Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cambrai
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cambrai is an archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France, comprising the arrondissements of Avesnes-sur-Helpe, Cambrai and Valenciennes within the département of Nord, in the region of Nord-Pas-de-Calais. The current archbishop is Vincent Dollmann, appointed in December 2000. Since 2002 the archdiocese has been a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Lille, returning to the prior arrangement. Erected in the late 6th century as the Diocese of Cambrai, when the episcopal see after the death of the Frankish bishop Saint Vedast was relocated here from Arras. Though subordinate to the Archdiocese of Reims, Cambrai's jurisdiction was immense and included Brussels and Antwerp. In the early Middle Ages the Diocese of Cambrai was included in that part of Lotharingia which at first had been allocated to the West Frankish king Charles the Bald by the Treaty of Meerssen of 870 but, after various vicissitudes, came under the rule of the German king Henry the Fowler in 925.
After the revolt by Duke Gilbert of Lorraine collapsed at the Battle of Andernach of 939, Louis IV of France renounced the Lotharingian lands, in 941 Henry's son and successor King Otto I of Germany ratified all the privileges, accorded to the Bishops of Cambrai by the Frankish rulers. In 1007, the Bishops gained an immediate secular territory when Emperor Henry II invested them with authority over the former County of Cambrésis; the Prince-Bishopric of Cambrai became an Imperial State, located between the County of Hainaut and the border with Flanders and Vermandois in the Kingdom of France, while the citizens of Cambrai struggled to gain the autonomous status of an Imperial city. In the 14th and 15th centuries, the bishopric was temporarily a protectorate of the Burgundian dukes, which in 1482, as part of the inheritance of Mary the Rich, passed to her husband Maximilian I of Habsburg. Cambrai from 1512 was part of the Imperial Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle and – like the Prince-Bishopric of Liège – was not incorporated into the Seventeen Provinces of the Burgundian Circle.
The creation in 1559 of the new metropolitan See of Mechlin and of eleven other dioceses in the Southern Netherlands was at the request of King Philip II of Spain, in order to facilitate the struggle against the Reformation. The change restricted the limits of the Diocese of Cambrai, when thus dismembered, was made by way of compensation an archiepiscopal see with the dioceses of Saint Omer and Namur as suffragans; the councils of Leptines, at which Saint Boniface played an important role, were held in what was the part of the former Diocese of Cambrai in the Southern Netherlands. Under King Louis XIV the Bishopric of Cambrai became French after the Siege of Cambrai of 1677, confirmed in the Treaties of Nijmegen of 1678 and 1679. From 1790 Cambrai was part of the new Nord department. By the Napoleonic Concordat of 1801, Cambrai was again reduced to a simple bishopric, suffragan to Paris, included remnants of the former dioceses of Tournai and Saint Omer. In 1817 both the pope and the king were eager for the erection of a see at Lille, but Bishop Louis de Belmas, a former constitutional bishop, vigorously opposed it.
Upon his death, in 1841, Cambrai once more became an archbishopric, with the diocese of Arras as suffragan. For the first bishops of Arras and Cambrai, who resided at the former place, see Arras. On the death of Saint Vedulphus the episcopal residence was transferred from Arras to Cambrai. Among his successors were: Saint Gaugericus Saint Berthoaldus Saint Aubert Saint Vindicianus, who brought King Theuderic III of the Franks to account for the murder of Saint Léger of Autun Saint Hadulfus Alberic and Hildoard, contemporaries of Charlemagne, who gave to the diocese a sacramentary and important canons Halitgar, an ecclesiastical writer and apostle of the Danes Saint John of Cambrai Saint Rothadus Fulbert, defended Cambrai from the Magyars and became the first bishop with comital authority in the city Wiboldus, author of the ludus secularis which "furnished amusement to clerkly persons" Erluin, first bishop, count of the Cambrésis, feuded with Count Baldwin IV of Flanders Gerard of Florennes chaplain to Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor, helpful to the latter in his negotiations with Robert the Pious, King of France Lietbertus, who defended Cambrai against Robert the Frisian Gerard II, introduced the Gregorian reform to Cambrai.
Bapaume French pronunciation: is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of northern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Bapalmoises. Bapaume is a farming and light industrial town located some 23 km south by south-east of Arras and 50 km north-east of Amiens. Access to the commune is by the D917 road from Ervillers in the north which passes through the commune in a zig-zag continues south-east to Beaulencourt; the D930 goes east by north-east to Frémicourt. The D929 branches off the D917 at the edge of the commune and goes south-west to Warlencourt-Eaucourt; the A1 autoroute passes south down the eastern edge of the commune but there is no exit in or near the commune. Bapaume has been called the Seuil de Bapaume due to its position as a crossing point between Artois and the Flanders plain on one side, the Somme valley and the Paris Basin on the other. From the mid-11th century there was a Bapaume toll, revised in 1202 and again in 1442. Many roads pass through Bapaume, both old roads between the two regions the autoroute and the TGV.
In the 19th century, the city council opposed the passage through its territory of the Paris-Lille railway. This position was regretted by 1859 when the municipality called for the construction of a railway linking Achiet-le-Grand to Bapaume with animal traction; the railway linking the two communes was not commissioned with steam traction. The TGV came to the town in 1993. Bapaume means "beat your palms" in the sense of "suffering" because of the poverty of the land or some past devastation; the current city is not in its original location. During the Gallic period the town was located some 1500 m to the west near an abundant source: the source of the Sensée river. During the Roman Empire the town prospered; this period lasted about three centuries. The barbarian invasions of 255-280 destroyed this first Bapaume. Under the Late Roman Empire the city was rebuilt in the same place by Batavi settlers who were enlisted as soldier-farmers. Defensive mounds were built around the site of the current Bapaume and the road from Arras to Saint-Quentin and Péronne was diverted to pass near the defences.
This town was called Helena and was the place where Aetius repulsed the Frankish invasion attempt in 448. This invasion ended the Roman presence. During the following centuries the city was devastated several times; the Franks built a castle on the Roman mound as the area was inhabited by bandits who hid in the Arrouaise forest. A bandit called Bérenger made his mark on it. After his death the people of Helluin came to shelter near the fort and thus Bapaume was born. Helluin disappeared gradually, it is through several excavations at its history. The city grew in importance, the main traffic was not East-West but North-South. To ensure the passage against the bandits a toll was established by the counts of Flanders with soldiers escorting the merchants on the part crossing the Arrouaise Forest and north of the city. Churches were built with this toll; the Lords of Bapaume were subject to the Counts of Flanders. On 28 April 1180 the marriage of Philip Augustus and Isabelle of Hainaut, daughter of Baldwin V was celebrated at Bapaume.
Due to this union, in 1191 Bapaume was placed under the control of the King of France. Philip Augustus returned several times to Bapaume to grant communal charters; the city became independent with the construction of a town hall with a belfry, the creation of a coat of arms and a seal, a citizens' militia. In 1202 the toll was first revised a second time in 1291, it was Louis IX of France, in 1237, who attached Bapaume to the County of Artois from under the thumb of Robert d'Artois, his brother, provided it paid homage to the kings of France. The city enjoyed a period of prosperity from the toll and its fine linen weaving by mulquiniers in the countryside. Robert I, Count of Artois was succeeded by Robert II, Count of Artois Mahaut, Countess of Artois as head of the County of Artois; the nephew of Mahaut called himself Robert III of Artois and claimed the throne for a long time and, in revenge, helped the English. There followed a long period of war and disasters. Countess Mahaut resided at the castle as she traveled frequently.
She undertook numerous fortification works. On her death Bapaume passed to the Count of Flanders in 1330, he undertook major works including a surrounding wall and large ditches around the city in 1335. The entire castle and city was one of the most beautiful fortresses and was called the "Key of Artois"; the fortifications protected the inhabitants of Bapaume from frightful depredations by the English in that war. The Bailiwick of Bapaume suffered during this period: it is during this time that villagers hid in their muches dug in the chalky soil. Bapaume was under the control of the Dukes of Burgundy from 1383 to 1494 and it was in this city that John the Fearless took refuge after the assassination of the Duke of Orléans in 1407, it was at Bapaume that he reunited his army to reenter the campaign on 30 January 1414. In July 1414 the King of France laid siege to Bapaume: John's garrison surrendered without fear and Charles VI went to besiege Arras. A peace treaty was signed on 30 August and Bapaume was given to John the Fearless, but it was in such a state that on 3 September there were insufficient voters to elect aldermen.
After the death of John, his son Philip the Good
Eastern Orthodox Church
The Eastern Orthodox Church the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with 200–260 million members. It operates as a communion of autocephalous churches, each governed by its bishops in local synods, although half of Eastern Orthodox Christians live in Russia; the church has no central doctrinal or governmental authority analogous to the Bishop of Rome, but the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is recognised by all as primus inter pares of the bishops. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, the Eastern Orthodox Church has played a prominent role in the history and culture of Eastern and Southeastern Europe, the Caucasus, the Near East. Eastern Orthodox theology is based on the Nicene Creed; the church teaches that it is the One, Holy and Apostolic church established by Jesus Christ in his Great Commission, that its bishops are the successors of Christ's apostles. It maintains, its patriarchates, reminiscent of the pentarchy, autocephalous and autonomous churches reflect a variety of hierarchical organisation.
Of its innumerable sacred mysteries, it recognises seven major sacraments, of which the Eucharist is the principal one, celebrated liturgically in synaxis. The church teaches that through consecration invoked by a priest, the sacrificial bread and wine become the body and blood of Christ; the Virgin Mary is venerated in the Eastern Orthodox Church as the God-bearer, honoured in devotions. The Eastern Orthodox Church shared communion with the Roman Catholic Church until the East–West Schism in 1054, triggered by disputes over doctrine the authority of the Pope. Before the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451, the Oriental Orthodox churches shared in this communion, separating over differences in Christology; the majority of Eastern Orthodox Christians live in Southeast and Eastern Europe, Cyprus and other communities in the Caucasus region, communities in Siberia reaching the Russian Far East. There are smaller communities in the former Byzantine regions of the Eastern Mediterranean, in the Middle East where it is decreasing due to persecution.
There are many in other parts of the world, formed through diaspora and missionary activity. In keeping with the church's teaching on universality and with the Nicene Creed, Orthodox authorities such as Saint Raphael of Brooklyn have insisted that the full name of the church has always included the term "Catholic", as in "Holy Orthodox Catholic Apostolic Church"; the official name of the Eastern Orthodox Church is the "Orthodox Catholic Church". It is the name by which the church refers to itself in its liturgical or canonical texts, in official publications, in official contexts or administrative documents. Orthodox teachers refer to the church as Catholic; this name and longer variants containing "Catholic" are recognised and referenced in other books and publications by secular or non-Orthodox writers. The common name of the church, "Eastern Orthodox Church", is a shortened practicality that helps to avoid confusions in casual use. From ancient times through the first millennium, Greek was the most prevalent shared language in the demographic regions where the Byzantine Empire flourished, Greek, being the language in which the New Testament was written, was the primary liturgical language of the church.
For this reason, the eastern churches were sometimes identified as "Greek" before the Great Schism of 1054. After 1054, "Greek Orthodox" or "Greek Catholic" marked a church as being in communion with Constantinople, much as "Catholic" did for communion with Rome; this identification with Greek, became confusing with time. Missionaries brought Orthodoxy to many regions without ethnic Greeks, where the Greek language was not spoken. In addition, struggles between Rome and Constantinople to control parts of Southeastern Europe resulted in the conversion of some churches to Rome, which also used "Greek Catholic" to indicate their continued use of the Byzantine rites. Today, many of those same churches remain, while a large number of Orthodox are not of Greek national origin, do not use Greek as the language of worship. "Eastern" indicates the geographical element in the Church's origin and development, while "Orthodox" indicates the faith, as well as communion with the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.
There are additional Christian churches in the east that are in communion with neither Rome nor Constantinople, who tend to be distinguished by the category named "Oriental Orthodox". While the church continues to call itself "Catholic", for reasons of universality, the common title of "Eastern Orthodox Church" avoids casual confusion with the Roman Catholic Church; the first known use of the phrase "the catholic Church" occurred in a letter written about 110 AD from one Greek church to another. The letter states: "Wheresoever the bishop shall appear, there let the people be as where Jesus may be, there is the universal Church." Thus from the beginning, Christians referred to the Church as the "One, Holy and Apostolic Church". The Eastern Orthodox Church claims that it is today the continuation and preservation of that same early Church. A number of other Christian churches make a similar claim: the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, the Assyrian Church and the Oriental Orthodox.
In the Eastern Orthodox v
Bertin known as Saint Bertin the Great, was the Frankish abbot of a monastery in Saint-Omer named the Abbey of Saint Bertin after him. He is honored as a saint by Catholic Church. Bertin was born near Constance in the Frankish Duchy of Alamannia. At an early age, he entered the Abbey of Luxeuil, under the austere rule of its abbot, Columbanus, he prepared himself for a future missionary career. About the year 638 he set out, in company with two confrères and Ebertram, for the extreme northern part of France in order to assist his friend and kinsman, Bishop Omer, in the evangelization of the Morini; this country, now in the Department of Pas-de-Calais, was one vast marsh, studded here and there with hillocks and overgrown with seaweed and bulrushes. On one of these hillocks and his companions built a small house and they went out daily to preach the Christian faith to the natives, most of whom were still pagans; some converted pagans joined the little band of missionaries and a larger monastery had to be built.
A tract of land called. Omer now turned this whole tract over to the missionaries, who selected a suitable place on it for their new Abbey of St. Peter. Additional villages were granted by Count Waldebert a monk at Bertin's monastery of Sythiu and Abbot of Luxueil and canonized, who gave his son at the baptismal font to Bertin, from whom the boy received his name and his education; the community grew so that in a short time this monastery became too small and another was built where the city of St. Omer now stands; the fame of Bertin's learning and sanctity was so great that in a short time more than 150 monks lived under his rule, among them St. Winnoc and his three companions who had come from Brittany to join Bertin's community and assist in the conversion of the heathen; when nearly the whole region was Christianized, the marshy land transformed into a fertile plain, knowing that his death was not far off, appointed Rigobert as his successor, while he himself spent the remainder of his life preparing for a happy death.
Bertin began to be venerated as a saint soon after his death. His feast day is celebrated on 5 September. Mummolin because he was the oldest of the missionaries, was abbot of the two monasteries until he succeeded the deceased Eligius as Bishop of Noyon, about the year 659. Waldebert's son Bertin, adopted by Bertin the founder became the third abbot. In times the abbey became famous as a centre of sanctity and learning. About the 11th century, the name of the abbey was changed that of Saint-Bertin; the Annales Bertiniani are important for the contemporary history of the West Frankish Kingdom. The abbey church, now in ruins, was one of the finest 14th-century Gothic edifices. In times, its library and art-treasures were renowned both in and out of France; the monks were expelled in 1791 by the invading forces of the French Revolutionary Army and in 1799 the abbey and its church were sold at auction. His iconography is a boat as his home town, Sithiu was only accessible by water in Bertins time. A feast day is celebrated on 5th September, his cult was taken to England with the Norman Invasion.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Michael. "St. Bertin". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 2. New York: Robert Appleton
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Poitiers
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Poitiers is an archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France. The archepiscopal see; the Diocese of Poitiers includes the two Departments of Deux-Sèvres. The Concordat of 1802 added to the see besides the ancient Diocese of Poitiers a part of the Diocese of La Rochelle and Saintes; the diocese was erected according to an unsteady tradition in the third century, as a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Bordeaux. On 13 August 1317, the diocese was subdivided by Pope John XXII, two new dioceses, Luçon and Maillezais, were created; the diocese was elevated to the rank of an archdiocese in 2002. The archdiocese is the metropolitan of the Diocese of Angoulême, the Diocese of La Rochelle, the Diocese of Limoges, the Diocese of Tulle; the Cathedral Church of Saint-Pierre had a Chapter composed of twenty-four canons. The officers of the Chapter were: the Dean, the Cantor, the Provost, the sub-Dean, the sub-Cantor, the three archdeacons; the Abbé of Nôtre-Dame-le-Grand was a member of the Chapter ex officio.
Before the Revolution, the diocese had three archdeacons: the Archdeacon of Poitiers, the Archdeacon of Briançay, the Archdeacon of Thouars. The current archbishop is Pascal Wintzer, appointed in 2012. Since 2010 there have been three priestly ordinations in the diocese, four ordinations of Permanent Deacons. Louis Duchesne holds that its earliest episcopal catalogue represents the ecclesiastical tradition of Poitiers in the twelfth century; the catalogue reckons twelve predecessors of Hilary of Poitiers, among them Nectarius and Agon, among his successors Sts. Quintianus and Maxentius. Duchesne does not doubt the existence of the cults of these saints, but he questions whether they were bishops of Poitiers. In his opinion, Hilary is the first bishop of. In this he concurs with the Benedictine editors of Gallia Christiana. Among his successors were Arnauld d'Aux, made cardinal in 1312. St. Emmeram was a native of Poitiers, but according to the Bollandists and Duchesne the documents which make him Bishop of Poitiers are not trustworthy.
On the other hand, Bernard Sepp, while admitting that there is no evidence, nonetheless points out that there is space after the death of Dido and the accession of Ansoaldus for Emmeramus, that is, between 674 and 696. Dom François Chamard, Abbot of Solesmes, claims that he did hold the see, succeeded Didon, bishop about 666 or 668; as early as 312 the Bishop of Poitiers established a school near his cathedral. In the sixth century Fortunatus taught there, in the twelfth century students chose to study at Poitiers with Gilbert de la Porrée. Bishop Gilbert de la Porrée attended the concilium generale which began at Reims on 21 March 1148 and continued for the rest of the month, under the presidency of Pope Eugenius III. After the conclusion of the council, he was attacked in a papal consistory by Bernard of Clairvaux, always searching for heretics and other deviants from his strict view of orthodoxy, for various heterodox theological opinions. Gilbert demanded that he be judged on the basis of what he had written, not on what people believed that he had said, he was able to argue each charge against Bernard.
Pope Eugene ruled in Gilbert's favor, with the full agreement of the cardinals in attendance, sent the bishop back to his diocese with his powers undiminished and in full honor. Charles VII of France erected a university at Poitiers, his temporary capital, since he had been driven from Paris, in 1431; the new foundation stood in opposition to Paris, where the city was in the hands of the English and the majority of the faculty had accepted Henry VI of England. With a Bull of 28 May 1431, on the petition of Charles VII, Pope Eugene IV approved the new university and awarded it privileges similar to those of the University of Toulouse. In the reign of Louis XII there were in Poitiers no less than four thousand students — French, Flemings and Germans. There were ten colleges attached to the university. In 1540, at the Collège Ste. Marthe, the famous Classicist Marc Antoine Muret had a chair; the famous Jesuit Juan Maldonado and five of his confrères went in 1570 to Poitiers to establish a Jesuit college at the request of some of the inhabitants.
After two unsuccessful attempts, the Jesuits were given the Collège Ste. Marthe in 1605. François Garasse was professor at Poitiers, had as a pupil Guez de Balzac. Garasse was well known for his violent polemics, he died of the plague at Poitiers in 1637. Among other students at Poitiers were Achille de Ha
The Normans are an ethnic group that arose in Normandy, a northern region of France, from contact between indigenous Franks and Gallo-Romans, Norse Viking settlers. The settlements followed a series of raids on the French coast from Denmark and Iceland, they gained political legitimacy when the Viking leader Rollo agreed to swear fealty to King Charles III of West Francia; the distinct cultural and ethnic identity of the Normans emerged in the first half of the 10th century, it continued to evolve over the succeeding centuries. The Norman dynasty had a major political and military impact on medieval Europe and the Near East; the Normans were famed for their martial spirit and for their Catholic piety, becoming exponents of the Catholic orthodoxy of the Romance community into which they assimilated. They adopted the Gallo-Romance language of the Frankish land they settled, their dialect becoming known as Norman, Normaund or Norman French, an important literary language, still spoken today in parts of Normandy and the nearby Channel Islands.
The Duchy of Normandy, which they formed by treaty with the French crown, was a great fief of medieval France, under Richard I of Normandy was forged into a cohesive and formidable principality in feudal tenure. The Normans are noted both for their culture, such as their unique Romanesque architecture and musical traditions, for their significant military accomplishments and innovations. Norman adventurers played a role in founding the Kingdom of Sicily under Roger II after conquering southern Italy and Malta from the Saracens and Byzantines, during an expedition on behalf of their duke, William the Conqueror, which led to the Norman conquest of England at the historic Battle of Hastings in 1066. In the ninth century, the Normans captured Seville in Southern Spain, Norman and Anglo-Norman forces contributed to the Iberian Reconquista from the early eleventh to the mid-thirteenth centuries. Norman cultural and military influence spread from these new European centres to the Crusader states of the Near East, where their prince Bohemond I founded the Principality of Antioch in the Levant, to Scotland and Wales in Great Britain, to Ireland, to the coasts of north Africa and the Canary Islands.
The legacy of the Normans persists today through the regional languages and dialects of France, England and Sicily, as well as the various cultural and political arrangements they introduced in their conquered territories. The English name "Normans" comes from the French words Normans/Normanz, plural of Normant, modern French normand, itself borrowed from Old Low Franconian Nortmann "Northman" or directly from Old Norse Norðmaðr, Latinized variously as Nortmannus, Normannus, or Nordmannus to mean "Norseman, Viking"; the 11th century Benedictine monk and historian, Goffredo Malaterra, characterised the Normans thus: Specially marked by cunning, despising their own inheritance in the hope of winning a greater, eager after both gain and dominion, given to imitation of all kinds, holding a certain mean between lavishness and greediness, uniting, as they did, these two opposite qualities. Their chief men were specially lavish through their desire of good report, they were, moreover, a race skillful in flattery, given to the study of eloquence, so that the boys were orators, a race altogether unbridled unless held down by the yoke of justice.
They were enduring of toil and cold whenever fortune laid it on them, given to hunting and hawking, delighting in the pleasure of horses, of all the weapons and garb of war. In the course of the 10th century, the destructive incursions of Norse war bands going upstream into the rivers of France penetrated further into interior Europe, evolved into more permanent encampments that included local French women and personal property; the Duchy of Normandy, which began in 911 as a fiefdom, was established by the treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between King Charles III of West Francia and the famed Viking ruler Rollo known as Gaange Rolf, from Scandinavia, was situated in the former Frankish kingdom of Neustria. The treaty offered Rollo and his men the French coastal lands along the English Channel between the river Epte and the Atlantic Ocean coast in exchange for their protection against further Viking incursions; as well as granting to protect the area of Rouen from Viking invasion, Rollo had to swear not to invade further Frankish lands himself, accept baptism and conversion to the Roman Catholic faith of Christianity becoming Christian and swear fealty to King Charles III.
He became the first Duke of Count of Rouen. The area corresponded to the northern part of present-day Upper Normandy down to the river Seine, but the Duchy would extend west beyond the Seine; the territory was equivalent to the old province of Rouen, reproduced the old Roman Empire's administrative structure of Gallia Lugdunensis II. Before Rollo's arrival, Normandy's populations did not differ from Picardy or the Île-de-France, which were considered "Frankish". Earlier Viking settlers had begun arriving in the 880s, but were divided between colonies in the east around the low Seine valley and in the west in the Cotentin Peninsula, were separated by traditional pagii, where the population remained about the same with no foreign settlers. Rollo's contingents from Scandinavia who raided and settled Normandy and parts of the European Atlantic coast included Danes, Norse–Gaels, Orkney Vikings, p
Bullecourt is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region in France. Bullecourt lies on the Upper Cretaceous plain of Artois between Arras and Bapaume and east of the A1 motorway; this satellite photograph shows Bullecourt just north of centre. Quéant is the larger of the two villages near the eastern edge; the A1 and the high-speed railway line run up the western edge. To the south of Bullecourt, a now closed local railway line snakes from east to west. Bullecourt lies in the triangle made by the A1, A2 and A26 motorways and that made by the N17, N30 and D939 roads. There were remains from the Gallo-Roman period and the village was mentioned under the name "Bullecortis", in 1096. In 620, it was the birthplace of Saint Vindicien, a follower of Saint Eligius, known in French as Saint Eloi. Vindicien became successively, he is regarded as the founder of the abbey named after his mentor, Mont St Eloi, of which Bullecourt became a lordship. War has twice destroyed the village: in 1543 during the Ninth Italian War and in 1917, during the First World War.
In early 1917, during the northern hemisphere spring, two battles at Bullecourt became significant to the military history of Australia in particular. The village lay at the southern end of a active front – and formed part of the Hindenburg Line. On April 11, in the First Battle of Bullecourt, two brigades of the Australian 4th Division attacked German positions in Bullecourt, supported by 12 tanks but without artillery support. Caught in heavy fire, the Australians were forced to retreat; the Australian 4th Brigade alone sustained losses of 2,258 killed, wounded or taken prisoner, out of 3,000 infantry. Only 750 Germans soldiers were killed, while they captured 27 Australian officers and 1,137 other ranks. On May 3, 1917, in the Second Battle of Bullecourt, an attack on both flanks of the village was conducted by the Australian 2nd Division and British 62nd Division respectively. Bullecourt itself was recaptured, but the anticipated breakthrough on the Hindenburg line did not occur. In total, there were 14,000 British casualties.
The Musée Jean et Denise Letaille now commemorates this fighting. While there were many bunkers and dugouts, from the period of the Hindenburg Line, there is an underground shelter from the 17th century; the church of St. Vlaast was rebuilt after 1918. There is a museum of objects collected from the periods of the world wars; the economy is one of general farming with the raising of beef. The village has an agricultural cooperative; the village festival is held on the first Sunday of June and there is a festival in honour of the Australians on the last Saturday in April. Communes of the Pas-de-Calais department INSEE commune file Bullecourt on the Quid site Bullecourt: First World War An Australian view of the Bullecourt fighting memorials Interpretation of the Hindenburg Line photograph. "First Battle of Bullecourt". Australian Military Units. Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 2007-01-19