554 to 1591. In 1811, during the period of Company Rule in India, it became part of the Bundelkhand Agency within the Central India Agency. Orchha State was founded in 1501 AD by the Bundela chief, Rudra Pratap Singh, who became its first king, he reigned between 1501-1531, during which time he built the fort at what is now the town of Orchha, on the banks of the river Betwa. He died in the same year. Rudra Pratap Singh was succeeded by his son, who died without leaving an heir in 1554 and was in turn succeeded by his younger brother, Madhukar Shah. Both Bharatichand and Madhukar had to deal with attacks, organised under the Afghan Islam Shah Suri and the Mughal Akbar. Events involving the former were noted by the court poet Keshavdas and those involving Madhukar, who had to relinquish lands to Akbar in 1577 and 1588, were recorded in the Akbarnama.
Madhukar's position had become so precarious in the 1570s that he agreed to Orchha becoming a tributary state and to enlistment of himself and his family in the service of the Mughal empire, but another near-contemporary historian, `Abd al-Qadir Bada'uni, records him as a rebel in 1583. During the rule of the Mughal emperor Jahangir, his vassal, Vir Singh Deo, was ruler of the Orchha area, his reign ended in either 1626 or 1627 and it was during this period that Orchha reaches its height, many extant palaces are a reminder of its architectural glory, including the Jahangir Mahal and Sawan Bhadon Mahal. In the early-17th century, Raja Jhujhar Singh rebelled against the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan, whose armies devastated the state and occupied Orchha from 1635 to 1641. In that latter year, the conquerors installed the former raja's brother on the throne. Orchha was the only Bundela state not subjugated by the Marathas in the 18th century; the town of Tehri, about 52 miles south of Orchha, became the capital of Orchha state in 1783, is now the district town.
Hamir Singh, who ruled from 1848 to 1874, was elevated to the style of Maharaja in 1865. During his reign the allied forces of Orchha and Datia invaded Jhansi in 1857 intending to divide the Jhansi territory between them; however they were defeated by Rani Lakshmibai's army and her allies in August 1857. Maharaja Pratap Singh, who succeeded to the throne in 1874, devoted himself to the development of his state, himself designing most of the engineering and irrigation works that were executed during his reign. In 1908, the boundaries of the state lay between 24° 26′ and 25° 40′ North and 78° 26′ and 79° 21′ East, it had an area of 2,080 square miles. The 1901 Census of India recorded a population of 321,634, it was the oldest and highest in rank of all the Bundela states, with a 15-gun salute, its maharajas bore the hereditary title First of the Prince of Bundelkhand. Vir Singh, Pratap Singh's successor, merged his state with the Union of India on 1 January 1950; the district became part of Vindhya Pradesh state, merged into the state of Madhya Pradesh in 1956.
Prior to Company Rule, the rulers of Orchha all held the title of Raja. They were: Rudra Pratap Bharatichand Madhukar Shah Ram Shah Vir Singh Deo Jhujhar Singh Devi Singh Pahar Singh Sujan Singh Indramani Singh Jaswant Singh Bhagwat Singh Udwat Singh Prithvi Singh Sanwant Singh Hati Singh Man Singh Bharti Singh During the British era under Company Rule and as a part of the British Raj, the title of Raja was in use until 1865, when it was replaced with that of Maharaja; the rulers were: Vikramajit Mahendra Dharam Pal Taj Singh Surjain Singh Hamir Singh Pratap Singh Vir Singh II born 1899, died 1956 Postage stamps for the state were prepared for use in 1897 but were never issued. The first Orchha State stamps were issued in 1913; the third issue was in 1939 when a range of stamps bearing the maharajah's portrait were issued which included denominations from half-anna to eight annas and one rupee to ten rupees. Separate stamps were discontinued on 30 April 1950 after the state was merged with the Union of India early that year.
Orchha minted coins in silver. The currency was known as Gaja Shahi because it most bore the symbol of a mace on the reverse; the mace symbol was imitated on coins issued by Datia State. Hasht-Bhaiya "Orchha Town"; the Imperial Gazetteer of India, Vol. 19. Oxford at Clarendon Press. 1909. Pp. 247–248. "Bundelkhand Agency". The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Vol. 9. Oxford at Clarendon Press. 1909. Pp. 74–77. "British Bundelkhand". The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Vol. 9. Oxford
Alipura was a princely state in what is today the Chhatarpur District in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. Alipura, the capital of the state is located between Gwalior and Satna at 25°10′31″N 79°20′08″E and had a population of 3,232 according to the 1881 Census of India; the state was established in 1757 by Aman Singh, Raja of Panna State by granting the lands surrounding Alipura town to Achal Singh, son of Mukund Singh, the sardar of Panna at that time. The principality became a British protectorate in 1808 and was made part of the Bundelkhand Agency of Central India; the last ruler of Alipura signed the instrument of accession to the Indian Union on 1 January 1950. The ruling family were members of the Pratihara clan of the Agnivanshi line of Rajputs; the rulers used the title Rao. 1757 - 1790 Achal Singh 1790 - 1835 Pratap Singh 1835 - 1840 Pancham Singh 1840 - 1841 Daulat Singh 1841 - 1871 Hindupat Singh 3 Nov 1871 - 1922 Chhatrapati Singh 26 Mar 1922 - Nov 1934 Harpal Singh Nov 1934 - 1934 Bhopal Singh Ju Deo 1934 - 15 Aug 1947 Raghuraj Singh Ju Deo Built by the rulers of Alipura State the main part of palace is about 150 years old, with a section, over 3 centuries old.
The building has been renovated and converted to a heritage hotel, run by a direct descendant of the former ruling family. Political integration of India 25°10′30″N 79°24′00″E